View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredient and chemical composition of the diet

 
Ingredients composition,2 g/kg DM
Ingredient DM1 OM CP Fat NDF NFC GE
Dehydrated corn plant 850 960 85.7 16 568 290 19.2
Soybean meal 861 931 541.9 22 158 216.1 20.3
Ground corn grain 858 989 84.8 47 127 728.3 19.2
Soybean oil 995 997 991 38.6
Limestone 999 3
Mineral supplement3 969 56
Total diet 866 907 147.2 48 312 391 18.5
1DM expressed in grams per kilogram, as-fed basis.
2NFC = nonfibrous carbohydrates. GE is expressed in megajoules per kilogram DM.
3Composition, per kilogram, as-fed basis: 190 g Ca, 92 g Cl, 73 g P, 62 g Na, 44 g Mg, 1.35 g Zn, 1.06 g Fe, 0.94 mg Mn, 0.73 g F (maximum), 0.34 g Cu, 18 mg Se, 16 mg I, and 3 mg Co.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Performance and body composition of intact male, castrated male, and female Saanen goats under different levels of intake at the maintenance experiment

 
Level of intake2
Intact males
Castrated males
Females
P-value4
Variable1 AL 75% 50% AL 75% 50% AL 75% 50% SEM3 Sex Lvl Lvl × Sex
BW, kg 44.1 37.8 33.1 44.4 37.2 30.9 43.6 36.3 30.5 0.69 0.30 <0.001 0.25
EBW, kg 37.6 31.6 26.7 37.7 31.1 25.3 37.8 30.8 24.8 4.85 0.38 <0.001 0.21
DMI, g/d 1,113 818 582 1,106 793 561 1,039 769 534 26.6 0.07 <0.001 0.94
MEI, kJ/kg0.75BW 791 617 489 736 549 487 684 622 494 20.8 0.22 <0.001 0.22
ADG, g/d 139.5 90.4 3.4 137.4 90.9 2.4 120.7 75.3 2.4 10.5 0.89 <0.001 0.77
EWG, g/d 133.8 78.8 2.8 131.9 71.7 2.0 102.6 66.7 1.6 7.4 0.68 <0.001 0.97
Water, % EBW 55.9 60.3 60.9 52.2 53.6 57.1 47.9 51.9 53.8 0.74 <0.001 <0.001 0.60
Fat, % EBW 22.6 18.1 17.1 26.7 25.4 20.8 31.5 26.9 25.8 0.99 <0.001 <0.001 0.45
Energy, MJ/kg EBW 11.9 10.3 9.1 14.4 13.4 11.9 17.1 14.9 13.3 0.61 <0.001 <0.001 0.77
1EBW = empty BW; EWG = empty BW gain; MEI = ME intake.
2Ad libitum (AL) or 75 or 50% of the AL intake.
3The SEM are slightly different for the different sexes due to the removal of 2 females during the experiment because of sickness; the largest SEM (i.e., that of females) are reported. The SEM for intact or castrated males are equal to 0.887 times the reported SEM.
4Significance of the main effects of sex (Sex), level of intake (Lvl), and their interaction.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Energy digestibility and metabolizability in castrated male, intact male, and female Saanen goats under different levels of intake

 
Level of intake2
Intact males
Castrated males
Female
P-value4
Variable1 AL 75% 50% AL 75% 50% AL 75% 50% SEM3 Sex Lvl Lvl × Sex
DE/GE 0.609 0.705 0.770 0.694 0.675 0.742 0.706 0.779 0.802 0.035 0.39 <0.001 0.31
ME/DE 0.885 0.875 0.893 0.870 0.873 0.874 0.876 0.882 0.895 0.007 0.09 <0.001 0.26
q 0.63 0.64 0.64 0.60 0.59 0.65 0.62 0.64 0.65 0.027 0.19 <0.001 0.86
1Proportion of GE that is digestible (DE/GE) and proportion of DE that is ME (ME/DE); q = ME:GE ratio.
2Ad libitum (AL) or 75 or 50% levels of the AL intake.
3The SEM are slightly different for the different sexes due to the removal of 2 females during the experiment because of sickness; the largest SEM (i.e., that of females) are reported. The SEM for intact or castrated males are equal to 0.887 times the reported SEM.
4Significance of the main effects of sex (Sex), level of intake (Lvl), and their interaction.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Parameters for the different models to estimate heat production (HP) at the maintenance experiment

 
Parameter estimates
Equation Model1 β0 SE β1 SE (× 1,000) n P-value σ2e BIC2
[7] Log10 HP, kJ/kg0.75 EBW 2.47 0.0252 0.000434 0.036 53 <0.001 0.00119 –129
[8] Log10 HP, kJ/kg0.75 BW 2.41 0.0240 0.000498 0.039 53 <0.001 0.00113 –133
[9] HP nonlinear, kJ/kg0.75 EBW 299.2 16.7 0.000979 0.074 53 2,300 563
[10] HP nonlinear, kJ/kg0.75 BW 258.5 13.9 0.001133 0.082 53 1,643 546
1EBW = empty BW.
2BIC = Bayesian information criteria.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Allometric equations to estimate retained energy of female, intact male, and castrated male Saanen goats

 
Parameter estimates2
BW,4 kg
Variable1 β0 SE β1 SE σ2e 30 37.5 45
EBW, kg –2.74 0.78 0.916 0.049 0.984 24.7 31.6 38.4
Energy, MJ/kg EBW3
    Intact males 1.76 0.285 1.509 0.061 9.01 10.2 11.3
    Castrated males 1.92 0.239 1.537 0.074 975 10.5 12.0 13.3
    Females 1.92 0.239 1.588 0.096 12.3 14.2 15.9
1EBW = empty BW; regressed linearly against BW.
2Parameter estimates (β0 and β1) of the simple regression analysis or allometric equation.
3Energy was obtained by nonlinear allometric equation of the total body energy content (MJ) by EBW.
4Energy concentration in the EBW calculated from allometric equations.