View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredients and chemical composition of the experimental starter feeds

 
Treatment1
Item Control 15% alfalfa hay
Ingredient, % of DM basis
    Alfalfa hay 15
    Corn grain, ground 51.56 45.10
    Soybean meal (45% CP) 30.09 27.40
    Barley grain, ground 12.03 6.00
    Full fat soybean 3.01 3.60
    Vitamin and mineral mix2 1.00 1.00
    Calcium carbonate 1.50 1.10
    Sodium bicarbonate 0.30 0.30
    Salt 0.50 0.50
Chemical composition, % of DM
    DM 88.35 87.70
    CP 21.78 21.24
    Fat 3.50 3.30
    NDF 14.69 19.88
    NFC3 59.6 54.0
    Starch 54.7 47.9
    Ash 6.00 7.00
1Control = concentrate with no forage; 15% alfalfa hay is the concentrate + 15% alfalfa hay.
2Contained per kilogram of supplement: 250,000 IU of vitamin A, 50,000 IU of vitamin D, 1,500 IU of vitamin E, 2.25 g of Mn, 120 g of Ca, 7.7 g of Zn, 20 g of P, 20.5 g of Mg, 186 g of Na, 1.25 g of Fe, 3 g of S, 14 mg of Co, 1.25 g of Cu, 56 mg of I, and 10 mg of Se.
3NFC = nonfiber carbohydrate; calculated as DM – (NDF + CP + ether extract + ash) (NRC, 2001).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Body weight, DMI, G:F, and nutrient digestibility of Holstein male calves fed milk through either the conventional or the step-down method with or without forage provision

 
Treatment2
P-value3
Item1 COV-NF COV-F STP-NF STP-F SEM MMF FOR MMF × FOR
BW, kg
    Preweaning 58.84 58.92 59.31 60.68 1.14 0.33 0.52 0.57
    Postweaning 81.01b 85.21ab 78.19b 87.12a 2.23 0.84 0.01 0.32
    Final 85.04b 92.22a 81.23b 92.85a 2.84 0.57 0.01 0.44
DMI of starter, kg/d
    Preweaning 0.54b 0.58ab 0.49b 0.68a 0.05 0.59 0.02 0.17
    Postweaning 1.62b 2.38a 1.64b 2.36a 0.16 0.99 0.01 0.91
    Overall 0.67b 0.89a 0.63b 0.91a 0.07 0.88 0.01 0.68
Total DMI,4 kg/d
    Preweaning 1.14b 1.20ab 1.09b 1.27a 0.05 0.84 0.02 0.22
    Postweaning 1.62b 2.38a 1.64b 2.36a 0.16 0.99 0.01 0.91
    Overall 1.16b 1.40a 1.17b 1.45a 0.07 0.74 0.01 0.75
ADG, kg/d
    Preweaning 0.59b 0.62ab 0.57b 0.68a 0.03 0.65 0.03 0.28
    Postweaning 0.80b 1.31a 0.61b 1.07a 0.12 0.09 0.01 0.82
    Overall 0.62b 0.72a 0.58b 0.73a 0.04 0.68 0.01 0.56
G:F
    Preweaning 0.49 0.49 0.54 0.53 0.03 0.09 0.95 0.96
    Postweaning 0.46bc 0.57a 0.37c 0.44ab 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.94
    Overall 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.53 0.02 0.60 0.26 0.48
Total ME,5 Mcal/d
    Preweaning 6.67b 6.80ab 6.55b 7.08a 0.14 0.59 0.02 0.17
    Postweaning 4.57b 6.69a 4.62b 6.64a 0.46 0.98 0.01 0.91
    Overall 6.32b 6.94a 6.20b 7.01a 0.19 0.88 0.01 0.68
Apparent nutrient digestibility
    DM 77.76a 70.91ab 72.45ab 65.64b 2.87 0.07 0.02 0.99
    OM 78.83a 72.21ab 73.55ab 67.10b 2.83 0.07 0.02 0.98
    NDF 51.81 46.52 43.64 41.97 5.54 0.25 0.53 0.74
    CP 74.15a 68.42ab 71.38ab 61.15b 3.15 0.11 0.01 0.47
a–cMeans within a row with different superscripts letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
1Periods: preweaning is from 1 to 60 d of age; postweaning is from 61 to 74 d of age.
2COV-NF = conventional milk feeding without forage provision; STP-NF = step-down milk feeding without forage provision; COV-F = conventional milk feeding with forage provision; STP-F = step-down milk feeding with forage provision.
3MMF = method of milk feeding; FOR = effect of forage provision; MMF × FOR = interaction between method of milk feeding and forage provision.
4DMI includes milk, starter, and hay.
5Total (milk + starter) ME per day.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Average body measurements of Holstein male calves fed milk through either the conventional or the step-down method with or without forage provision.

 
Treatment1
P-value2
Item COV-NF COV-F STP-NF STP-F SEM MMF FOR MMF × FOR
Body length, cm
    At weaning, d 60 52.39 53.30 52.99 53.29 0.61 0.63 0.33 0.62
    At end, d 74 53.95 55.15 54.14 54.63 0.56 0.77 0.14 0.53
Withers height, cm
    At weaning, d 60 87.19 87.01 87.13 86.77 0.66 0.81 0.69 0.89
    At end d 74 89.25 89.76 88.98 89.32 0.70 0.61 0.56 0.90
Heart girth, cm
    At weaning, d 60 95.64 96.63 95.64 96.33 0.82 0.85 0.32 0.85
    At end d 74 99.0ab 101.5a 98.1b 100.3ab 1.03 0.32 0.03 0.89
Body barrel, cm
    At weaning, d 60 104.4 106.2 105.8 108.1 1.48 0.28 0.16 0.86
    At end, d 74 111.4b 115.1a 110.5b 116.2a 1.56 0.94 0.01 0.53
Hip height, cm
    At weaning, d 60 89.97 89.17 90.39 89.25 0.69 0.72 0.17 0.80
    At end, d 74 91.66 91.97 91.72 91.55 0.73 0.81 0.92 0.74
Hip width, cm
    At weaning, d 60 23.61 23.15 23.35 23.59 0.22 0.69 0.63 0.13
    At end, d 74 24.39 24.55 24.01 24.57 0.33 0.58 0.29 0.55
a,bMeans within a row with different superscripts letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
1COV-NF = conventional milk feeding without forage provision; STP-NF = step-down milk feeding without forage provision; COV-F = conventional milk feeding with forage provision; STP-F = step-down milk feeding with forage provision
2MMF = method of milk feeding; FOR = effect of forage provision; MMF × FOR = interaction between method of milk feeding and forage provision.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Average ruminal pH, and VFA concentrations of Holstein male calves fed milk through either the conventional or the step-down method with or without forage provision

 
Treatment1
P-value2
Item COV-NF COV-F STP-NF STP-F SEM MMF FOR MMF × FOR
Ruminal pH
    d 35 5.18b 5.71a 5.59a 5.64a 0.14 0.23 0.05 0.09
    d 74 5.08b 5.56a 5.02b 5.49a 0.08 0.48 0.01 0.90
Total VFA, mmol/L
    d 35 156.2a 118.4b 148.7a 133.1ab 11.9 0.76 0.03 0.36
    d 74 198.8a 169.1b 192.8a 166.9b 12.6 0.88 0.03 0.74
Individual VFA, mol/100 mol
Acetate
    d 35 48.79 55.30 55.33 55.90 1.11 0.09 0.09 0.15
    d 74 49.16ab 51.39ab 46.16b 53.00a 0.87 0.64 0.01 0.13
Propionate
    d 35 34.82 33.77 30.73 30.51 1.13 0.12 0.79 0.86
    d 74 33.73 38.16 33.44 35.64 1.23 0.58 0.20 0.66
Butyrate
    d 35 11.88a 7.47b 9.34ab 9.69ab 0.58 0.88 0.06 0.03
    d 74 10.43ab 7.14b 14.20a 7.47b 0.96 0.22 0.01 0.30
Valerate
    d 35 3.28 3.26 3.01 2.71 0.28 0.88 0.26 0.53
    d 74 4.43a 2.20b 3.95a 2.53b 0.36 0.91 0.01 0.54
Isovalerate
    d 35 0.61 0.63 0.91 0.61 0.09 0.48 0.48 0.42
    d 74 0.61 0.59 0.47 0.48 0.05 0.20 0.98 0.87
Acetate:propionate
    d 35 1.44 1.65 1.76 1.88 0.10 0.11 0.33 0.78
    d 74 1.33 1.36 1.24 1.49 0.07 0.73 0.09 0.17
a,bMeans within a row with different superscripts letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
1COV-NF = conventional milk feeding without forage provision; STP-NF = step-down milk feeding without forage provision; COV-F = conventional milk feeding with forage provision; STP-F = step-down milk feeding with forage provision.
2MMF = method of milk feeding; FOR = effect of forage provision; MMF × FOR = interaction between method of milk feeding and forage provision.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Average blood metabolites concentrations and hematological parameters1 of Holstein male calves fed milk through either the conventional or the step-down method with or without forage provision

 
Treatment2
P-value3
Item COV-NF COV-F STP-NF STP-F SEM MMF FOR MMF × FOR
Glucose, mg/dL
    d 35 95.1 103.1 94.3 95.0 3.59 0.19 0.20 0.28
    d 74 81.87 88.62 92.62 87.43 3.11 0.13 0.80 0.06
Total protein, g/dL
    d 35 5.46ab 5.70a 5.31b 5.73a 0.15 0.70 0.03 0.55
    d 74 6.98 7.05 6.96 6.48 0.37 0.43 0.59 0.46
Albumin, g/dL
    d 35 2.95 2.63 2.70 2.70 0.18 0.60 0.37 0.37
    d 74 3.19ab 3.41a 2.87b 2.96b 0.14 0.01 0.29 0.66
Globulin, g/dL
    d 35 2.50b 3.06a 2.60b 3.03a 0.19 0.83 0.01 0.71
    d 74 3.78 3.64 3.89 3.52 0.34 0.98 0.47 0.74
BUN,4 mg/dL
    d 35 9.63 10.50 9.00 9.38 0.68 0.21 0.37 0.71
    d 74 14.54 16.47 15.21 14.68 0.72 0.44 0.33 0.09
RBC,4 ×10–6/μL 8.57 9.00 8.55 8.24 0.21 0.07 0.77 0.08
WBC,4 ×10–3/μL 8.54 8.58 10.51 9.27 0.73 0.08 0.42 0.39
Monocytes, 103/mm 0.59b 0.66ab 0.81a 0.85a 0.09 0.02 0.54 0.90
Lymphocytes, 103/mm 3.79ab 3.59b 4.48a 4.24ab 0.35 0.05 0.53 0.95
Neutrophils, 103/mm 3.73 4.12 5.17 3.96 0.53 0.28 0.74 0.14
Hb,4 g/dL 10.72 11.50 10.52 10.37 0.56 0.24 0.58 0.41
MCHC,4 g/dL cells 33.97 34.42 34.11 34.76 1.59 0.88 0.73 0.95
HCT,4 % 31.60 33.31 31.08 29.98 1.21 0.12 0.80 0.25
Platelets, × 103/μL 533.0 548.4 526.4 567.6 55.7 0.91 0.61 0.81
a,bMeans within a row with different superscripts letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
1Haematological parameters were measured on d 61 of age.
2COV-NF = conventional milk feeding without forage provision; STP-NF = step-down milk feeding without forage provision; COV-F = conventional milk feeding with forage provision; STP-F = step-down milk feeding with forage provision.
3MMF = method of milk feeding; FOR = effect of forage provision; MMF × FOR = interaction between method of milk feeding and forage provision.
4BUN = blood urea nitrogen; RBC = red blood cells; WBC = white blood cells; Hb = hemoglobin; MCHC = mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; HCT = hematocrit.