View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Dry matter composition and nutrient analysis of diets offered to early-weaned calves and fistulated steers fed corn or coproduct blends with increasing concentrations of fat from condensed corn distillers’ solubles (CDS) in Exp. 1 and 2

 
Growing diet1
CDS inclusion
Item CNT 0% 10% 19% 27% Finishing diet
Ingredient, % DM
    Corn silage 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
    Cracked corn 52.0 45.0
    Soybean hulls 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0
    DDGS2 18.0
    WDGS3 25.0
    Dry corn gluten feed 45.0 35.0 26.0 18.0
    Condensed distillers’ solubles 10.0 19.0 27.0
Supplement, % diet DM
    Ground corn 5.50 7.30 7.30 7.30 7.30 7.30
    Urea 1.60
    Limestone 2.70 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Trace mineral salt4 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Rumensin 905 0.02 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.017
    Tylan 406 0.01 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.011
    Liquid fat 0.07 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075
Composition, % DM
    DM 67.7 77.5 73.0 68.9 65.2 67.7
    CP 14.0 16.9 16.3 15.8 15.3 14.0
    NDF 22.8 43.3 40.3 37.7 35.3 22.8
    ADF 12.0 24.5 23.2 22.2 21.2 13.3
    Ether extract 5.3 1.8 4.4 6.8 8.9 5.3
    Ca 0.95 1.47 1.48 1.48 1.49 1.37
    P 0.40 0.61 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.56
    S 0.23 0.34 0.41 0.47 0.53 0.20
    Ash 5.2 7.0 7.5 7.9 8.3 5.8
    NEm, Mcal/kg7 1.77 1.68 1.63 1.72 1.75 1.53
    NEg, Mcal/kg8 1.15 1.07 1.02 1.10 1.13 0.94
1CNT = corn-based growing diet. Growing phase diets for feedlot study (Exp. 1) were also experimental diets for metabolism study (Exp. 2).
2DDGS = dried distillers’ grains with solubles: 0.74% S, 39.3% NDF, and 26.8% CP.
3WDGS = wet distillers’ grains with solubles: 29.7% DM, 0.40% S, 40.0% NDF, and 29.7% CP.
4Trace mineral salt contains 8.5% Ca (as CaCO3), 5% Mg (as MgO and MgSO4), 7.6% K (as KCl2), 10% S (as S8 prilled), 0.5% Cu (as CuSO4 and Availa-4 [Zinpro Performance Minerals; Zinpro Corp, Eden Prairie, MN]), 2% Fe (as FeSO4), 3% Mn (as MnSO4 and Availa-4), 3% Zn (as ZnSO4 and Availa-4), 278 mg/kg Co (as Availa-4), 250 I (as Ca(IO3)2), 150 mg/kg Se (Na2SeO3), 2,205 kIU/kg vitamin A (as retinyl acetate), 662.5 kIU/kg vitamin D (as cholecalciferol), 22,047.5 IU/kg vitamin E (as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate), and less than 1% CP, fat, crude fiber, and salt.
5Rumensin; 198 g/kg (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN).
6Tylosin; 88 g/kg (Elanco Animal Health).
7Calculated based on BW and DMI of growing cattle using equations from NRC (1996).
8Calculated based on BW and DMI of growing cattle using equations from NRC (1996).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Growth performance of early-weaned calves fed a corn-based growing diet (CNT) or coproduct blends with increasing concentrations of dietary fat from condensed corn distillers’ solubles (CDS) in Exp. 1

 
Diet
Contrast
CDS inclusion
CDS inclusion1
Item CNT 0% 10% 19% 27% SEM CNT vs. 10% Linear Quadratic
No. 7 8 8 7 7
Initial BW, kg 190 183 184 184 183 26.05 0.66 0.96 0.94
d 1062
    BW, kg 397 353 349 378 370 17.79 <0.01 0.03 0.95
    ADG, kg 2.00 1.59 1.55 1.82 1.75 0.17 <0.01 0.02 0.96
    DMI, kg 9.13 8.27 8.61 8.81 8.27 0.75 0.27 0.83 0.19
    G:F 0.22 0.19 0.18 0.21 0.21 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.08
d 1963
    BW, kg 548 505 508 518 520 23.21 <0.01 0.19 0.98
    ADG, kg 1.69 1.68 1.77 1.56 1.67 0.23 0.56 0.60 0.97
    DMI, kg 12.76 11.79 12.25 11.95 12.01 0.96 0.40 0.82 0.60
    G:F 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.01 0.16 0.43 0.84
Overall4
    ADG, kg 1.85 1.63 1.65 1.70 1.71 0.12 0.01 0.19 0.96
    DMI, kg 10.96 9.83 10.24 10.55 10.38 0.38 0.20 0.25 0.50
    G:F 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.01 0.16 0.30 0.40
1Linear and quadratic effects of 0, 10, 19, and 27% CDS inclusion.
2Means generated at the end of growing phase after feeding of experimental diets.
3Means generated at the end of the finishing phase after feeding a common diet.
4Means calculated for growing and finishing period (from weaning until slaughter).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Ultrasound data for early-weaned calves fed a corn-based growing diet (CNT) or coproduct blends with increasing concentrations of dietary fat from condensed corn distillers’ solubles (CDS) in Exp. 1

 
Diet
Contrast
CDS inclusion
CDS inclusion1
Item CNT 0% 10% 19% 27% SEM CNT vs. 10% Linear Quadratic
No. 7 8 8 7 7
d 1062
    Back fat, mm 8.01 5.95 5.70 6.07 5.01 0.68 0.02 0.37 0.51
    Marbling score3 377 321 337 377 348 23.00 0.21 0.35 0.52
d 1964
    Back fat, mm 13.42 12.94 10.76 11.55 10.79 1.2 0.12 0.21 0.51
    Marbling score 594 484 509 584 543 33.0 0.07 0.08 0.39
1Linear and quadratic effects of 0, 10, 19, and 27% CDS inclusion.
2Means generated at the end of growing phase after feeding of experimental diets.
3100 = practically devoid, 200 = traces, 300 = slight, 400 = small, 500 = modest, 600 = moderate, 700 = slightly abundant, 800 = moderately abundant.
4Means generated at the end of the finishing phase after feeding a common diet.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Carcass data for early-weaned calves fed a corn-based growing diet (CNT) or coproduct blends with increasing concentrations of dietary fat from condensed corn distillers’ solubles (CDS) in Exp. 1

 
Diet
Contrast
CDS inclusion
CDS inclusion1
Item CNT 0% 10% 19% 27% SEM CNT vs. 10% Linear Quadratic
Carcasses 7 8 8 7 7
HCW, kg 340 329 324 329 306 14.18 0.42 0.32 0.52
LM area, cm2 78.74 69.28 76.90 78.66 74.08 3.29 0.69 0.23 0.07
Marbling score2 474 410 433 479 424 34.04 0.38 0.60 0.33
Back fat, cm 0.95 1.06 0.85 1.26 1.13 1.26 0.69 0.43 0.70
KPH, % 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 0.10 0.14 0.15 0.69
Yield grade 3.26 3.28 3.24 2.98 3.12 0.21 0.97 0.41 0.72
Select, % 29.0 50.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 0.18 0.97 0.44 0.56
Choice or better, % 71.0 50.0 71.0 71.0 71.0 0.18 0.97 0.44 0.56
Choice0 or better, % 43.0 13.0 14.0 43.0 14.0 0.15 0.20 0.77 0.37
Prime, % 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.0 0.0 0.06 0.99 0.57 0.28
1Linear and quadratic effects of 0, 10, 19, and 27% CDS inclusion.
2100 = practically devoid, 200 = traces, 300 = slight, 400 = small, 500 = modest, 600 = moderate, 700 = slightly abundant, 800 = moderately abundant.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Digestibility of DM, NDF, ADF, and ether extract in steers fed a corn-based growing diet (CNT) or coproduct blends with increasing concentrations of dietary fat from condensed corn distillers’ solubles (CDS) in Exp. 2

 
Diet
Contrast
CDS inclusion
CDS inclusion1
Item CNT 0% 10% 19% 27% SEM CNT vs. 10% CDS Linear Quadratic
No. 5 5 5 5 5
DMI, kg/d 10.04 11.39 11.53 10.97 10.62 0.86 0.24 0.48 0.74
Digestibility, %
    DM 77.58 67.91 71.74 73.84 72.45 1.41 0.01 0.02 0.11
    NDF 69.63 63.73 65.45 65.94 63.97 2.05 0.17 0.86 0.39
    ADF 71.57 65.90 67.65 66.91 69.38 3.07 0.38 0.49 0.91
    Fat 83.91 76.01 87.35 87.97 87.04 1.25 0.07 <0.01 0.02
1Linear and quadratic effects of 0, 10, 19, and 27% CDS inclusion.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Ruminal VFA concentrations in steers fed a corn-based growing diet (CNT) or coproduct blends with increasing concentrations of dietary fat from condensed corn distillers’ solubles (CDS) in Exp. 2

 
Diet
Contrast
CDS inclusion
CDS inclusion1
Item CNT 0% 10% 19% 27% SEM Diet Time Diet × time CNT vs. 10% Linear Quadratic
Steers 5 5 5 5 5
VFA
Acetate, mM 4.40 0.55 <0.01 0.47 0.72 0.13 0.83
    0 h2 46.29 59.03 46.33 45.48 45.66
    3 h 62.21 64.57 61.52 61.18 55.14
    6 h 64.35 62.31 59.37 64.93 57.34
Propionate, mM 4.52 0.70 <0.01 0.66 0.60 0.22 0.96
    0 h 25.37 21.18 18.31 17.92 16.65
    3 h 40.95 33.69 36.31 33.94 28.25
    6 h 41.26 30.56 33.97 36.38 31.20
Total VFA, mM 9.46 0.70 <0.01 0.66 0.60 0.22 0.96
    0 h 86.81 99.87 79.39 76.17 78.17
    3 h 124.03 124.94 123.01 117.73 105.87
    6 h 125.62 117.93 115.92 122.79 112.67
A:P3 ratio 0.27 0.55 <0.01 0.51 0.23 0.80 0.83
    0 h 2.00 2.92 2.87 2.92 2.85
    3 h 1.64 2.01 1.82 1.88 1.95
    6 h 1.68 2.08 1.90 1.97 1.87
1Linear and quadratic effects of 0, 10, 19, and 27% CDS inclusion.
2Hours after feed delivery.
3A:P = acetate:propionate.