View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Diets and analyzed nutrient composition of diets fed to cattle in Exp. 1

 
Dietary treatment1
Item CON BGCS 5 EXCS 4,1 EXCS 3,2 EXCS
Ingredient, % DM
    MWDGS 35 40 40 40 40
    Dry-cracked corn 55 35 35 35 35
    Corn stover 5 20 20 20 20
    Supplement2 5 5 5 5 5
Analyzed composition, % DM
    NDF 17.78 22.34 22.78 26.53 23.59
    ADF 8.87 14.79 14.03 16.50 13.32
    CP 14.00 14.51 14.29 14.21 14.51
    Fat 5.01 4.83 4.57 4.52 5.00
    Ca 0.90 1.67 1.73 1.23 1.13
    P 0.41 0.42 0.40 0.42 0.42
    S 0.28 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.32
    Ash 5.33 8.66 9.20 8.87 8.27
1CON = 55% corn and 5% untreated ground corn stover on DM basis (corn control); BGCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture and treated with 5% CaO; 5 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 5% CaO, and then extruded; 4,1 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH, and then extruded; 3,2 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH, and then extruded. All extruded corn stover blends were processed using a dual-shafted, encased processor (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA).
2Supplement formulated to contain (DM basis) ground corn, 60.76%; limestone, 34.19%; swine trace mineral salt, 2.23% (85% salt, 2.57% Fe, 2.86% Zn, 5,710 mg Mn/kg, 2,290 mg Cu/kg, 100 mg I/kg, 85.7 mg Se/kg); ADEK vitamin mix, 0.22% (680,400 IU vitamin A/kg, 68,040 IU vitamin D3/kg, 9,072 IU vitamin E/kg, 453.5 IU vitamin K/kg, 3.63 mg vitamin B12/kg, 907.2 mg riboflavin/kg, 2,494.8 mg d-pantothenic acid/kg, 3,402 mg niacin/kg, 29,461 mg choline/kg); Tylan 40, 0.25% (88 g tylosin/kg DM, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN); Rumensin 80, 0.34% (176 g monensin/kg DM, Elanco Animal Health); Thiamine 40, 0.21% (88 g thiamine mononitrate/kg DM, ADM Alliance Nutrition Inc., Quincy, IL); copper sulfate, 0.11%; fat, 1.69%.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Diets and analyzed nutrient composition of diets fed to steers in Exp. 2

 
Dietary Treatment1
Item CON BGCS 5 EXCS 4,1 EXCS 3,2 EXCS
Ingredient, % DM basis
    MWDGS 35 40 40 40 40
    Dry-cracked corn 55 35 35 35 35
    Corn stover 5 20 20 20 20
    Supplement2 5 5 5 5 5
Analyzed composition, % DM basis
    NDF 22.20 25.13 26.44 26.12 27.01
    ADF 10.55 15.75 16.38 16.29 14.82
    CP 14.68 14.71 14.62 14.74 14.78
    Fat 4.90 4.37 4.47 4.69 4.86
    Ca 0.56 1.64 1.68 1.25 1.13
    P 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.44 0.43
    S 0.28 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.31
    Ash 4.66 7.88 8.43 8.09 7.77
1CON = 55% corn and 5% untreated-ground corn stover on DM basis (corn control). BGCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture and treated with 5% CaO. 5 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 5% CaO, and then extruded. 4,1 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH, and then extruded. 3,2 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH, and then extruded. All extruded corn stover blends were processed using a dual-shafted, encased processor (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA).
2Supplement formulated to contain (DMB): ground corn, 60.76%; limestone, 34.19%; swine trace mineral salt, 2.23% (85% salt, 2.57% Fe, 2.86% Zn, 5,710 mg Mn/kg, 2,290 mg Cu/kg, 100 mg I/kg, 85.7 mg Se/kg); ADEK vitamin mix, 0.22% (680,400 IU Vit A/kg, 68,040 IU Vit D3/kg, 9072 IU Vit E/kg, 453.5 IU Vit K/kg, 3.63 mg Vit B12/kg, 907.2 mg riboflavin/kg, 2494.8 mg d-pantothenic acid/kg, 3402 mg niacin/kg, 29,461 mg Choline/kg); Tylan 40, 0.25% (88 g tylosin/kg of DM, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN); Rumensin 80, 0.34% (176 g monensin/kg of DM, Elanco Animal Health); Thiamine 40, 0.21% (88g thiamine mononitrate/kg of DM, ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc., Quincy, IL); copper sulfate, 0.11%; fat 1.69%.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Effects of feeding treated corn stover and modified wet distillers grains with solubles to replace corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics of cattle in Exp. 1

 
Dietary treatment2
SEM P-value
Item1 CON BGCS 5 EXCS 4,1 EXCS 3,2 EXCS
n 12 12 11 12 12
Initial BW, kg 386a,b 377b 385a,b 364b 401a 8.13 0.03
Final BW,3 kg 478 472 473 468 479 7.44 0.84
ADG, kg 1.27 1.19 1.21 1.15 1.29 0.10 0.84
DMI, kg 8.08a 6.86b 6.85b 6.87b 7.11b 0.32 0.02
G:F 0.157 0.171 0.178 0.165 0.180 0.010 0.49
HCW, kg 297 293 294 290 297 4.61 0.84
Back fat, cm 1.11 0.92 0.80 0.99 0.86 0.10 0.20
LM area, cm2 77.69 79.98 79.88 78.14 75.10 2.46 0.62
KPH, % 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 0.1 0.42
Yield grade4 2.7 2.3 2.2 2.5 2.4 0.2 0.26
Marbling score5 497 459 459 424 463 29 0.53
a,bMeans within the same row without common superscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05).
1Initial BW was used as a covariate for all parameters.
2CON = 55% corn and 5% untreated-ground corn stover on DM basis (corn control); BGCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture and treated with 5% CaO; 5 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 5% CaO, and then extruded; 4,1 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH, and then extruded; 3,2 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH, and then extruded. All extruded corn stover blends were processed using a dual-shafted, encased processor (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA).
3Final BW calculated as HCW/0.62 (common dressing percentage).
4Yield grade calculated using the USDA equation (USDA, 1997).
5Marbling score: 400 = Small00, 500 = Modest00, 600 = Moderate00.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Effect of feeding treated corn stover and modified wet distillers grains with solubles to replace corn on total tract apparent digestibility in Exp. 2

 
Dietary treatment1
SEM P-value
Item CON BGCS 5 EXCS 4,1 EXCS 3,2 EXCS
n 5 5 5 5 5
Apparent digestibility, % DM
    DM 72.3 72.4 71.1 70.8 73.6 1.31 0.58
    NDF 49.3b 67.4a 65.7a 64.7a 72.1a 3.02 <0.01
    ADF 52.6b 64.6a 66.8a 66.3a 66.0a 2.30 <0.01
    CP 71.2 71.6 70.7 71.3 72.4 1.41 0.94
    OM 73.8 75.5 74.3 74.3 76.5 1.28 0.56
a,bMeans within the same row without common superscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05).
1CON = 55% corn and 5% untreated ground CS on DM basis (corn control); BGCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture and treated with 5% CaO; 5 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 5% CaO, and then extruded; 4,1 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH, and then extruded; 3,2 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH, and then extruded. All extruded corn stover blends were processed using a dual-shafted, encased processor (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Analyzed nutrient composition of individual dietary ingredients fed to steers in Exp. 2

 
Dietary ingredient1
Item MWDGS Dry-cracked corn BGCS 5 EXCS 4,1 EXCS 3,2 EXCS CS Supplement2
DM, % 51.74 85.43 49.88 54.38 81.48 77.09 83.40 89.04
NDF, % DM 30.33 12.53 62.21 58.61 59.93 61.94 78.21 10.46
ADF, % DM 26.23 4.44 50.84 46.96 54.90 54.76 55.25 3.01
Fat, % DM 8.32 3.45 0.45 0.63 0.45 0.40 0.58 2.41
CP, % DM 27.61 8.48 2.46 2.02 2.66 2.81 2.95 4.01
OM, % DM 94.87 98.68 82.28 79.54 81.24 82.86 93.76 63.56
1MWDGS = modified wet distillers grains with solubles; BGCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture and treated with 5% CaO; 5 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 5% CaO, and then extruded; 4,1 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH, and then extruded; 3,2 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH, and then extruded. All extruded corn stover blends were processed using a dual-shafted, encased processor (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA). CS = unprocessed, baled corn stover.
2Supplement formulated to contain (DM basis) ground corn, 60.76%; limestone, 34.19%; swine trace mineral salt, 2.23% (85% salt, 2.57% Fe, 2.86% Zn, 5,710 mg Mn/kg, 2,290 mg Cu/kg, 100 mg I/kg, 85.7 mg Se/kg); ADEK vitamin mix, 0.22% (680,400 IU vitamin A/kg, 68,040 IU vitamin D3/kg, 9,072 IU vitamin E/kg, 453.5 IU vitamin K/kg, 3.63 mg vitamin B12/kg, 907.2 mg riboflavin/kg, 2,494.8 mg d-pantothenic acid/kg, 3,402 mg niacin/kg, 29,461 mg choline/kg); Tylan 40, 0.25% (88 g tylosin/kg DM, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN); Rumensin 80, 0.34% (176 g monensin/kg DM, Elanco Animal Health); Thiamine 40, 0.21% (88 g thiamine mononitrate/kg DM, ADM Alliance Nutrition Inc., Quincy, IL); copper sulfate, 0.11%; fat, 1.69%.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Effect of feeding treated corn stover and modified wet distillers grains with solubles to replace corn on ruminal VFA concentrations over time in Exp. 2

 
Dietary treatment1
SEM P-value2
Item CON BGCS 5 EXCS 4,1 EXCS 3,2 EXCS T T × H
n 5 5 5 5 5
Acetate, mM 5.17 <0.01 0.41
    03 44.5 74.6 67.2 61.7 62.6
    33 57.5 83.0 84.2 75.3 79.4
    63 59.4 83.8 90.7 84.1 86.7
Propionate, mM 2.81 0.31 0.32
    0 18.8 23.7 20.3 16.4 17.0
    3 36.2 40.2 43.8 33.9 40.3
    6 37.9 39.0 40.3 34.1 35.1
Butyrate, mM 1.50 0.05 0.24
    0 5.70 13.70 10.0 10.4 10.7
    3 11.4 16.7 14.3 16.1 14.9
    6 10.4 15.2 13.8 16.4 14.3
Total VFA, mM
    0 72.9 116.6 101.4 92.3 94.0 8.10 0.01 0.55
    3 110.2 144.6 146.2 129.2 138.5
    6 112.2 143.3 148.7 138.7 140.8
A:P4 0.25 0.06 0.01
    0 2.36 3.33 3.46 3.89 3.70 <0.01
    3 1.66 2.17 1.92 2.28 1.97 0.47
    6 1.68 2.22 2.28 2.50 2.49 0.16
1CON = 55% corn and 5% untreated ground corn stover on DM basis (corn control); BGCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture and treated with 5% CaO; 5 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 5% CaO, and then extruded; 4,1 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH, and then extruded; 3,2 EXCS = corn stover hydrated to 50% moisture, treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH, and then extruded. All extruded corn stover blends were processed using a dual-shafted, encased processor (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA).
2T = main effect of dietary treatment; T × H = interaction of dietary treatment × hour.
3Time postfeeding (h).
4A:P = ratio of acetate to propionate.