Figure 1.
Figure 1.

(A) Dry matter intake, (B) NE balance, (C) milk yield, and (D) plasma NEFA concentration as indicative measures of production performance. Data are shown separately for the feeding groups at corresponding time points to biopsy samplings. Variables did not significantly differ among feeding groups. Time-related changes were highly significant in every case (P < 0.001; ANOVA). LC-con = low concentrate level, no nicotinic acid supplementation; LC-nia = low concentrate level, with nicotinic acid supplementation; HC-con = high concentrate level, no nicotinic acid supplementation; HC-nia = high concentrate level, with nicotinic acid supplementation. Shown are means ± SEM, N = 20.

 


Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Total expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in fresh, nonincubated samples of subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue of cows between d 42 prepartum and d 100 postpartum. a–cQuantities of expression were different at days marked with different letters (P < 0.001; Tukey’s posttest). Exemplary Western blot images of an SCAT sample at the 4 different time points are shown at the top. Shown are means ± SEM, N = 20.

 


Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Total expression of (A) hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and (C) perilipin and extent of phosphorylation of (B) HSL and (D) perilipin in fresh, nonincubated samples of subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue of cows between d 42 prepartum and d 100 postpartum. The extent of phosphorylation displays a ratio of absolute values of phosphoprotein to the total amounts of the protein. a–cQuantities of expression or phosphorylation were different at days marked with different letters (P < 0.05; Tukey’s posttest). Exemplary Western blot images of an SCAT sample at the 4 different time points are shown at the top. Shown are means ± SEM, N = 20.

 


Figure 4.
Figure 4.

(A) Total expression and (B) extent of phosphorylation of β2-adrenergic receptor in fresh, nonincubated samples of subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue of cows between d 42 prepartum and d 100 postpartum. Extent of phosphorylation displays a ratio of absolute values of phosphoprotein to the total amounts of the protein. a,bQuantities of expression or phosphorylation were different at days marked with different letters (P < 0.05; Tukey’s posttest). Exemplary Western blot images of an SCAT sample at the 4 different time points are at the top. Shown are means ± SEM, N = 20.

 


Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Release of (A) glycerol and (B) NEFA and extent of (C) hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation and (D) perilipin phosphorylation in in vitro incubated samples of subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue of cows between d 42 prepartum and d 100 postpartum. Tissues were incubated for 90 min under basal conditions (circles) and under treatment with 10−6 M isoproterenol (triangles). Extent of phosphorylation displays a ratio of absolute values of phosphoprotein to the total amounts of the protein. a–cQuantities of release or phosphorylation were different at days marked with different letters (P < 0.05; Tukey’s posttest). Exemplary Western blot images of an SCAT sample at the 4 different time points are shown above (C) and (D) (B = basal, I = isoproterenol). Shown are mean ± SEM, N = 20.