View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition of experimental diets1 (DM basis)

 
High-moisture corn
Finely ground corn
rNDF,2 %
Ingredient, % 3 8 13 18 3 8 13 18
Sugarcane silage 4.64 12.37 20.10 27.83 4.64 12.37 20.10 27.83
Corn3 79.83 71.71 63.28 55.20 79.83 71.71 63.28 55.20
Cottonseed 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00
Soybean meal 3.20 3.80 4.55 5.22 3.20 3.80 4.55 5.22
Limestone 1.79 1.73 1.66 1.60 1.79 1.73 1.66 1.60
Urea 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30
Mineral premix4 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52
Sodium chloride 0.18 0.07 0.18 0.07
Dicalcium phosphate 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Potassium chloride 0.62 0.47 0.31 0.16 0.62 0.47 0.31 0.16
Nutrient, %
    TDN5 85.95 83.21 79.67 77.17 84.96 81.46 79.55 76.45
    CP 12.94 13.01 13.24 13.01 13.07 13.76 13.45 12.89
    Ether extract 4.98 4.51 4.21 3.79 4.68 3.78 3.46 3.44
    NDF 17.41 20.40 24.24 29.54 20.13 24.91 28.52 31.99
    ADF 7.44 9.94 12.58 17.97 8.15 9.04 12.28 16.06
    Lignin 0.55 0.96 1.59 2.08 0.41 0.83 1.03 1.87
    Ash 4.09 4.49 5.09 5.02 5.16 5.43 4.89 4.81
    Starch 55.85 50.64 45.29 42.47 51.69 50.72 40.95 36.98
1One composite sample of each diet was analyzed.
2rNDF = NDF from roughage.
3Fed as high-moisture corn or finely ground dry corn.
4Mineral premix contained, per kilogram, 45.4 g of Ca, 73.4 g of S, 34.9 g of P, 30.9 g of Mg, 213.1 g of Na, 82 mg of Co, 1,871 mg of Cu, 1,000 mg of Fe, 130 mg of I, 3,670 mg of Mn, 26 mg of Se, 5,564 mg of Zn, 290,000 IU of vitamin A, and 2,533 mg of salinomycin, which was equal to 13 mg/kg of diet DM.
5TDN calculated according to Weiss et al. (1992).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Composition (DM basis) of sugarcane silage (SS), high-moisture flint corn (HMC), and finely ground dry flint corn (FGC)

 
Composition, % SS1 HMC1 FGC1
DM 25.04 60.12 87.30
CP 4.18 7.60 9.48
Ether extract 1.46 4.58 3.31
NDF 64.01 8.40 12.95
ADF 43.58 3.43 3.91
Lignin 7.39 1.69 1.03
Ash 3.31 0.86 1.46
Starch 72.40 66.75
1One composite sample of each ingredient was analyzed.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Characterization of particle size distribution of high-moisture flint corn (HMC) and finely ground dry flint corn (FGC)

 
Screen mesh size, mm
4.00
2.00
1.00
0.84
0.42
0.25
<0.25
MPS,1 mm
Item Percent retained
HMC 95.58 2.72 1.44 0.28 0.29 0.19 0.00 5.84
FGC 0.11 7.04 60.53 3.74 17.27 6.81 6.04 1.30
1MPS = mean particle size. Mean particle size of 3 samples of HMC and FGC were evaluated using methods adapted from Yu et al. (1998), with removal of the 0.60-mm sieve porosity and replacement of 0.85- and 0.43-mm porosity sieves with 0.84- and 0.42-mm sieves.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Characterization of particle size distribution of sugarcane silage (SS) and experimental diets containing either high-moisture flint corn (HMC) or finely ground dry flint corn (FGC)

 
rNDF,1 % Screen mesh size, mm
19
8
1.18
<1.18
MPS,2 cm
Item Percent retained
SS 9.28 57.40 25.07 8.12 1.08
HMC 3 7.90 42.62 38.30 11.18 0.85
8 7.67 48.66 33.78 9.90 0.92
13 7.28 50.30 32.29 10.03 0.94
18 7.06 50.00 30.91 12.03 0.93
FGC 3 6.79 21.57 27.24 44.40 0.69
8 6.81 23.09 29.59 40.52 0.69
13 7.32 29.77 32.32 30.60 0.75
18 7.28 33.51 33.58 25.64 0.78
1rNDF = NDF from roughage.
2MPS = mean particle size. Mean particle size of 2 samples of the SS and 4 samples of each diet were evaluated using the Penn State Particle Size Separator (Lammers et al., 1996) with 1 additional sieve with a 1.18-mm pore size.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Effects of corn processing method (CPM) and NDF from roughage (rNDF), and the interaction between CPM and rNDF on performance of Nellore type bulls

 
High-moisture corn
Finely ground dry corn
rNDF, %
P-value
Item 3 8 13 18 3 8 13 18 SEM CPM rNDF Linear Quadratic CPM × rNDF
Initial BW, kg 380.3 378.6 382.6 378.25 374.6 385.2 380.3 386.6 15.65 0.64 0.77 0.47
Final BW, kg 478.4 494.1 518.5 492.2 479.7 500.7 507.0 510.3 13.21 0.52 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.31
ADG, kg/d 1.22 1.42 1.62 1.39 1.28 1.42 1.56 1.51 0.09 0.65 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.73
G:F 0.166 0.179 0.180 0.165 0.145 0.140 0.159 0.160 0.01 <0.01 0.38 0.25
NEm, Mcal/kg 2.00 2.06 2.03 1.93 1.74 1.70 1.84 1.87 0.06 <0.01 0.68 0.08
NEg, Mcal, kg 1.34 1.40 1.37 1.28 1.12 1.08 1.20 1.23 0.05 <0.01 0.68 0.08
ME, Mcal/kg 2.96 3.04 3.01 2.88 2.65 2.60 2.76 2.80 0.07 <0.01 0.71 0.08
ME intake, Mcal/d 21.91 24.21 27.34 24.27 23.74 26.42 27.26 26.61 0.96 0.02 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.55



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Effects of corn processing method (CPM), NDF from roughage (rNDF), and the interaction between CPM and rNDF on starch content of Nellore type bulls

 
High-moisture corn
Finely ground dry corn
rNDF, %
P-value
Item 3 8 13 18 3 8 13 18 SEM CPM rNDF CPM × rNDF
Orts starch,1 % 59.75a 53.12bc 46.36d 38.80e 55.18b 51.00c 48.09d 39.43e 0.98 0.12 <0.01 <0.01
Starch intake,1 % 55.12a 50.25c 45.19d 42.74e 51.11b 50.58c 40.16f 36.73g 0.18 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Fecal pH, d 46 7.14 7.42 7.35 7.60 6.56 6.61 6.72 6.74 0.18 <0.01 0.35 0.83
Fecal pH, d 74 5.58 5.75 5.74 5.73 5.73 5.86 5.79 5.88 0.11 0.13 0.50 0.97
Fecal DM, % 17.10cd 14.65ef 13.11f 13.72f 22.93a 19.34b 17.74bc 15.53de 0.73 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Fecal density, g of OM/mL 1.117 1.102 1.089 1.114 1.132 1.118 1.129 1.124 0.01 <0.01 0.17 0.25
NEmcorn,2 Mcal/kg 2.43ab 2.45ab 2.46a 2.45ab 2.14d 2.19d 2.28c 2.38b 0.03 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
NEgcorn,3 Mcal/kg 1.72ab 1.74ab 1.75a 1.74ab 1.47d 1.51d 1.59c 1.67b 0.03 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
a–gWithin row, data with subscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05).
1Samples from Day 22 to 81.
2NEmcorn = corn NEm; estimated from fecal starch as described by Zinn et al. (2002).
3NEgcorn = corn NEg; estimated from fecal starch as described by Zinn et al. (2002).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Effects of corn processing method (CPM) and NDF from roughage (rNDF), and the interaction between CPM and rNDF on carcass characteristics of Nellore type bulls

 
High-moisture corn
Finely ground dry corn
rNDF, %
P-value
Item 3 8 13 18 3 8 13 18 SEM CPM rNDF Linear Quadratic CPM × rNDF
HCW, kg 258.0 263.9 279.6 262.8 260.1 264.0 269.7 269.0 7.81 0.92 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.37
Dressing, % 56.1 55.6 56.1 55.6 56.4 54.9 55.4 54.9 0.52 0.11 0.02 0.03 0.36 0.48
LM area, cm2 50.1 53.1 51.0 52.8 49.5 50.1 51.2 52.5 2.04 0.52 0.55 0.85
12th-rib fat, mm 3.52 3.96 3.45 3.52 2.66 3.88 3.19 3.54 0.44 0.29 0.20 0.69
Renal, pelvic, and inguinal fat, kg 3.46 3.83 4.65 3.84 3.80 4.20 4.00 4.15 0.35 0.59 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.11
Liver weight, kg 5.50 5.51 5.91 5.41 5.20 5.33 5.52 5.25 0.18 0.02 0.06 0.88
Liver score, units 0.28 0.14 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.12 0.08 0.81 0.44
Rumen weight, kg 9.77 9.43 9.50 9.39 8.66 9.13 9.38 9.11 0.39 0.03 0.88 0.36
Ruminitis score, units 1.68 0.11 0.25 0.67 0.40 0.33 0.25 0.18 0.36 0.08 0.03 0.07 0.02 0.08