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Effects of plant stage of maturity on nutritional and mineral composition (DM basis) of Juniperus pinchotii, J. monosperma, J. ashei, and J. virginiana1

 
J. pinchotii
J. monosperma
J. ashei
J. virginiana
Item2,% Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Pooled SEM
DM 68.1a 69.1a 66.7a 65.8ab 64.9abc 65.4abc 61.5c 62.2bc 0.92
CP 4.7a 3.6c 4.6ab 3.6c 4.1abc 3.4c 4.6ab 3.7bc 0.19
NDIN 1.54 1.44 1.80 1.67 1.60 1.35 1.56 1.64 0.23
NDF 50.1c 66.9ab 50.0c 64.6ab 54.4c 67.4ab 62.6b 68.5a 1.32
ADF 40.7b 56.2a 40.0b 54.0a 44.2b 55.5a 52.9a 58.0a 1.46
ADL 21.1e 25.0cd 23.1de 26.3bc 29.4ab 29.8a 27.9abc 29.1ab 0.66
Ash 5.7a 4.3cd 5.4ab 4.4c 5.9a 4.7bc 4.1cd 3.6d 0.30
Ca 1.69ab 1.25cde 1.59ab 1.36bcd 1.89a 1.57abc 1.10de 0.99e 0.08
P 0.04bc 0.03d 0.05a 0.04bcd 0.04bc 0.03cd 0.05ab 0.04bcd 0.003
K 0.26a 0.16d 0.24ab 0.18cd 0.23abc 0.19cd 0.25a 0.19bcd 0.01
Mg 0.11a 0.07bcd 0.07cd 0.05cd 0.07cd 0.04d 0.10ab 0.07bc 0.01
S 0.07ab 0.05c 0.07a 0.05c 0.07ab 0.05c 0.06bc 0.05c 0.002
Fe 129.0a 118.3a 149.5a 114.5a 98.8a 113.8a 185.3a 166.5a 37.4
Cu 1.9b 1.9b 2.3ab 2.3ab 2.2b 2.0b 2.5a 2.1ab 0.10
Mn 18.9bc 13.3c 15.4c 11.5c 23.9bc 13.10c 172.7a 130.4ab 24.0
Zn 9.7ab 4.7c 5.7bc 4.6c 6.9bc 4.8c 12.3a 5.9bc 1.03
Al 145.8ab 128.7ab 176.8a 137.3ab 120.0ab 135.0ab 121.6ab 91.1b 15.3
B 9.5a 7.8b 9.8a 7.8b 9.4a 7.7b 9.0ab 7.7b 0.31
Ba 34.8a 16.7a 24.4a 15.3a 18.6a 16.3a 46.1a 42.8a 7.99
a–dWithin row means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05), according to a LSD. Juniper species × stage of maturity.
1Imm = immature growth stage (height of 1 to 1.8 m); Mat = mature growth stage (height of >3 m).
2Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al, B, and Ba are expressed in milligrams per kilogram DM. Minimal detected levels were observed for Na (<500 mg/kg), Se (<10 mg/kg), and Co (<0.50 mg/kg).



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Effects of plant stage of maturity on in vitro fermentation dynamics of Juniperus pinchotii, J. monosperma, J. ashei, and J. virginiana1

 
J. pinchotii
J. monosperma
J. ashei
J. virginiana
Item2 Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Pooled SEM
tIVDMD, % 49.8a 29.7b 49.4a 33.0b 43.6a 30.0b 33.6b 29.1b 1.67
Total, mL 44.5a 25.7b 45.2a 25.7b 43.2a 31.0b 32.3b 24.9b 2.16
A, mL 26.8a 10.6b 23.7ab 17.7ab 27.6a 17.1ab 15.5ab 16.9ab 2.82
B, per h 0.17 0.46 0.31 0.16 0.14 0.15 0.17 0.15 0.07
C, h 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.23 0.19 0.30 0.09 0.02 0.08
D, mL 20.7ab 21.6ab 21.9a 10.2b 19.9ab 18.8ab 18.8ab 14.9ab 2.41
E, per h 0.30 0.18 0.32 1.5 0.12 0.89 0.21 0.15 0.38
a,bWithin row means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05) according to a LSD. Juniper species × stage of maturity.
1Imm = immature growth stage (height of 1 to 1.8 m); Mat = mature growth stage (height of >3 m).
2tIVDMD = 48-h true IVDMD; Total = 48-h cumulative gas production (mL/g substrate DM); a = asymptote (mL/g substrate DM); b = fractional degradation rate; c = lag time; d = asymptote of second pool (mL/g substrate DM); e = fractional degradation rate of second pool.



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Effects of plant stage of maturity on plant secondary compound characteristics (DM basis) of Juniperus pinchotii, J. monosperma, J. ashei, and J. virginiana1

 
J. pinchotii
J. monosperma
J. ashei
J. virginiana
Item2,% Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Pooled SEM
ECT 5.5a 3.1bc 4.1b 2.5c 3.8bc 2.7c 2.8bc 2.7c 0.29
FCT 1.2 0.59 0.71 0.59 1.8 0.82 1.1 1.3 0.39
PCT 1.6b 1.1b 1.4b 1.1b 3.5a 2.2ab 1.7b 1.5b 0.37
TCT 8.4ab 4.7c 6.3abc 4.2c 9.0a 5.7bc 5.6bc 5.5bc 0.72
Oil 1.20a 0.63b 1.05ab 0.73ab 0.57b 0.61b 0.70ab 1.07ab 0.11
ICA 0.018c 0.020c 0.273a 0.163b 0.0c 0.005c 0.015c 0.035c 0.04
AGA 0.063c 0.035cd 0.228a 0.160b 0.018d 0.020d 0.008d 0.030cd 0.013
IMB 0.003c 0.0c 0.195a 0.090b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.005c 0.005
DHAA 0.0c 0.0c 1.41a 0.713b 0.003c 0.013c 0.0c 0.0c 0.040
Total 0.083cd 0.055d 2.11a 1.13b 0.025d 0.055d 0.203c 0.215c 0.049
a–dWithin row means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05), according to a LSD. Juniper species × stage of maturity.
1Imm = immature growth stage (height of 1 to 1.8 m); Mat = mature growth stage (height of >3 m).
wECT = extractable condensed tannins; PCT = protein-bound condensed tannins; FCT = fiber-bound condensed tannins; TCT = total condensed tannins. Oil is total volatile oil. ICA = isocupressic acid; AGA = agathic acid; IMB = imbricatoloic acid; DHAA = dihydroagathic acid; total acids is the combined concentration of measured labdane acids. Total acids for J. virginiana reflect an additional labdane acid (0.162% DM) closely related to ICA but not identified in the other species.



J. pinchotii
J. monosperma
J. ashei
J. virginiana
Item2 Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Imm Mat Pooled SEM
Tricyclene 0.004b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.053a 0.016b 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
α-Thujene 0.035a 0.002b 0.00b 0.00b 0.015ab 0.00b 0.015b 0.00b 0.001
α-Pinene 0.071b 0.016b 1.20a 0.147b 0.026b 0.026db 0.024b 0.037b 0.103
Camphene 0.006b 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 0.056a 0.021b 0.00b 0.00b 0.007
Sabinene 0.547a 0.010b 0.027b 0.002b 0.0b 0.012b 0.129b 0.078b 0.023
Myrcene 0.083a 0.022bc 0.032b 0.004bc 0.007bc 0.002c 0.004bc 0.002c 0.006
α-Phellandrene 0.0b 0.0b 0.021a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.001
δ 3-Carene 0.007b 0.0b 0.095a 0.004b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.01
α-Terpinene 0.045a 0.017b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.003
p-Cymene 0.015bc 0.005bc 0.011bc 0.0c 0.061a 0.028b 0.0c 0.0c 0.006
Limonene 0.080a 0.031bcd 0.064abc 0.001d 0.072ab 0.028bcd 0.020cd 0.013d 0.010
β-Phellandrene 0.063b 0.024b 0.195a 0.020b 0.0b 0.0b 0.014b 0.010b 0.016
γ-Terpinene 0.091a 0.035b 0.019bc 0.004c 0.0c 0.0c 0.006bc 0.002c 0.006
cis-Sabinene hydrate 0.177a 0.060b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.013b 0.011b 0.013
Terpinolene 0.048a 0.021b 0.040a 0.004c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.003
Linalool 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.015ab 0.009ab 0.028a 0.012ab 0.005
trans-Sabinene hydrate 0.131a 0.048b 0.0c 0.003c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.009
Isopentyl isovalerate 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.008 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.002
cis-p-Menth-2-en-1-ol 0.024a 0.006b 0.030a 0.004b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.002
trans-p-Mentha-2,8-dien-ol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.014a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.001
trans-Pinocarveol 0.0c 0.0c 0.027a 0.013b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.002c 0.002
trans-Verbenol 0.0c 0.0c 0.059a 0.035b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.004
Camphor 0.804bc 0.553c 0.0d 0.0d 2.53a 1.15b 0.024d 0.058d 0.103
Camphene hydrate 0.033b 0.024b 0.0c 0.0c 0.062a 0.028b 0.0c 0.0c 0.002
Citronellal 0.002 0.002 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.001
Isoborneol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.012a 0.001b 0.0b 0.0b 0.001
Borneol 0.105b 0.066bc 0.011cd 0.015cd 0.177a 0.056bcd 0.002d 0.004d 0.013
Coahuilensol 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.004 0.008 0.002
Terpinen-4-ol 0.309a 0.161b 0.035c 0.013c 0.011c 0.033c 0.034c 0.027c 0.023
p-Cymen-8-ol 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.023a 0.012b 0.0c 0.0c 0.001
α-Terpineol 0.004a 0.005a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.002
trans-p-Mentha-1(7), 8-dien-2-ol 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.013a 0.007b 0.0c 0.0c 0.001
Methyl chavicol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.009ab 0.002b 0.011ab 0.018a 0.003
Myrtenol 0.0b 0.0b 0.022a 0.013a 0.016a 0.017a 0.0b 0.0b 0.003
Verbenone + trans-piperitol 0.0b 0.0b 0.030a 0.018ab 0.019ab 0.019ab 0.009bc 0.017ab 0.003
43,79,91,152,terpene 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.032a 0.035a 0.025a 0.0b 0.0b 0.004
Coahuilensol, methyl ether 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.111a 0.088ab 0.022
Citronellol 0.285a 0.171b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.021b 0.011b 0.027
cis-p-Mentha-1(7),8dien 2-ol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.013ab 0.027a 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
Carvone thymol, methyl ether 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.042a 0.038a 0.0b 0.0b 0.003
Carvacrol, methyl ether 0.007b 0.030a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.003
Piperitone 0.0b 0.0b 0.016a 0.005b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.002
trans-Myrtanol 0.0b 0.0b 0.008a 0.001b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.001
152,123,91,77, sesquiterpene 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.022a 0.004b 0.002
151,166,95,135,phenolic 0.0b 0.039a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.006
Pregeijerene 0.0b 0.0b 0.160a 0.030b 0.0b 0.0b 0.035b 0.012b 0.011
Bornyl acetate 0.137b 0.098bc 0.032cde 0.028de 0.358a 0.080bcd 0.0e 0.0e 0.015
Safrole 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.492a 0.219b 0.039
Carvacrol 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.001 0.003 0.0 0.0 0.001
α-Cubebene 0.026a 0.005ab 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.002b 0.002b 0.005
α-Copaene 0.045a 0.006b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.016ab 0.013b 0.007
β-Bourbonene 0.041b 0.013b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.010b 0.0b 0.002
β-Cubebene 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.009 0.004 0.002
β-Elemene 0.028a 0.009b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.003
Methyl eugenol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.429a 0.700a 0.080
α-Cedrene 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.009b 0.027b 0.019b 0.200a 0.026
(E)-caryophyllene 0.130a 0.037cd 0.089ab 0.048bc 0.0d 0.0d 0.036cd 0.011cd 0.010
β-Cedrene 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.018bc 0.026b 0.049b 0.128a 0.011
cis-Thujopsene 0.0c 0.0c 0.247abc 0.554a 0.136bc 0.501a 0.143bc 0.377ab 0.069
cis-Muurola-3,5-diene 0.119a 0.034bc 0.065b 0.025bc 0.0c 0.0c 0.034bc 0.027bc 0.011
α-Humulene 0.161a 0.032bc 0.052b 0.014bc 0.0c 0.0c 0.026bc 0.014bc 0.009
cis-Muurola-4(14),5-diene 0.036a 0.007b 0.016ab 0.011b 0.0b 0.0b 0.009b 0.002b 0.005
trans-Cadina-1(6),4-diene 0.137a 0.039b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.017b 0.019b 0.009
γ-Muurolene 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.021a 0.012a 0.002
Germacrene D 0.061a 0.023bc 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.051ab 0.050ab 0.006
β-Selinene 0.0c 0.0c 0.024a 0.011b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.001
cis-β-Guaiene 0.0b 0.0b 0.050a 0.011b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.007
trans-Muurola-4(14),15- 0.372a 0.100b 0.059b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.070b 0.073b 0.038
epi-Cubebol 0.104a 0.047b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.044b 0.040bc 0.009
Valencene 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.009ab 0.016a 0.0b 0.0b 0.002
β-Himachalene 0.066a 0.021bc 0.009c 0.019c 0.0c 0.0c 0.055ab 0.074a 0.008
α-Cuprenene 0.0c 0.0c 0.004bc 0.019b 0.0c 0.019b 0.013bc 0.049a 0.004
Cuparene 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.001b 0.019a 0.0b 0.0b 0.001
γ-Cadinene 0.452a 0.129b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.034
Cubebol 0.449a 0.129b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.032
Nootkatene 0.0a 0.0a 0.179a 0.027a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.045
trans-Calamenene 0.236a 0.075b 0.017b 0.004b 0.0b 0.0b 0.081b 0.082b 0.021
Zonarene 0.090a 0.032b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.007
trans-Cadina-1,4-diene 0.044a 0.007b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.014b 0.047a 0.005
Elemicin 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.212a 0.171a 0.018
α-Copaen-11-ol 0.0c 0.0c 0.067a 0.030b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.003
Elemol 2.05a 1.06ab 0.752b 0.443b 0.059b 0.183b 0.857b 0.809b 0.213
Germacrene B 0.190a 0.095ab 0.205a 0.109ab 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.024
(E)-nerolidol 0.026ab 0.007cd 0.035a 0.018bc 0.0d 0.0d 0.0d 0.0d 0.003
Germacrene D-4-ol 0.030b 0.011b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.317a 0.191a 0.028
Caryophyllene oxide 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.041a 0.035a 0.003
Thujopsan-2-α-ol 0.0b 0.0b 0.045a 0.030a 0.025ab 0.046a 0.0b 0.0b 0.006
trans-Muurol-5-en-4-α-ol 0.376a 0.108b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.151b 0.181ab 0.045
allo-Cedrol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.002b 0.055a 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
Widdrol 0.0b 0.0b 0.050b 0.191b 0.0b 0.0b 0.186b 0.765a 0.091
Cedrol 0.0b 0.011b 0.050b 0.114b 0.313b 1.39a 0.376b 1.53a 0.206
β-Oplopenone 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.059b 0.729a 0.104
1-epi-Cubenol 0.399a 0.145b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.133b 0.154b 0.026
Eremoligenol 0.0b 0.0b 0.179a 0.253a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.029
γ-Eudesmol 0.167bc 0.119bc 0.783a 0.426b 0.0b 0.0b 0.058c 0.058c 0.072
α-Acorenol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.041b 0.179a 0.0b 0.0b 0.010
β-acorenol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.017b 0.049a 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
Hinesol 0.047cd 0.030de 0.074bc 0.058bcd 0.0e 0.0e 0.092ab 0.112a 0.010
43,119,204,222,sesquiterpene 0.474bc 0.344c 2.57a 1.48b 0.012c 0.074c 0.170c 0.201c 0.218
β-Eudesmol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.038ab 0.089a 0.0b 0.0b 0.012
α-Eudesmol 0.412bc 0.278cd 1.05a 0.708ab 0.038d 0.094cd 0.209cd 0.227cd 0.075
selin-11-en-4-a-ol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.013b 0.058a 0.0b 0.0b 0.007
14-Hydroxy-9-epi-caryphyllene 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.005b 0.018a 0.0b 0.0b 0.002
Elemol acetate 0.0c 0.0c 0.061a 0.044b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.004
epi-a-Bisabolol 0.0b 0.0b 0.024b 0.056ab 0.0b 0.0b 0.023b 0.159a 0.028
Shyobunol 0.0b 0.0b 0.053ab 0.105a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.015
cis-Thujopsenol 0.0b 0.0b 0.119b 0.284ab 0.063b 0.259ab 0.132ab 0.416a 0.064
cis-Thujopsenal 0.0b 0.0b 0.013a 0.045a 0.008a 0.035a 0.068a 0.049a 0.023
(Z)-nuciferol 0.0b 0.0b 0.011b 0.065a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.008
8-α-11-Elemodiol 0.0b 0.0b 0.175a 0.157a 0.0b 0.0b 0.044b 0.026b 0.022
41,109,138,202, sesquiterpene 0.0c 0.0c 0.061a 0.037b 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.004
8-α-Acetoxyelemol 0.0b 0.0b 0.106a 0.072a 0.0b 0.0b 0.070a 0.086a 0.011
Nootkatone 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.028bc 0.061bc 0.198b 0.446a 0.037
Oplopanonyl acetate 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.013 0.003 0.003
Manoyl oxide 0.329a 0.218ab 0.065bc 0.057bc 0.210abc 0.157abc 0.013bc 0.006c 0.045
Abietatriene 0.021 0.016 0.010 0.018 0.023 0.017 0.010 0.020 0.004
Abietadiene 0.164a 0.100ab 0.0c 0.0c 0.051bc 0.028bc 0.057bc 0.074bc 0.019
41,69,255,298,diterpene 0.073abc 0.0454bc 0.092abc 0.066abc 0.0c 0.0c 0.155a 0.098ab 0.021
Sandaracopimarinal 0.075 0.076 0.024 0.056 0.038 0.062 0.030 0.042 0.014
41,81,286,300,diterpene 0.0c 0.0c 0.027b 0.051a 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.003
91,133,187,286,diterpene 0.031a 0.036a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
43, 91,271 0.031a 0.049a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
41, 91, 157 0.039a 0.045a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.006
227,269,185,284,diterpene 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.078a 0.057b 0.0c 0.0c 0.004
42,227,269,284, diterpene 0.033c 0.035bc 0.083a 0.081ab 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.0c 0.101
41,69,255,298,diterpene 0.0b 0.0b 0.056a 0.045a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
Sempervirol 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.050a 0.032a 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
4-epi-Abietal 0.316a 0.359a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.052b 0.193ab 0.207ab 0.051
Abieta-7,13-dien-3-one 0.156b 0.165b 0.040b 0.052b 0.500a 0.023b 0.034b 0.054b 0.050
Abietal 0.152a 0.167a 0.024b 0.076ab 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.007
trans-Ferruginol 0.0d 0.0d 0.0d 0.0d 0.044ab 0.055a 0.008cd 0.028bc 0.005
4-epi-Abietol 0.019ab 0.018ab 0.0b 0.0b 0.028a 0.008ab 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
135,91,187,286, diterpene 0.031a 0.041a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.005
Abietol 0.023ab 0.036a 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.0b 0.021ab 0.015ab 0.007
a–dWithin row means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05) according to a LSD. Juniper species × stage of maturity.
1Imm = immature growth stage (height of 1 to 1.8 m); Mat = mature growth stage (height of >3 m).
2Compositional values <0.001 milligrams per gram DM are denoted as 0.0 as they were detected in trace amounts.