View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Initial concentration of antioxidant in high-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (HO-DDGS), low-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (LO-DDGS), and distiller’s corn oil (DCO) before storage at 38°C and 94% relative humidity1,2,3,4

 
Item HO-DDGS LO-DDGS DCO-15 DCO-26 PSEM7 P-value
Rendox-CQ, mg/kg crude fat 977a 946b 1,004c 962ab 4 <0.01
Santoquin-Q4T, mg/kg crude fat 1,463a 1,455a 1,486b 1,476ab 6 <0.01
a–cMeans with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05).
1Rendox-CQ (active ingredient is t-butylhydroquinone [TBHQ]; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) was added at 1,000 mg/kg of lipid.
2Santoquin-Q4T (active ingredients are ethoxyquin and TBHQ; Novus International, St. Louis, MO) was added at 1,500 mg/kg of lipid.
3Control batches (without added antioxidants) were analyzed for Rendox-CQ and Santoquin-Q4T and contained undetectable levels.
4Means represent 6 batches per ingredient.
5DCO-1 = 1.20, 0.08, and 0.48% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables, respectively.
6DCO-2 = 1.20, 0.01, and 0.10% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables, respectively.
7PSEM = pooled SEM.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Main effects of ingredient, antioxidant, and day of storage on characteristics of high-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (HO-DDGS), low-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (LO-DDGS), and distiller’s corn oil (DCO) stored at 38°C and 94% relative humidity1

 
Ingredient2
Antioxidant4
P-value5
Item HO-DDGS LO-DDGS DCO-1 DCO-2 PSEM3 CON REN SAN PSEM EI EA EI × d EA × d
Peroxide value, mEq/kg lipid6
    d 0 1.42a 1.23b 1.30c 1.13d 0.01 1.24a 1.28ab 1.29b 0.01
    d 14 4.63a 3.33b 4.42a 3.42b 0.11 5.80a 2.87b 3.18c 0.09
    d 28 20.55a 15.26b 20.24a 15.79b 0.43 26.29a 13.12b 14.47c 0.32
    Mean7 12.59a 9.30b 12.33a 9.60b 0.26 16.04a 8.00b 8.82c 0.17 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
TBARS, mg MDA Eq/kg lipid6,8
    d 0 1.99 1.97 1.98 1.99 0.01 1.98 1.99 1.99 0.01
    d 14 3.46a 2.82bc 3.27ab 2.77c 0.14 4.45a 2.49b 2.30b 0.13
    d 28 13.19 11.80 12.97 11.32 0.49 17.66a 9.76b 9.55b 0.32
    Mean 8.32a 7.31bc 8.12ab 7.05c 0.27 11.05a 6.12b 5.92b 0.16 <0.01 <0.01 0.06 <0.01
p-Anisidine value6
    d 0 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 <0.01 0.11a 0.22b 0.18b <0.01
    d 14 1.98a 1.79ab 1.46b 1.71ab 0.10 3.78a 0.61b 0.82b 0.12
    d 28 5.14ab 6.23a 4.08b 5.02ab 0.37 9.30a 3.24b 2.81b 0.24
    Mean 3.56a 4.01a 2.77b 3.37a 0.18 6.54a 1.92b 1.82b 0.15 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Linoleic acid, % of lipid6
    d 0 52.92a 53.21b 53.08ab 51.96c 0.06 52.78 52.73 52.88 0.05
    d 14 53.05a 52.66b 53.28a 52.26b 0.07 52.75 52.86 52.83 0.06
    d 28 53.53a 52.9bc 53.2ab 52.33c 0.11 52.98 52.94 53.04 0.06
    Mean 53.29a 52.78b 53.24a 52.29b 0.08 52.86 52.90 52.94 0.03 <0.01 0.37 <0.01 0.21
Linolenic acid, % of lipid6
    d 0 1.68a 1.71b 1.30c 1.34d <0.01 1.51 1.51 1.51 <0.01
    d 14 1.65a 1.71b 1.33c 1.37d 0.03 1.51 1.52 1.52 0.01
    d 28 1.6a 1.72b 1.33c 1.37d 0.03 1.50 1.49 1.52 0.01
    Mean 1.62a 1.71b 1.33c 1.37d 0.03 1.50 1.51 1.52 <0.01 <0.01 0.16 <0.01 0.04
SFA, % of lipid6
    d 0 17.69a 18.60b 16.45c 16.65d 0.03 17.38a 17.40a 17.26b 0.02
    d 14 17.44a 18.85b 16.29c 16.38c 0.10 17.27 17.22 17.23 0.03
    d 28 16.75a 18.44b 16.34a 16.42a 0.12 17.01 16.98 16.97 0.03
    Mean 17.10a 18.64b 16.31c 16.40c 0.11 17.14 17.10 17.10 0.02 <0.01 0.31 <0.01 0.89
MUFA, % of lipid6
    d 0 27.35a 26.10b 28.56c 29.37d 0.03 27.87 27.88 27.79 0.03
    d 14 27.65 26.41 28.47 29.27 0.12 27.96 27.93 27.95 0.03
    d 28 27.83 26.61 28.55 29.27 0.14 28.07 28.08 28.04 0.05
    Mean 27.74a 26.51b 28.51c 29.27d 0.13 28.02 28.01 28.00 0.03 <0.01 0.86 0.33 0.69
PUFA, % of lipid6
    d 0 54.60a 54.93b 54.39a 53.30c 0.07 54.28 54.24 54.39 0.06
    d 14 54.72a 54.39b 54.58ab 53.61c 0.08 54.26 54.37 54.34 0.06
    d 28 55.15a 54.64bc 54.50bc 53.67d 0.12 54.48 54.44 54.56 0.06
    Mean 54.93a 54.52b 54.54b 53.64c 0.09 54.37 54.41 54.45 0.04 <0.01 0.29 <0.01 0.17
a–dWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Data were covariate adjusted for baseline (d 0) values and apparent mold concentration {[apparently moldy fraction/(apparently moldy fraction + apparently fresh fraction)] × 100}.
2DCO-1 = 1.20, 0.08, and 0.48% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables, respectively; DCO-2 = 1.20, 0.01, and 0.10% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables, respectively.
3PSEM = pooled SEM.
4CON = no supplemental antioxidants; REN = Rendox-CQ (active ingredient is t-butylhydroquinone [TBHQ]; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) at 1,000 mg/kg of lipid; SAN = Santoquin-Q4T (active ingredients are ethoxyquin and TBHQ; Novus International, St. Louis, MO) at 1,500 mg/kg of lipid.
5EI = effect of ingredient; EA = effect of antioxidant.
6Effect of time (d 14 vs. 28, P < 0.05).
7Main effect mean of ingredient or antioxidant, regardless of day.
8TBARS = thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; MDA = malondialdehyde.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Interactive effects of ingredient, antioxidant, and sampling day on characteristics of high-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (HO-DDGS), low-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (LO-DDGS), and distiller’s corn oil (DCO) stored at 38°C and 90% relative humidity1,2,3

 
Ingredient
HO-DDGS
RO-DDGS
DCO-1
DCO-2
Antioxidant
Antioxidant
Antioxidant
Antioxidant
Item CON REN SAN CON REN SAN CON REN SAN CON REN SAN PSEM4
Peroxide value, mEq/kg lipid5,6
    d 14 7.13a 3.12bc 3.63b 4.49d 2.68c 2.83c 6.86a 2.99bc 3.40bc 4.73d 2.68c 2.84bc 0.37
    d 28 31.37a 13.93bc 16.35b 20.50d 11.73bc 13.55bc 31.02a 14.57bc 15.14bc 22.26d 12.26c 12.83c 0.37
    Mean7 19.25a 8.52cde 9.99c 12.49b 7.21e 8.19de 18.94a 8.78cde 9.27cd 13.50b 7.47e 7.84de 0.21
TBARS, mg MDA Eq/kg lipid5,6,8
    d 14 5.05a 2.90cd 2.41d 3.75bc 2.37d 2.34d 4.83a 2.61cd 2.39d 4.16ab 2.08d 2.06d 0.20
    d 28 21.06a 9.53b 8.99b 14.26d 11.00bc 10.13bc 21.24a 8.41b 9.27b 14.08cd 10.08b 9.81b 0.69
    Mean 13.05a 6.22b 5.70b 9.00c 6.69b 6.24b 13.04a 5.51b 5.83b 9.12c 6.08b 5.93b 0.37
p-Anisidine value5,6
    d 14 3.94a 0.96b 1.04b 3.76a 0.65b 0.97b 3.79a 0.18b 0.40b 3.62a 0.64b 0.87b 0.17
    d 28 9.10a 3.43bc 2.88bc 9.48a 4.96b 4.26b 9.69a 1.22c 1.33c 8.95a 3.35bc 2.77bc 0.48
    Mean 6.52a 2.19b 1.96bcd 6.62a 2.80b 2.61b 6.74a 0.70d 0.87cd 6.29a 2.00bc 1.82bcd 0.29
Linoleic acid, % of lipid5
    d 14 53.02 53.14 52.99 52.74 52.63 52.61 52.99 53.40 53.44 52.24 52.27 52.27 0.11
    d 28 53.59 53.56 53.45 53.03 52.85 52.83 53.07 53.13 53.39 52.23 52.23 52.51 0.14
    Mean 53.31a 53.35a 53.22ab 52.88abc 52.74bc 52.72bc 53.03ab 53.26ab 53.41a 52.24c 52.25c 52.39c 0.10
Linolenic acid, % of lipid
    d 14 1.65 1.65 1.63 1.70 1.71 1.71 1.32 1.34 1.34 1.36 1.37 1.38 0.03
    d 28 1.6 1.58 1.62 1.72 1.70 1.73 1.31 1.33 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.38 0.03
    Mean 1.63 1.62 1.63 1.71 1.70 1.72 1.31 1.34 1.34 1.36 1.37 1.38 0.03
SFA, % of lipid5
    d 14 17.47 17.4 17.47 18.79 18.87 18.88 16.42 16.22 16.22 16.39 16.4 16.35 0.13
    d 28 16.76 16.71 16.78 18.4 18.4 18.53 16.38 16.36 16.29 16.5 16.47 16.29 0.14
    Mean 17.12a 17.05a 17.12a 18.59b 18.63b 18.70b 16.4c 16.29c 16.26c 16.45c 16.44c 16.32c 0.11
MUFA, % of lipid
    d 14 27.57 27.65 27.72 26.44 26.39 26.41 28.52 28.46 28.43 29.32 29.24 29.25 0.13
    d 28 27.77 27.88 27.84 26.62 26.56 26.66 28.65 28.57 28.44 29.26 29.31 29.24 0.16
    Mean 27.67 27.76 27.78 26.53 26.47 26.54 28.58 28.52 28.43 29.29 29.27 29.25 0.13
PUFA, % of lipid5
    d 14 54.7 54.81 54.64 54.47 54.36 54.35 54.28 54.72 54.75 53.58 53.62 53.63 0.12
    D 28 55.21 55.16 55.08 54.77 54.57 54.58 54.36 54.43 54.71 53.57 53.57 53.87 0.15
    Mean 54.96a 54.99a 54.86ab 54.62abc 54.47bc 54.46bcd 54.32cd 54.57abc 54.73ab 53.58e 53.59e 53.75de 0.11
a–eWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1DCO-1 = 1.20, 0.08, and 0.48% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables, respectively; DCO-2 = 1.20, 0.01, and 0.10% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables, respectively.
2CON = no supplemental antioxidants; REN = Rendox-CQ (active ingredient is t-butylhydroquinone [TBHQ]; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) at 1,000 mg/kg of lipid; SAN = Santoquin-Q4T (active ingredients are ethoxyquin and TBHQ; Novus International, St. Louis, MO) at 1,500 mg/kg of lipid.
3Data were covariate adjusted for baseline (d 0) values and apparent mold concentration {[apparently moldy fraction/(apparently moldy fraction + apparently fresh fraction)] × 100}.
4PSEM = pooled SEM.
5Ingredient × antioxidant (P < 0.05).
6Ingredient × antioxidant × day (P < 0.05).
7Main effect mean of ingredient × antioxidant, regardless of day.
8TBARS = thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; MDA = malondialdehyde.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Main effects of ingredient, antioxidant, and day of storage on characteristics of high-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (HO-DDGS) and low-oil distiller’s dried grains with solubles (LO-DDGS) stored at 38°C and 94% relative humidity

 
Ingredient
Antioxidant1
P-value2
Item HO-DDGS LO-DDGS PSEM3 CON REN SAN PSEM EI EA EI ×d EA ×d
Ether extract, % as-fed5
    d 0 13.02a 5.01b 0.08 9.24a 9.20a 8.63b 0.11
    d 14 11.45a 2.86b 0.53 7.08 7.14 7.24 0.53
    d 28 8.98a 2.74b 0.53 5.98 5.86 5.75 0.55
    Mean6 10.21a 2.8b 0.51 6.53 6.50 6.50 0.09 <0.01 0.96 <0.01 0.05
Apparent mold, % fed as-fed5
    d 14 13.46a 24.2b 2.1 19.4 17.5 19.58 2.20
    d 28 46.08a 70.12b 3.2 56.33 57.81 60.17 3.60
    Mean6 29.77a 47.16b 2.3 37.86 37.66 39.88 2.50 <0.01 0.60 <0.01 0.68
Total mold count, cfu5 × 106/g
    d 14 2.47 2.08 0.55 2.73 1.65 2.44 0.64
    d 28 11.36a 1.72b 0.62 6.93 7.45 5.25 0.71
    Mean6 6.91a 1.90b 0.42 4.83x 4.55xy 3.85y 0.47 <0.01 0.11 <0.01 0.12
Moisture, %5
    d 0 9.90a 10.39b 0.02 9.97a 9.96a 10.52b 0.03
    d 14 21.33a 19.66b 0.31 20.44 20.35 20.70 0.33
    d 28 23.05a 21.25b 0.32 22.02 22.04 22.38 0.35
Mean6 22.19a 20.45b 0.23 21.23 21.19 21.54 0.26 <0.01 0.05 <0.01 0.66
a,bWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
x,yWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1CON = no supplemental antioxidants; REN = Rendox-CQ (active ingredient: t-butylhydroquinone [TBHQ]; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) at 1,000 mg/kg of lipid; SAN = Santoquin-Q4T (active ingredient: ethoxyquin and TBHQ; Novus International, St. Louis, MO) at 1,500 mg/kg of lipid.
2EI = effect of ingredient; EA = effect of antioxidant.
3PSEM = pooled SEM.
4Data were covariate adjusted for baseline (d 0) values and apparent mold concentration {[apparently moldy fraction/(apparently moldy fraction + apparently fresh fraction)] × 100}.
5Effect of time (d 14 vs. 28, P < 0.05).
6Main effect mean of ingredient or antioxidant, regardless of day.