View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Performance results on batch level for loose-housed sows and sows that had been confined for the first 4 d of lactation according to 2 different strategies of confinement. Values are presented as estimates ± SE.

 
Item Loose–loose Loose–confined Confined–confined SE P-value
Batches, no. 58 56 59
Farrowings/batch 12.0 11.8 11.5 0.18 0.10
Total born, no./batch 213.6 218.3 210.2 4.18 0.29
Piglets fostered by nurse sows, % 18.9a 21.1b 19.7ab 0.97 0.04
Total mortality,1 % 26.0a 25.4a 22.1b 0.64 <0.001
Stillborn,2 % 5.8 5.2 5.2 0.35 0.21
Crushed piglets,2 % 10.7a 9.7b 7.8c 0.53 <0.001
Live-born mortality,1 % 21.4a 21.4a 17.9b 0.57 <0.001
a,bValues with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05).
1Total mortality = (stillborn + live born dead)/total born, live-born mortality = live born dead/live born.
2Calculated as percent of total born.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Reproduction and piglet mortality for loose-housed sows and sows that had been confined for the first 4 d of lactation according to 2 different strategies of confinement. Values are presented as estimates ± SE or back-transformed estimates and 95% confidence interval

 
Item Loose–loose Loose–confined Confined–confined SE P-value
Number of sows 682 668 658
Parity 2.2 2.2 2.2 0.09 0.18
Gestation length, d 116.8 116.8 116.9 0.06 0.32
Litter size, no
    Total born 17.7 18.1 17.9 0.15 0.06
    Live born 16.6a 17.1b 17.0b 0.14 0.01
    Stillborn 1.0a (0.9–1.1) 0.9b (0.8–1.0) 0.9b (0.8–0.9) 0.03
    Equalized litter size 13.7 13.7 13.8 0.07 0.06
Piglet mortality,1 %
    Before litter equalization 7.5a (6.8–8.1) 7.0a (6.4–7.7) 3.7b (3.3–4.1) <0.001
    Equalization to d 4 7.6a (7.0–8.3) 6.7b (6.1–7.4) 5.6c (5.1–6.2) <0.001
    Day 4 to weaning2 5.6a (5.0–6.2) 6.9b (6.0–7.4) 6.6b (5.9–7.4) 0.01
a–cValues with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05).
1Calculated as percent of live born before litter equalization and percent of equalized litter size after litter equalization.
2Results from sows that were weaned at 4 wk (n = 552 in loose–loose, n = 492 in loose–confined, and n = 416 in confined-confined).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Percentage of low mortality sows when sows had been loose-housed or confined for the first 4 d of lactation according to 2 different strategies of confinement. Values are presented as estimates and 95% confidence interval

 
Item Loose–loose Loose–confined Confined–confined P-value
Number of sows 682 668 658
Low mortality sows,1 %
    Before litter equalization 66.0a (61.8–70.0) 67.3a (63.1–71.2) 84.9b (81.7–87.7) <0.001
    After litter equalization to d 4 70.1a (65.6–74.1) 73.8a (69.5–77.8) 79.3b (75.3–82.8) 0.002
a,bValues with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05).
1Low mortality sows = sows with 0 to 1 dead piglets in the studied period of time.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Effects of sow parity on reproduction and piglet mortality. Values are presented as estimates ± SE or back-transformed estimates and 95% confidence interval

 
Item Parity 1 Parity 2 Parity 3+ SE P-value
Number of sows 410 744 854
Litter size, no
    Total born 16.2a 18.0b 19.4c 0.17 <0.001
    Live born 15.5a 17.1b 18.0c 0.16 <0.001
    Stillborn 0.8a (0.7–1.0) 0.8a (0.8–0.9) 1.1b (1.0–1.2) 0.001
    Equalized litter size 13.9a 13.7b 13.5c 0.08 0.001
Piglet mortality,1 %
    Before litter Equalization 6.5 (5.5–7.5) 5.4 (4.9–6.0) 5.6 (5.0–6.4) 0.08
    Equalization to d 4 5.3a (4.6–6.1) 6.9b (6.2–7.6) 7.9c (7.2–8.6) <0.001
    Day 4 to weaning2 6.7 (5.8–7.8) 5.6 (4.9–6.3) 6.5 (5.8–7.3) 0.08
a–cValues with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05).
1Calculated as percent of live born before litter equalization and percent of equalized litter size after litter equalization.
2Results from sows that were weaned at 4 wk (n = 342 for parity 1, n = 547 for parity 2, and n = 571 for parity 3 to 4).