View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredients and nutritional composition of pelleted feed offered to steers for 168 d from weaning within the supplemented nutritional system

 
Component %
Ingredient, % as fed
    Corn 58.0
    Barley 25.0
    Dried distillers grains 6.0
    Molasses 8.0
    Lime 1.0
    Sodium bicarbonate 0.5
    Multivitamin mix1 0.5
    Trace mineral mix2 0.5
    Bentonite 0.5
Nutritional value, % DM
    DM 89.5
    NDF 17
    ADF 8
    CP 11.0
    DMD3 85
    DOMD4 78
    Inorganic ash 9
    OM 91
Predicted energy
    ME, MJ/kg DM 12.3
1Vitamin A 1,340,000 IU, vitamin D3 160,000 IU and vitamin E 5,000 mg per kg multivitamin mix.
2Cobalt 100 mg, copper 2,400 mg, iodine 100 mg, iron 10,000 mg, manganese 8,000 mg, selenium 20 mg and zinc 8,000 mg per kg trace mineral mix.
3DMD = Dry matter digestibility.
4DOMD = Dry organic matter digestibility.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Ingredients and nutritional value of feedlot rations offered to short-fed and long-fed steers

 
Component
Short-fed steers
Long-fed steers
Feedlot period, d 0–105 106–259
Ingredient, % as fed
    Barley 77.5 70
    Grassy lucerne hay 10 10
    Forage sorghum 0 10
    Cottonseed meal 2.5 0
    Molasses 8 8
    Sodium bicarbonate 0.5 0.5
    Sulfate of ammonia 0.5 0.5
    Lime 1.0 1.0
Nutritional value
    DM, % as fed 87.2 87.1
    NDF, % DM 22.7 26.7
    ADF, % DM 8.8 11.7
    Ash, % DM 7.0 8.0
    CP, % DM 13.7 12.9
Predicted energy
    ME, MJ/kg DM 12.2 11.8



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Descriptive statistics for initial and slaughter BW, commercial carcass characteristics, and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (%) for 5 muscles from commencement of nutritional treatments when weaned to end of long feedlotting for all animals in the data set

 
Variable No. Mean SD Minimum Maximum
Initial BW, kg 165 224 33.7 142 333
Slaughter BW, kg 165 550 189.5 176 912
HCW, kg 165 329 128.6 90 579
Dressing, % 165 58.8 4.5 50.2 71.0
P8 rump fat, mm 165 14.9 10.6 1 47
Rib fat, mm 165 9.6 6.47 1 30
EMA,1 cm2 165 73.2 20.9 30 124
MSA2 marbling score, 100 to 1,200 163 408 178.1 100 1,180
Ossification score, 100 to 590 165 133 22.4 100 190
Ultimate pH 165 5.56 0.07 5.43 5.91
Biceps femoris muscle, IMF % 134 6.15 3.7 1.39 18.2
Supraspinatus muscle, IMF % 135 5.37 2.8 1.89 14.5
Semitendinosus muscle, IMF % 135 4.25 2.5 1.47 19.5
Longissimus lumborum muscle, IMF % 135 6.35 4.8 1.55 26.9
Infraspinatus muscle, IMF % 135 9.00 6.1 1.86 31.7
1EMA = eye muscle area.
2MSA = Meat Standards Australia (Meat Standards Australia, 2009).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Model transformations, residual error, and adjusted R2 for commercial carcass traits and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (%) in 5 muscles

 
Variable Transformation Residual error Adjusted R2
Carcass traits
    HCW, kg log(x) 0.083 0.95
    Dressing, % 1 2.84 0.57
    P8 rump fat, mm x1/2 0.55 0.85
    Rib fat, mm x1/5 0.087 0.84
    EMA,1 cm2 log(x) 0.10 0.85
    MSA marbling score2 log(x) 0.25 0.58
    Ossification score3 1/x 0.00071 0.64
    Ultimate pH 1 0.065 0.11
IMF, %
    Biceps femoris muscle log(x) 0.25 0.78
    Supraspinatus muscle log(x) 0.27 0.72
    Semitendinosus muscle 1/x1/2 0.069 0.65
    Longissimus lumborum muscle 1/x1/2 0.061 0.83
    Infraspinatus muscle 1/x1/2 0.038 0.86
1EMA = eye muscle area.
2MSA = Meat Standards Australia. Score: 100 to 1,200 (Meat Standards Australia, 2009).
3Ossification score: 100 to 590.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Least squares means for back-transformed (inverse of transformation) and transformed data (where required, in parentheses) and average SED for carcass traits at all 5 slaughter stages.1 Transformed data were generated using the transformations shown in Table 4

 
Genotype
Variable and stage No./genotype Angus Hereford Wagyu × Angus AverageSED
HCW, kg
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 114.8 (4.74) 114.0 (4.74) 116.8 (4.76) 0.023
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 186.7 (5.23) 183.9 (5.21) 186.8 (5.23) 0.023
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 266.5 (5.59) 262.4 (5.57) 266.5 (5.59) 0.023
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 382.1 (5.95) 376.3 (5.93) 382.2 (5.95) 0.023
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 459.1 (6.13) 452.2 (6.11) 459.2 (6.13) 0.023
Dressing, %
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 54.4 51.8 53.6 1.08
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 54.4 54.5 55.2 0.57
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 55.9 56.0 56.7 0.57
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 61.6 61.7 62.4 0.57
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 61.8 61.9 62.6 0.57
P8 rump fat, mm
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 1.38 (1.17) 1.16 (1.08) 1.50 (1.23) 0.23
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 2.67 (1.63a) 4.87 (2.21b) 3.22 (1.79) 0.20
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 5.63 (2.38a) 8.68 (2.95b) 6.41 (2.53) 0.20
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 17.15 (4.14a) 22.22 (4.71b) 18.49 (4.30) 0.20
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 22.52 (4.75a) 28.27 (5.32b) 24.05 (4.90) 0.20
Rib fat, mm
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 1.00 (1.00) 1.53 (1.09) 1.16 (1.03) 0.038
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 2.72 (1.22) 2.86 (1.23) 2.9 (1.24) 0.020
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 4.84 (1.37) 5.04 (1.38) 5.12 (1.39) 0.020
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 12.59 (1.66) 13.03 (1.67) 13.18 (1.67) 0.020
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 14.62 (1.71) 15.11 (1.72) 15.28 (1.73) 0.020
a,bWithin a row, means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).
1Stages: 0 d = weaned and start of nutritional treatment; 168 d = end of nutritional treatment; 326 d = end of backgrounding; 431 d = end of short feedlotting; 585 d = end of long feedlotting.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Least squares means for back-transformed data (inverse of transformation) and transformed data (where required, in parentheses) and average SED for carcass traits at all 5 slaughter stages.1 Transformed data were generated using the transformations shown in Table 4

 
Genotype
Variable and stage No./genotype Angus Hereford Wagyu × Angus AverageSED
EMA,2 cm2
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 33.0 (3.50) 37.7 (3.63) 40.8 (3.71) 0.103
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 50.2 (3.92) 48.7 (3.89A) 53.7 (3.98B) 0.032
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 63.8 (4.16) 61.7 (4.12A) 68.1 (4.22B) 0.032
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 82.9 (4.42) 80.2 (4.38A) 88.5 (4.48B) 0.032
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 90.1 (4.50) 87.3 (4.47A) 96.3 (4.57B) 0.032
MSA marbling score3
    Stage 1, 0 d 54 130 (4.87) 119 (4.78) 114 (4.73) 0.180
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 307 (5.73A) 234 (5.45B) 299 (5.70A) 0.061
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 346 (5.84A) 263 (5.57B) 335 (5.82A) 0.061
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 493 (6.20A) 375 (5.93B) 479 (6.17A) 0.061
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 580 (6.36A) 441 (6.09B) 563 (6.33A) 0.061
Ossification score5
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 111 (0.0090) 104 (0.0096) 102 (0.0098) 0.00008
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 109 (0.0092ab) 108 (0.0092a) 114 (0.0088b) 0.00027
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 120 (0.0083ab) 120 (0.0084a) 126 (0.0079b) 0.00027
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 132 (0.0076ab) 132 (0.0076a) 139 (0.0072b) 0.00027
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 148 (0.0067ab) 147 (0.0068a) 157 (0.0064b) 0.00027
Ultimate pH
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 5.5 5.6 5.5 0.028
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 5.6 5.6 5.6 0.013
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 5.5 5.5 5.5 0.013
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 5.5 5.6 5.6 0.013
    Stage 5, 585 d 20 5.6 5.6 5.6 0.013
a,bWithin a row, means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).
A,BWithin a row, means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.01).
1Stages: 0 d = weaned and start of nutritional treatment; 168 d = end of nutritional treatment; 326 d = end of backgrounding; 431 d = end of short feedlotting; 585 d = end of long feedlotting.
2EMA = eye muscle area.
3MSA = Meat Standards Australia. Score: 100 to 1,200 (Meat Standards Australia, 2009).
4MSA marbling score: Angus; stage 1, 0 d; n = 3.
5Ossification score: 100 to 590.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Least squares means for back-transformed data (inverse of transformation) and transformed data (in parentheses) and average SED for intramuscular fat (IMF) content (%) at all 5 slaughter stages.1 Transformed data were generated using the transformations shown in Table 4

 
Genotype
Variable and stage No./genotype Angus Hereford Wagyu × Angus AverageSED
Biceps femoris muscle, IMF %
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 1.90 (0.64) 2.13 (0.75) 2.16 (0.77) 0.145
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 3.06 (1.12) 3.12 (1.14) 3.36 (1.21) 0.115
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 4.97 (1.60a) 3.56 (1.27b,A) 6.80 (1.92c,B) 0.115
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 7.36 (2.00A) 5.04 (1.62B,a) 6.95 (1.94b) 0.116
    Stage 5, 585 d 102 12.6 (2.53) 9.80 (2.28) 11.6 (2.45) 0.117
Supraspinatus muscle, IMF %
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 2.40 (0.88) 2.20 (0.79) 2.57 (0.94) 0.116
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 2.74 (1.01) 2.47 (0.91) 3.30 (1.19) 0.126
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 5.36 (1.68a) 3.81 (1.34b) 5.64 (1.73a) 0.128
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 7.16 (1.97A) 4.28 (1.45B) 7.51 (2.02A) 0.129
    Stage 5, 585 d 10 8.91 (2.19A) 5.79 (1.76B) 9.57 (2.26A) 0.127
Semitendinosus muscle, IMF %
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 1.85 (0.74) 1.97 (0.71) 2.02 (0.70) 0.053
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 2.34 (0.65) 2.32 (0.66) 2.52 (0.63) 0.017
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 3.69 (0.52) 3.64 (0.52) 4.05 (0.50) 0.017
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 3.98 (0.50) 3.93 (0.50) 4.39 (0.48) 0.017
    Stage 5, 585 d 10 6.44 (0.39) 6.34 (0.40) 7.29 (0.37) 0.017
Longissimus lumborum muscle, IMF %
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 1.93 (0.72) 1.9 (0.72) 2 (0.71) 0.027
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 2.75 (0.60A) 2.1 (0.69B) 2.78 (0.60A) 0.017
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 4.68 (0.46A) 3.32 (0.55B) 4.75 (0.46A) 0.017
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 7.57 (0.36A) 4.95 (0.45B) 7.72 (0.36A) 0.017
    Stage 5, 585 d 10 14.7 (0.26A) 8.31 (0.35B) 15.1 (0.26A) 0.017
Infraspinatus muscle, IMF %
    Stage 1, 0 d 5 2.89 (0.59) 3.24 (0.56) 3.03 (0.57) 0.057
    Stage 2, 168 d 10 4.63 (0.46A) 3.38 (0.54B) 4.82 (0.46A) 0.009
    Stage 3, 326 d 10 7.12 (0.37A) 4.85 (0.45B) 7.49 (0.37A) 0.009
    Stage 4, 431 d 10 11.8 (0.29A) 7.27 (0.37B) 12.6 (0.28A) 0.009
    Stage 5, 585 d 10 18.0 (0.24A) 10.1 (0.32B) 19.5 (0.23A) 0.009
a–cWithin a row, means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).
A,BWithin a row, means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.01).
1Stages: 0 d = weaned and start of nutritional treatment; 168 d = end of nutritional treatment; 326 d = end of backgrounding; 431 d = end of short feedlotting; 585 d = end of long feedlotting.
2Biceps femoris muscle: Stage 5, 585 d; Wagyu × Angus; n = 9.