View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Means (±SEM) for doe BW (kg), BCS (units), and milk yield (kg) over time in goats kept under rangeland conditions in northern Mexico

 
Dam BW, kg
Dam BCS,2 units
Milk yield, kg
Treatment1 Initial3 Parturition Initial Parturition 7 d 15 d
GC 54.9 ± 3.2a 44.9 ± 2.3a 2.5 ± 0.1a 1.7 ± 0.2a 1.2 ± 0.2a 1.2 ± 0.1a
G15 54.7 ± 3.6a 46.1 ± 1.5b 2.3 ± 0.2a 1.9 ± 0.2a 1.6 ± 0.2b 1.9 ± 0.2b
G35 55.1 ± 1.6a 48 ± 1.8b 2.3 ± 0.1a 1.9 ± 0.1a 1.6 ± 0.1b 1.8 ± 0.1b
a,bWithin a column, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1GC = nonsupplemented does; G15 = goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum; G35 = same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding.
21 = emaciated and 4 = obese.
330 d prepartum.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Means (±SEM) for different milk components across time in lactating goats kept under rangeland conditions in northern Mexico

 
7 d postpartum
15 d postpartum
Treatment1 Fat, % Protein, % Lactose, % NFMS,2 % Fat, % Protein, % Lactose, % NFMS, %
GC 3.9 ± 0.3a 4.0 ± 0.2a 5 ± 0.1a 9.8 ± 0.1a 3.7 ± 0.4a 3.7 ± 0.4a 4.5 ± 0.1a 8.9 ± 0.4a
G15 4.3 ± 0.3a 4.0 ± 0.2a 4.6 ± 0.1b 9.4 ± 0.2b 4.2 ± 0.3a 3.6 ± 0.1a 4.7 ± 0.1a 8.9 ± 0.1b
G35 4.5 ± 0.4a 3.8 ± 0.1b 4.8 ± 0.0b 9.2 ± 0.1b 3.7 ± 0.4b 3.5 ± 0.1a 4.8 ± 0.0a 8.9 ± 0.1b
a,bWithin a column, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1GC = nonsupplemented does; G15 = goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum; G35 = same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding.
2NFMS = nonfat milk solids.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Means (±SEM) for kids BW at birth and at 1 and 2 wk of age when born to dams kept under rangeland conditions in northern Mexico

 
BW, kg
Treatment1 Parturition 7 d of age 15 d of age
GC 3.4 ± 0.2a 4.6 ± 0.2a 5.6 ± 0.2a
G15 3.6 ± 0.2a 5.2 ± 0.2b 6.6 ± 0.2b
G35 3.8 ± 0.1b 5.3 ± 0.2b 6.9 ± 0.2b
a,bWithin a column, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1GC = nonsupplemented does; G15 = goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum; G35 = same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding.



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Means (±SEM) for vocal activity, time spent with stimulus animals, and approaches of kids (4 h postpartum) and dams (8 h postpartum) during a 5-h period in goats kept under rangeland conditions in northern Mexico

 
Approaches2
Contact between animals, s
High-pitched bleats
Low-pitched bleats
Treatment Own Alien Own Alien Own Alien Own Alien
Dams, 4 h postpartum
    GC 1.0 ± 0.4a 0.9 ± 0.3a 40.7 ± 19.5a 57.3 ± 36.5a 3.8 ± 1.9a 3.0 ± 1.5a 15.8 ± 6.8a 16.4 ± 6.1a
    G15 0.7 ± 0.5a 0.4 ± 0.3a 9.7 ± 4.9c 6.0 ± 3.7c 2.6 ± 2.5a 3.3 ± 3.0a 1.8 ± 1.2b 1.5 ± 1.1b
    G35 1.3 ± 0.5a 0.9 ± 0.2a 25.1 ± 11.5b 11.9 ± 5.9b 8.6 ± 4.0b 4.6 ± 2.3a 6.3 ± 2.8b 4.4 ± 2.0b
Kids, 8 h postpartum
    GC 0.3 ± 0.2a 0.3 ± 0.2a 0.3 ± 0.2a 0.3 ± 0.2a 2.1 ± 1.5a 1.0 ± 0.7a 0.8 ± 0.8a 0.2 ± 0.2a
    G15 0.2 ± 0.2a 0.2 ± 0.2a 6.2 ± 6.9a 0.2 ± 0.2a 1.8 ± 1.9a 0.4 ± 0.4a 0.4 ± 0.4a 0.1 ± 0.1a
    G35 0.8 ± 0.2b 0.9 ± 0.3b 19.6 ± 11.2a 15.7 ± 7.7b 2.9 ± 0.9a 2.1 ± 0.7b 3.4 ± 1.9a 0.3 ± 0.2a
a–cWithin a column, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1GC = nonsupplemented does; G15 = goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum; G35 = same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding.
2Approaches represents the approaches of the test animal to their offspring or dam. Contact between animals represents the time spent by the animals seeking the stimulus animal. High-pitched bleats refers to the loud calls produced with the mouth open. Low-pitched bleats refers to the quiet vocalizations produced with the mouth closed.



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Means (±SEM) for correct/incorrect choices, preference index, and latency of entrance of kids (4 h postpartum) and dams (8 h postpartum) during a 5-h period in goats kept under rangeland conditions and supplemented with concentrate 35 or 15 d prepartum and 1 wk postpartum

 
Latency to make contact
Treatment1 Correct/incorrect choices2 Preference index Own Alien
Dams, 4 h postpartum
    CG 0.9 ± 0.2a 0.0 ± 0.1a 121 ± 26.6a 127 ± 26.4a
    G15 0.4 ± 0.1a 0.2 ± 0.1a 247 ± 15.6b 216 ± 24.0a
    G35 1.2 ± 0.2a 0.3 ± 0.1a 126 ± 19.4a 188 ± 25.4a
Kids, 8 h postpartum
    GC 0.3 ± 0.0a 0.0 ± 0.0a 223 ± 28.5a 257 ± 19.2a
    G15 0.2 ± 0.0a 0.1 ± 0.1a 263 ± 14.6a 282 ± 7.9a
    G35 0.5 ± 0.1a 0.1 ± 0.1a 195 ± 19.5a 140 ± 23.2b
a,bWithin a column, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1GC = nonsupplemented does; G15 = goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum; G35 = same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding.
2Number of correct/incorrect choices (approaches) to their own dam or kid. Preference index for own or alien kid, calculated as (time spent near the mother – time spent near the alien ewe)/(total time spent near either ewes). Latency to make contact refers to the time taken to make contact with either the own or alien animal at the end of the test area.