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Sow diet composition (as-fed basis)1

 
Item Gestation2 Lactation
Ingredient, %
    Corn 80.28 62.99
    Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 15.62 30.21
    Choice white grease 2.50
    Monocalcium phosphate 1.48 1.48
    Calcium carbonate 1.15 1.05
    Sodium chloride 0.50 0.50
    l-Lysine HCl 0.20
    dl-Methionine 0.05
    l-Threonine 0.03 0.08
    Phytase3 0.02 0.02
    Trace mineral premix4 0.15 0.15
    Vitamin premix5 0.75 0.75
    Vitamin D premix6 0.02 0.02
    Total 100.00 100.00
Calculated analysis
    SID AA,7 %
    Lys 0.56 1.07
        Met and Cys:Lys 76 56
        Thr:Lys 80 64
        Trp:Lys 24 20
    NE, Mcal/kg 2.47 2.51
    SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 2.27 4.26
CP, % 14.1 19.9
Ca,% 0.82 0.83
P, % 0.64 0.70
Available P, % 0.47 0.49
STTD P,8 % 0.49 0.53
Ca:P 1.28 1.19
Vitamin A, IU/kg 1,102 1,102
Vitamin E, IU/kg 66.1 66.1
1In Exp. 1, 56 gestating sows were used to determine the serum 25(OH)D3 response from feeding titrated concentrations of vitamin D3. In Exp. 2, 112 sows and litters were used to determine the effects of supplemental vitamin D from varying levels of vitamin D3 or from synthetic 25(OH)D3 on maternal performance, subsequent pig performance, sow and piglet 25(OH)D3, neonatal bone mineralization, and piglet muscle development.
2Gestation diets for Exp. 1 and 2 were similar in composition.
3Ronozyme Hi-Phos, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ. Provided 476 phytase units (FTU/kg) of diet with an expected release of 0.10% phytate P.
4Provided 11,000 mg/kg Cu, 198 mg/kg I, 73,413 mg/kg Fe, 22,046 mg/kg Mn, 198 mg/kg Se, and 74,413 mg/kg Zn per kilogram of premix.
5Provided 3,527,392 IU vitamin A, 26,455 IU vitamin E, 1,764 mg vitamin K, 15 mg vitamin B12, 33,069 mg niacin, 11,023 mg pantothenic acid, 3,307 mg riboflavin, 661 mg folic acid, 882 mg pyridoxine, 220,460 mg choline, 19,842 mg carnitine, and 79 mg chromium per kilogram of premix.
6Vitamin D premix was mixed to contain 4,409,240 IU of vitamin D3/kg of premix by blending vitamin D3 (Rovimix D, DSM Nutritional Products) with rice hulls. Premix replaced a percentage of corn to achieve the desired treatment vitamin D3 concentrations in Exp. 1 and 2. For diets containing 25(OH)D3, the vitamin D premix was not included, and Hy-D (DSM Nutritional Products; 0.0123% 25(OH)D3) was added into the diet, replacing a percentage of corn, at 0.37 kg/t to achieve the desired concentration of 50 μg of 25(OH)D3/kg of diet.
7SID = standardized ileal digestible.
8Standardized total tract digestible



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Analyzed dietary vitamin D3 in the complete diets, Exp. 11

 
Vitamin D3, IU/kg
Item 200 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600
Formulated 200 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600
Analyzed 194 714 1,600 2,440 6,116 13,049 24,540
Percentage of claim 96.7 89.3 100.0 76.3 95.6 101.9 95.9
1Samples were collected and pooled together, then shipped to a DSM Nutritional Products laboratory (Parsippany, NJ) for analysis. Means represent the average analyzed value of 2 samples.



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Effects of increasing dietary vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D3 in gestating sows, Exp. 11

 
Vitamin D3, IU/kg
Probability P, Vitamin D3
Serum 25(OH)D3, ng/mL 200 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600 SEM Linear Quadratic
d 0 46.1 40.3 46.0 43.8 46.3 48.2 43.9 6.47 <0.826 <0.318
d 30 37.2 35.9 46.1 51.9 73.8 91.1 122.4 6.62 <0.001 <0.001
1A total of 56 gestating sows were used in a 30-d trial to determine the serum 25(OH)D3 response from feeding titrated concentrations of vitamin D3. There were 8 sows per treatment, and sows were fed 2.5 kg/d.



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Analyzed sow diet composition, Exp. 21

 
Maternal vitamin D supplementation, IU/kg
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Item 800 2,000 9,600 2,000
Formulated gestation diets
    CP, % 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1
    Ca, % 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82
    P, % 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64
    Vitamin D3, IU/kg 800 2,000 9,600
    25(OH)D3, µg/kg 50
Analyzed gestation diets
    CP, % 15.0 15.2 14.8 14.8
    Ca, % 1.01 0.86 0.87 1.06
    P, % 0.62 0.62 0.64 0.63
    Vitamin D3, IU/kg 730 2,000 9,057
    25(OH)D3, μg/kg 46.4
    Vitamin D, % of formulated 91.2 100.0 94.3 92.7
Formulated lactation diets
    CP, % 19.9 19.9 19.9 19.9
    Ca, % 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.83
    P, % 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
    Vitamin D3, IU/kg 800 2,000 9,600
    25(OH)D3, µg/kg 50
Analyzed lactation diets
    CP, % 19.3 20.1 19.5 19.5
    Ca, % 1.05 1.10 0.94 0.94
    P, % 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.70
    Vitamin D3, IU/kg 906 1,986 9,310
    25(OH)D3, µg/kg 45.4
    Vitamin D, % of formulated 113.1 99.3 97.0 90.7
1Samples were collected and pooled together, then shipped to DSM Nutritional Products laboratory (Parsippany, NJ) for vitamin D analysis and to a commercial laboratory (Ward laboratories, Kearney, NE) for proximate analysis. Means represent the average analyzed value of 2 samples.



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The effects of maternal dietary vitamin D supplementation on sow and preweaned pig performance, Exp. 21

 
Maternal vitamin D, IU/kg
Probability, P
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Vitamin D3
Item 800 2,000 9,600 2,000 SEM Linear Quadratic 800 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 2,000 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 9,600 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3
Sows, n 27 28 25 28
Parity 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 0.30 <0.807 <0.822 <0.914 <0.963 <0.775
Lactation ADFI, kg 5.36 5.88 5.27 5.65 0.199 <0.137 <0.011 <0.184 <0.294 <0.088
Sow BW, kg
    Gestation
        d 0 193.2 190.8 190.4 192.0 9.55 <0.835 <0.835 <0.905 <0.908 <0.876
        d 110 234.7 226.1 233.7 233.9 7.85 <0.721 <0.232 <0.923 <0.293 <0.980
    BW gain, kg 41.4 35.4 43.9 42.0 3.74 <0.330 <0.190 <0.901 <0.191 <0.771
        Lactation
        d 0 229.3 222.3 226.6 231.2 7.31 <0.909 <0.348 <0.800 <0.231 <0.547
        d 21 221.2 221.8 220.5 227.0 6.94 <0.889 <0.926 <0.452 <0.494 <0.406
    BW loss, kg −8.1 −0.6 −6.1 −4.2 2.44 <0.677 <0.003 <0.129 <0.153 <0.464
Sow back fat, mm
    Farrowing 14.3 13.5 14.9 14.1 0.72 <0.245 <0.305 <0.796 <0.539 <0.343
    Weaning 12.7 12.5 13.3 12.6 0.63 <0.303 <0.661 <0.868 <0.892 <0.339
    Lactation back fat loss −1.6 −1.1 −1.6 −1.5 0.58 <0.734 <0.395 <0.876 <0.516 <0.883
Litter characteristics
    Total born, n 13.93 12.96 12.96 13.57 0.718 <0.584 <0.573 <0.783 <0.645 <0.652
    Born alive, % 91.0 94.5 93.2 93.4 1.48 <0.763 <0.329 <0.428 <0.651 <0.929
    Stillborn, % 7.7 4.1 6.2 6.1 1.38 <0.956 <0.294 <0.534 <0.447 <0.958
    Mummies, % 1.3 1.4 0.6 0.5 0.61 <0.497 <0.854 <0.466 <0.454 <0.899
    Total after foster, n 12.00 11.29 11.53 11.76 0.706 <0.824 <0.457 <0.797 <0.606 <0.810
    Number weaned 10.70 10.21 10.20 10.54 0.639 <0.761 <0.698 <0.880 <0.773 <0.770
    Survivability, % 89.5 90.8 88.8 88.9 2.27 <0.573 <0.524 <0.809 <0.426 <0.972
Piglet BW, kg
    Birth 1.43 1.41 1.44 1.42 0.052 <0.816 <0.842 <0.989 <0.989 <0.770
    Weaning 6.48 6.76 6.55 6.40 0.237 <0.882 <0.349 <0.231 <0.231 <0.622
1A total of 112 sows and litters were used to determine the effects of supplemental vitamin D from varying levels of vitamin D3 or from synthetic 25(OH)D3 on maternal performance, subsequent pig performance, sow and piglet serum vitamin metabolites, neonatal bone mineralization, and piglet muscle development. Three sows (1 from the 800 IU/kg treatment and 2 from the 9,600 IU/kg treatment) were removed because of farrowing complications. One sow from the treatment fed 9,600 IU/kg was removed from the data set due to a late-term abortion.



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The effects of maternal dietary vitamin D supplementation on sow serum metabolites, Exp. 21

 
Maternal vitamin D, IU/kg
Probability P
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Vitamin D3
Sow serum vitamin metabolites 800 2,000 9,600 2,000 SEM2 Linear Quadratic 800 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 2,000 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 9,600 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3
25(OH)D3,3 ng/mL
    d 0 of gestation 44.6 43.9 41.1 45.9 3.54 <0.405 <0.957 <0.768 <0.650 <0.278
    d 100 of gestation 27.6 29.2 82.5 59.5 <0.001 <0.157 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
    Farrowing 25.1 26.1 68.2 55.4 <0.001 <0.241 <0.001 <0.001 <0.004
    Weaning 34.6 50.9 110.6 94.6 <0.001 <0.153 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Vitamin D3,4 ng/mL
    d 0 of gestation
        Detectable samples, % 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.74 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999
        Serum D3, ng/mL 7.6 7.5 7.1 7.6 0.926 <0.677 <0.965 <0.954 <0.877 <0.646
    d 100 of gestation
        Detectable samples, % 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999
        Serum D3, ng/mL 3.5 5.2 26.6 1.9 0.926 0.001 0.217 <0.188 <0.006 <0.001
    Farrowing
        Detectable samples, % 100.0 100.0 100.0 91.7 <0.999 <0.999 <0.216 <0.216 <0.216
        Serum D3, ng/mL 3.0 4.7 19.5 1.8 0.961 <0.001 <0.645 <0.357 <0.020 <0.001
    Weaning
        Detectable samples, % 91.7 100.0 100.0 58.3 <0.387 <0.255 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
        Serum D3, ng/mL 4.5 10.9 33.7 1.8 1.17 <0.001 <0.035 <0.063 <0.001 0.001
α-tocopherol,5 mg/L
    d 0 of gestation 2,187 2,063 1,979 2,099 131.1 <0.275 <0.545 <0.601 <0.830 <0.473
    d 100 of gestation 2,096 1,668 2,112 1,803 <0.211 <0.007 <0.081 <0.420 <0.066
    Farrowing 1,247 1,054 1,219 1,329 <0.748 <0.231 <0.622 <0.102 <0.508
    Weaning 2,338 2,611 2,295 2,358 <0.305 <0.077 <0.905 <0.132 <0.705
Retinol,6 ng/mL
    d 0 of gestation 285 294 254 279 17.6 <0.113 <0.569 <0.833 <0.565 <0.301
    d 100 of gestation 231 210 237 225 <0.492 <0.353 <0.807 <0.554 <0.604
    Farrowing 128 165 149 192 <0.593 <0.713 <0.177 <0.291 <0.089
    Weaning 299 393 337 325 <0.957 <0.001 <0.299 <0.006 <0.625
1In total 112 sows and litters were used to determine the effects of supplemental vitamin D from varying levels of vitamin D3 or from synthetic 25(OH)D3 on maternal performance, subsequent pig performance, sow and piglet serum vitamin metabolites, neonatal bone mineralization, and piglet muscle development. Means represent the average serum metabolite from 12 randomly selected sows within treatment and day combinations.
2Standard error of the mean representing the within–sampling day variation. Because the same number of treatments was analyzed for each day, the variance estimates were the same.
3A treatment × day interaction (P = 0.001) was observed for serum 25(OH)D3.
4The assay for serum vitamin D3 had a lower detectable limit of 1.00 ng/mL. Samples below the detectable limit (n = 144 out of 192) were not used in the statistical analysis. Detectable samples represent the percentage of samples above the detectable limit, and the mean serum vitamin D3 was calculated using only samples above the detectable limit.
5A tendency (P = 0.052) for a treatment × day interaction was observed for serum α-tocopherol.
6A treatment × day interaction (P = 0.035) was observed for serum retinol.



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The effect of maternal dietary vitamin D supplementation on preweaned pig serum vitamin metabolites and neonatal bone ash, Exp. 21,2

 
Maternal vitamin D, IU/kg
Probability P
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Vitamin D3
Item 800 2,000 9,600 2,000 SEM2 Linear Quadratic 800 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 2,000 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 9,600 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3
Preweaned pig serum vitamin metabolites
    25(OH)D3,3 ng/mL
        Birth 2.0 2.2 5.5 3.5 0.43 <0.001 <0.548 <0.004 <0.011 <0.001
        Weaning 4.3 7.0 16.3 6.1 0.43 <0.001 <0.033 <0.001 <0.101 <0.001
    Vitamin D34
        Birth
            Detectable samples, % 0.0 0.0 54.2 0.0 5.61 <0.001 <0.299 <0.999 <0.999 <0.001
            Serum vitamin D3, ng/mL 1.7 0.45
        Weaning
            Detectable samples, % 0.0 41.7 100 4.2 5.61 <0.001 <0.001 <0.582 <0.001 <0.001
            Serum vitamin D3, ng/mL 1.4 5.7 2.1 1.24
    α-tocopherol, mg/L
        Birth 2,718 2,494 2,190 2,662 395.9 <0.319 <0.757 <0.912 <0.741 <0.342
        Weaning 5,331 4,584 5,379 4,844 380.2 <0.439 <0.107 <0.326 <0.601 <0.286
    Retinol,5 ng/mL
        Birth 108 80 93 106 9.6 <0.714 <0.031 <0.909 <0.038 <0.288
        Weaning 254 266 268 255 9.6 <0.395 <0.384 <0.924 <0.381 <0.305
Bone ash content, %
    Second rib 53.7 55.7 54.0 54.0 3.11 <0.753 <0.265 <0.863 <0.358 <0.973
    Femur 46.1 45.6 45.5 46.4 0.53 <0.519 <0.566 <0.681 <0.285 <0.246
1In total 112 sows and litters were used to determine the effects of supplemental vitamin D from varying levels of vitamin D3 or from synthetic 25(OH)D3 on maternal performance, subsequent pig performance, sow and piglet serum vitamin metabolites, neonatal bone mineralization, and piglet muscle development. Means represent the average serum metabolite from 48 randomly selected litters (2 pigs per litter were bled for serum analysis) within treatments, and the same litters within each day were analyzed. One pig per litter (n = 104) was euthanized for bone ash percentage determination.
2Standard error of the mean representing the within–sampling day variation. Because the same number of treatments was analyzed for each day, the variance estimates were the same.
3A treatment × day interaction (P = 0.001) was observed for serum 25(OH)D3.
4The assay for serum vitamin D3 had a lower detectable limit of 1.00 ng/mL. Samples below the detectable limit (n = 144 out of 192) were not used in the statistical analysis. Detectable sample represents the percentage of samples above the detectable limit, and the mean serum vitamin D3 was calculated using only samples above the detectable limit.
5A tendency (P = 0.065) for a treatment × day interaction was observed for serum retinol.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

The effect of maternal dietary vitamin D supplementation on neonatal muscle immunohistochemistry, Exp. 21

 
Maternal vitamin D, IU/kg
Probability P
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Vitamin D3
Item 800 2,000 9,600 2,000 SEM Linear Quadratic 800 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 2,000 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 9,600 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3
Litters sampled, n 25 27 25 27
Longissimus thoracis
    Whole muscle area,2 mm2 117.3 113.7 113.5 111 13.98 <0.795 <0.749 <0.543 <0.792 <0.810
    Average fiber CSA,3 μm2 101.1 106.4 96.8 109.8 9.56 <0.291 <0.362 <0.200 <0.609 <0.057
    Average primary fiber CSA,4 μm2 191.5 209.7 197.7 213.4 11.47 <0.946 <0.254 <0.173 <0.813 <0.325
    Average secondary fiber CSA,5 μm2 95.8 99.8 91.0 102.9 9.52 <0.272 <0.450 <0.276 <0.632 <0.070
    Total fiber number6 (1 × 106) 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1 0.18 <0.540 <0.296 <0.235 <0.823 <0.177
    Total primary fibers7 (1 × 104) 6.8 6.9 6.5 8.5 1.06 <0.776 <0.924 <0.234 <0.254 <0.158
    Total secondary fibers8 (1 × 106) 1.8 1.1 1.2 1.0 0.17 <0.502 <0.270 <0.169 <0.716 <0.117
    Secondary:primary9 18.0 16.5 18.8 15.7 1.63 <0.289 <0.238 <0.112 <0.577 <0.035
Semitendinosus
    Whole muscle area,2 mm2 60.0 64.3 61.6 62.0 7.30 <0.985 <0.460 <0.730 <0.695 <0.939
    Average fiber CSA,3 μm2 135.4 139.7 128.8 140.4 10.89 <0.409 <0.633 <0.671 <0.954 <0.303
    Average primary fiber CSA,4 μm2 185.4 198.7 171.8 202.9 12.47 <0.142 <0.279 <0.243 <0.767 <0.031
    Average secondary fiber CSA,5 μm2 131.7 135.8 125.7 136.2 10.59 <0.449 <0.656 <0.700 <0.968 <0.349
    Total fiber number6 (1 × 105) 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.7 0.54 <0.771 <0.799 <0.949 <0.875 <0.810
    Total primary fibers7 (1 × 104) 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.6 0.54 <0.822 <0.923 <0.905 <0.957 <0.766
    Total secondary fibers8 (1 × 105) 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.4 0.51 <0.739 <0.775 <0.932 <0.871 <0.773
    Secondary:primary9 15.5 19.7 16.9 18.1 3.83 <0.943 <0.312 <0.544 <0.688 <0.769
1In total 112 sows and their subsequent litters were used to evaluate the effects of maternal vitamin D supplementation on fetal muscle development. For all litters larger than 6 pigs, 1 pig per litter (the male piglet closest to the mean BW within 24 h of birth) was euthanized for muscle fiber identification.
2Cross-sectional area of the whole muscle.
3Average cross-sectional area of all muscle fibers.
4Average cross-sectional area of a representative sample of primary muscle fibers.
5Average cross-sectional area of a representative sample of secondary muscle fibers.
6Total muscle fiber number is calculated as the whole muscle area divided by the average muscle fiber cross-sectional area of all muscle fibers.
7Total primary muscle fiber number was calculated as the percentage of primary fibers × total fiber number.
8Total secondary muscle fiber number was calculated as the percentage of secondary fibers × total fiber number.
9The average number of secondary muscle fibers per primary muscle fiber.