View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Nursery and finishing diet composition (as-fed basis)1

 
Nursery diets2
Finishing diets3
Item Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6
Ingredient, %
    Corn 35.68 46.01 56.39 71.50 78.44 82.86
    Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 22.09 20.37 24.27 25.71 19.20 14.93
    Corn DDGS4 5.00 15.00 15.00
    Fish meal 5.00 5.00
    Spray-dried whey 25.00 10.00
    Choice white grease 3.00
    Monocalcium phosphate, 21.5% P 0.15 0.23 0.88 0.55 0.33 0.30
    Calcium carbonate 1.05 1.13 1.35 1.13 1.10 1.08
    Sodium chloride 0.30 0.30 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
    l-Lys HCl 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.31 0.25 0.22
    dl-Met 0.20 0.14 0.13 0.06 0.02
    l-Thr 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.09 0.05 0.05
    l-Trp 0.04 0.05 0.04
    l-Val 0.09 0.03 0.03
    Choline chloride, 60% 0.04
    Zinc oxide 0.39 0.25
    Medication5 1.00 0.50 0.50
    Phytase6 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
    Trace mineral premix7 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.10
    Vitamin premix8 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.15 0.13 0.10
    Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated analysis
    SID AA,9 %
        Lys 1.40 1.34 1.22 1.05 0.85 0.72
        Met and Cys:Lys 57 57 57 55 56 59
        Thr:Lys 63 63 63 61 61 64
        Trp:Lys 19 19 19 18 18 18
        Val:Lys 68 68 68 69 73 76
    NE, Mcal/kg 2.58 2.43 2.40 2.47 2.51 2.54
    SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 5.43 5.51 5.08 4.25 3.39 2.83
    CP,% 21.6 22.6 21.0 18.5 15.9 14.2
    Ca,% 0.86 0.81 0.74 0.62 0.55 0.52
    P, % 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.49 0.41 0.39
    Available P, % 0.51 0.47 0.42 0.29 0.23 0.22
    STTD P, % 0.43 0.41 0.36 0.34 0.28 0.27
    Ca:P 1.36 1.30 1.23 1.28 1.34 1.35
1A total of 448 pigs from 52 litters in 2 farrowing groups were used in a 35-d nursery trial. There were a total of 7 pigs per pen and 4 pens per treatment in the first weaning group, and there were 4 pigs per pen and either 8 or 9 pens per treatment in the second weaning group.
2Phase 1 diets were fed from d 0 (weaning) until d 10, phase 2 diets were fed from d 10 to 21, and phase 3 diets were fed from d 21 to 35. Experimental treatments were made by adding either a vitamin D3 premix (4,409,240 IU/kg of premix) in the diet replacing corn or 0.33 kg/t of 25(OH)D3 (Hy-D; DSM Nutritional Products North America, Parsippany, NJ) replacing corn.
3Common finishing diets were fed from approximately 23 to 55 kg, 55 to 93 kg, and 93 kg until market for phases 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Common finishing diets were formulated to contain 827, 690, and 551 IU of vitamin D3 per kg of complete diet for phases 4, 5, and 6, respectively.
4Dried distillers grains with solubles.
5Mecadox 2.5 (Phibro Animal Health, Ridgefiled Park, NJ). Provided 44 mg/kg of carbadox in phase 1 nursery diets and 22 mg/kg of carbadox in phase 2 and 3 diets.
6Ronozyme Hi-Phos (DSM Nutritional Products North America). Provided 476 phytase units (FTU/kg) of diet with an expected release of 0.10% phytate P.
7Provided 11,000 mg/kg Cu, 198 mg/kg I, 73,413 mg/kg Fe, 22,046 mg/kg Mn, 198 mg/kg Se, and 74,413 mg/kg Zn per kilogram of premix.
8Provided 3,527,392 IU vitamin A, 17,637 IU vitamin E, 1,764 mg vitamin K, 15 mg vitamin B12, 33,069 mg niacin, 11,023 mg pantothenic acid, and 3,307 mg riboflavin per kilogram of premix.
9SID = standardized ileal digestible.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Analyzed nursery diet composition (as-fed basis)1

 
Nursery diets
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Item D3 25(OH)D3 D3 25(OH)D3 D3 25(OH)D3
Formulated
    CP, % 21.6 21.6 22.6 22.6 21 21
    Ca, % 0.86 0.86 0.81 0.81 0.74 0.74
    P, % 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.60 0.60
    Vitamin D3, IU/kg 2,000 2,000 2,000
    25(OH)D3, IU/kg 2,000 2,000 2,000
Analyzed2
    CP, % 21.8 22.4 24.2 23.2 23.1 22.4
    Ca, % 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.02 0.80 0.9
    P, % 0.65 0.64 0.71 0.70 0.61 0.61
    Vitamin D3, IU/kg 2,240 1,700 2,110
    25(OH)D3, IU/kg 1,580 1,500 1,540
    Percentage of formulated 112 79 85 75 106 77
1Means represent the average of 2 pooled samples.
2Crude protein, Ca, and P were determined at Ward laboratories (Kearney, NE). Vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 analysis was performed by DSM Nutrition Products (Parsippany, NJ).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Main effects of maternal vitamin D regimen on the performance of growing pigs1

 
Maternal vitamin D, IU/kg
Probability P
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Vitamin D3
Item 800 2,000 9,600 2,000 SEM Linear Quadratic 800 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 2,000 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 9,600 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3
Nursery growth (d 0 to 35)2
    ADG, kg 0.42 0.44 0.43 0.45 0.02 <0.729 <0.003 <0.002 <0.917 <0.105
    ADFI, kg 0.65 0.70 0.67 0.69 0.02 <0.853 <0.002 <0.066 <0.929 <0.437
    G:F 0.638 0.632 0.639 0.647 0.006 <0.708 <0.407 <0.709 <0.236 <0.709
Finishing growth (d 35 to market)3
    ADG, kg 0.93 0.96 0.94 0.96 0.01 <0.602 <0.005 <0.004 <0.916 <0.220
    ADFI, kg 2.56 2.59 2.57 2.63 0.02 <0.981 <0.492 <0.216 <0.558 <0.327
    G:F 0.368 0.377 0.374 0.373 0.006 <0.610 <0.049 <0.701 <0.740 <0.997
Average BW, kg
    d 0 6.5 6.8 6.6 6.6 0.1 <0.566 <0.001 <0.088 <0.371 <0.985
    d 35 21.1 22.3 21.8 22.3 0.5 <0.555 <0.001 <0.001 <0.997 <0.141
    Market 132.6 136.5 134.9 137.5 3.0 <0.480 <0.006 <0.003 <0.866 <0.240
1A total of 448 pigs from 52 litters in 2 farrowing groups were used in a 35-d nursery trial. The treatment structure was a split-plot design with maternal treatment as the whole-plot unit and nursery treatment as the split-plot unit.
2For nursery performance pen was the experimental unit. Random effect of group was used in the statistical model. There were 7 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment in group 1, and there were 4 pigs per pen and either 16 or 17 pens per treatment in group 2.
3For finishing performance pen was the experimental unit. Random effect of group was used in the statistical model. There were a total of 5 to 8 pigs per pen and 19 finishing pens per treatment.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Main effects of nursery dietary vitamin D regimen on the performance of growing pigs1

 
Nursery source2
Item Vitamin D3 25(OH)D3 SEM Probability P, nurseryProbability P, nursery
Nursery growth (d 0 to 35)3
    ADG, kg 0.44 0.43 0.02 <0.482
    ADFI, kg 0.68 0.67 0.02 <0.137
    G:F 0.635 0.643 0.004 <0.224
Finishing growth (d 35 to market)4
    ADG, kg 0.95 0.95 0.01 <0.577
    ADFI, kg 2.57 2.61 0.02 <0.126
    G:F 0.374 0.369 0.006 <0.453
Average BW, kg
    d 0 6.6 6.6 0.1 <0.922
    d 35 21.9 21.8 0.5 <0.537
    Market 135.3 135.4 2.9 <0.911
1A total of 448 pigs from 52 litters in 2 farrowing groups were used in a 35-d nursery trial. The treatment structure was a split-plot design with maternal treatment as the whole-plot unit and nursery treatment as the split-plot unit.
2Subsequent nursery treatments consisted of supplementing vitamin D in phase 1, 2, and 3 diets from either vitamin D3 (2,000 IU/kg) or 25(OH)D3 (50 µg/kg).
3For nursery performance pen was the experimental unit. Random effect of group was used in the statistical model. There were a total of 7 pigs per pen and 16 pens per treatment in group 1, and there were 4 pigs per pen and 33 pens per treatment in group 2.
4For finishing performance pen was the experimental unit. Random effect of group was used in the statistical model. There were a total of 5 to 8 pigs per pen and 38 finishing pens per treatment.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Main effects of maternal dietary vitamin D regimen on growing pig serum metabolites1

 
Maternal vitamin D, IU/kg
Probability P
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Vitamin D3
Growing pig serum vitamin metabolites 800 2,000 9,600 2,000 SEM Linear Quadratic 800 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 2,000 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 9,600 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3
25(OH)D3,2 ng/mL
    Weaning 5.4 7.1 16.6 5.5 1.2 <0.001 <0.871 <0.925 <0.300 <0.001
    d 17 22.7 25.9 25.0 23.6 1.2 <0.466 <0.063 <0.581 <0.163 <0.398
    d 35 26.4 30.8 26.8 25.5 1.3 <0.366 <0.006 <0.556 <0.002 <0.452
    d 70 18.3 15.7 16.1 16.5 1.5 <0.497 <0.257 <0.403 <0.686 <0.816
Vitamin D33
    Weaning
        Detectable samples, % 6.3 32.4 83.3 0.0 5.2 <0.001 <0.023 <0.395 <0.001 <0.001
        Mean, ng/mL 7.3 1.2 5.6 0.2 <0.369 <0.001
    d 17
        Detectable samples, % 43.8 43.8 50.0 50.0 5.7 <0.367 <0.907 <0.420 <0.420 <0.999
        Mean, ng/mL 3.3 3.8 2.7 3.0 0.4 <0.082 <0.266 <0.505 <0.114 <0.614
    d 35
        Detectable samples, % 43.8 50.0 50.0 50.0 5.9 <0.593 <0.459 <0.420 <0.999 <0.999
        Mean, ng/mL 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.8 0.4 <0.888 <0.920 <0.590 <0.521 <0.641
    d 70
        Detectable samples, % 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 7.1 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999 <0.999
        Mean, ng/mL 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.6 0.3 <0.855 <0.784 <0.191 <0.312 <0.277
α-tocopherol,4 mg/L
    Weaning 5,304 4,769 4,591 4,331 198 <0.037 <0.086 <0.001 <0.101 <0.340
    d 17 982 829 804 924 207 <0.641 <0.629 <0.837 <0.738 <0.679
    d 35 1,521 1,401 1,242 1,291 216 <0.374 <0.758 <0.417 <0.698 <0.869
    d 70 1,799 1,566 1,784 1,631 259 <0.796 <0.498 <0.632 <0.856 <0.646
Retinol,5 ng/mL
    Weaning 254 301 286 283 20 <0.464 <0.037 <0.176 <0.427 <0.907
    d 17 366 419 397 413 21 <0.599 <0.023 <0.038 <0.795 <0.491
    d 35 389 435 431 421 22 <0.242 <0.063 <0.158 <0.553 <0.667
    d 70 379 393 373 360 25 <0.635 <0.585 <0.507 <0.250 <0.631
1A total of 448 pigs from 52 litters in 2 farrowing groups were used in a 35-d nursery trial and followed through finishing. The treatment structure was a split-plot design with maternal treatment as the whole-plot unit and nursery treatment as the split-plot unit.
2A maternal × day (P < 0.001) interaction was observed for growing pig serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations.
3The assay for serum vitamin D3 had a lower detectable limit of 1.00 ng/mL. Samples below the detectable limit (n = 130 out of 256) were not used in the statistical analysis. Detectable sample represents the percentage of samples above the detectable limit, and the mean serum vitamin D3 was calculated using only samples above the detectable limit.
4A day effect (P < 0.001) was observed for growing pig serum α-tocopherol concentrations.
5A day effect (P < 0.001) was observed for growing pig serum retinol concentrations.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Main effects of nursery dietary vitamin D regimen on growing pig serum vitamin metabolites1

 
Nursery source2
Growing pig serum vitamin metabolites Vitamin D3 25(OH)D3 SEM Probability P, nursery
25(OH)D3,3 ng/mL
    Weaning 9.3 8.0 0.8 <0.229
    d 17 11.3 37.3 0.9 <0.001
    d 35 16.1 38.7 0.9 <0.001
    d 70 16.8 16.6 1.1 <0.889
Vitamin D3,4 ng/mL
    Weaning
        Detectable samples, % 33.3 27.0 4.7 <0.335
        Mean, ng/mL 4.9 4.0 0.4 <0.099
    d 17
        Detectable samples, % 93.8 0.0 5.0 <0.001
        Mean, ng/mL 3.2 0.3
    d 35
        Detectable samples, % 96.9 0.0 5.1 <0.001
        Mean, ng/mL 3.6 0.3
    d 70
        Detectable samples, % 100.0 100.0 6.0 <0.999
        Mean, ng/mL 3.0 3.1 0.3 <0.823
α-Tocopherol,5 mg/L
    Weaning 4,512 4,984 138 <0.015
    d 17 902 868 145 <0.868
    d 35 1,404 1,324 148 <0.695
    d 70 1,680 1,710 178 <0.901
Retinol,6 ng/mL
    Weaning 284 278 17 <0.663
    d 17 408 390 17 <0.260
    d 35 423 415 17 <0.660
    d 70 373 379 20 <0.800
1A total of 448 pigs from 52 litters in 2 farrowing groups were used in a 35-d nursery trial and followed through finishing. The treatment structure was a split-plot design with maternal treatment as the whole-plot unit and nursery treatment as the split-plot unit.
2Subsequent nursery treatments consisted of supplementing vitamin D in phase 1, 2, and 3 diets from either vitamin D3 (2,000 IU/kg) or 25(OH)D3 (50 µg/kg).
3A nursery × day (P < 0.001) interaction was observed for growing pig serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations.
4The assay for serum vitamin D3 had a lower detectable limit of 1.00 ng/mL. Samples below the detectable limit (n = 130 out of 256) were not used in the statistical analysis. Positive sample represents the percentage of samples above the detectable limit, and the mean serum vitamin D3 was calculated using only samples above the detectable limit.
5A day effect (P < 0.001) was observed for growing pig serum α-tocopherol concentrations.
6A day effect (P < 0.001) was observed for growing pig serum retinol concentrations.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

The effect of maternal dietary vitamin D regimen on subsequent pig carcass characteristics1

 
Maternal vitamin D,2 IU/kg
Probability P
Vitamin D3
50 µg 25(OH)D3
Vitamin D3
Item 800 2,000 9,600 2,000 SEM Linear Quadratic 800 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 2,000 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3 9,600 IU D3 vs. 50 µg 25(OH)D3
Live BW, kg 134.8 135.5 133.8 137.1 3.2 <0.264 <0.534 <0.266 <0.574 <0.047
HCW,3 kg 99.8 100.7 98.9 101.6 3.4 <0.155 <0.288 <0.276 <0.830 <0.037
Yield, % 73.9 74.3 73.8 74.0 0.8 <0.077 <0.002 <0.521 <0.339 <0.298
Loin depth, mm3 60.2 60.6 58.9 59.4 4.1 <0.037 <0.470 <0.743 <0.457 <0.905
Back fat, mm3 20.8 19.7 20.3 20.0 0.9 <0.923 <0.031 <0.407 <0.898 <0.941
1Means represent data collected from 642 finishing pigs within 3 consecutive finishing groups. Group and finishing treatment within group were used as random effects.
2Maternal vitamin D3 concentrations of 800, 2,000, and 9,600 IU vitamin D3 per kilogram of complete diet were fed for low, medium, and treatments, respectively, and 50 μg of 25(OH)D3/kg of complete diet was fed for the maternal 25(OH)D3 treatment.
3Hot carcass weight was used as a covariate in the statistical model.