View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) and analyzed nutrient content (DM basis) of Phase 1 and Phase 2 diets

 
Phase 1 diets1
Phase 2 diets
Lactobacillus reuteri R2
L. reuteri L3
L. reuteri R
L. reuteri L
Ingredient, % CTRL ACD REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV– CTRL ACD REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV–
Wheat, ground 20 20 50 50
Wheat, ground, fermented 20 20 20 20 50 50 50 50
Corn, ground 31.54 31.54 31.54 31.54 31.54 31.54 1.76 1.76 1.76 1.76 1.76 1.76
Soybean meal 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
Lactose 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 10 10
Canola meal 5 5 5 5 5 5
Wheat DDGS4 5 5 5 5 5 5
Soy protein concentrate 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Herring fish meal 6 6 6 6 6 6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Canola oil 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
Limestone 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Mono-/dicalcium phosphate 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Vitamin premix5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Mineral premix6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Salt 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
TiO27 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
l-Lys HCl 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
l-Thr 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
dl-Met 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11
l-Trp 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Choline chloride 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Analyzed nuterients8
    GE, Mcal/kg 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
    CP, % 21.6 21.3 21.5 21.7 21.2 21.8 24.4 24.0 25.1 24.9 25.0 25.2
    Crude fat, % 5.79 5.95 5.80 5.92 5.97 6.26 5.84 5.69 5.18 5.30 5.16 4.98
    NDF, % 7.74 8.16 7.93 8.04 7.71 8.14 10.8 9.54 12.6 10.5 10.5 11.8
    ADF, % 3.61 3.08 3.43 3.23 3.55 3.56 4.95 5.04 4.70 5.04 5.21 5.22
    Crude fiber, % 2.17 2.02 2.11 2.20 2.23 2.32 2.89 2.91 3.15 3.12 3.10 3.31
    Ash, % 7.17 7.23 7.20 7.17 7.35 7.15 6.56 6.67 6.68 6.87 6.65 6.59
1CTRL = unfermented wheat; ACD = unfermented and chemically acidified wheat; REU+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 10% sucrose; REU– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose; LEV+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 10% sucrose; LEV– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.
2Lactobacillus reuteri R = L. reuteri strain TMW1.656, which produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) reuteran in the presence of sucrose.
3Lactobacillus reuteri L = L. reuteri strain LTH5794, which produces the EPS levan in the presence of sucrose.
4DDGS = distiller’s dried grains with solubles.
5Supplied, per kilogram of diet, 7,500 IU vitamin A, 750 IU vitamin D, 50 IU vitamin E, 37.5 mg niacin, 15 mg pantothenic acid, 2.5 mg folacin, 5 mg riboflavin, 1.5 mg pyridoxine, 2.5 mg thiamine, 2,000 mg choline, 4 mg vitamin K, 0.25 mg biotin, and 0.02 mg vitamin B12.
6Supplied, per kilogram of diet, 125 mg Zn, 50 mg Cu, 75 mg Fe, 25 mg Mn, 0.5 mg I, and 0.3 mg Se.
7Sigma-Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO; indigestible marker.
8Phase 1 and 2 diets were formulated to provide (as-fed basis) 2.5 and 2.4 Mcal NE/kg and 5.3 and 5.0 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal NE, respectively. Phase 1 and Phase 2 diets were fed from d 0 to 7 and d 8 to 21, respectively.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Analyzed nutrient content (%) of the ground wheat grain (DM basis)

 
Lactobacillus reuteri R3
L. reuteri L4
Variable CTRL1 ACD2 REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV–
Starch 58.1 59.4 63.5 59.4 56.7 58.1
CP 17.0 15.7 14.3 14.3 14.4 13.9
Crude fat 1.30 1.88 1.31 1.73 1.32 1.21
NDF 11.7 8.11 7.79 8.05 7.75 7.53
ADF 4.48 3.06 2.55 2.66 2.72 2.50
Crude fiber 2.66 2.15 1.85 1.87 1.90 1.90
Ash 2.34 2.51 2.22 2.53 2.47 2.55
P 0.42 0.44 0.41 0.42 0.40 0.41
Ca 0.10 0.40 0.36 0.44 0.43 0.45
Ornithine 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.10
Indispensable AA
    Arg 0.76 0.74 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.54
    His 0.39 0.37 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34
    Ile 0.61 0.56 0.54 0.55 0.54 0.52
    Leu 1.20 1.09 1.03 1.01 1.01 0.99
    Lys 0.48 0.44 0.48 0.46 0.46 0.46
    Met 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26
    Phe 0.83 0.79 0.72 0.73 0.71 0.71
    Thr 0.47 0.43 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40
    Trp 0.17 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14
    Val 0.73 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63
Total AA 16.6 15.4 14.4 14.5 14.2 14.2
Available Lys 0.47 0.43 0.46 0.46 0.44 0.44
1CTRL = unfermented wheat.
2ACD = unfermented and chemically acidified wheat.
3Lactobacillus reuteri R = L. reuteri strain TMW1.656, which produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) reuteran in the presence of sucrose. REU+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 10% sucrose; REU– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.
4Lactobacillus reuteri L = L. reuteri strain LTH5794, which produces the EPS levan in the presence of sucrose. LEV+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 10% sucrose; LEV– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, DE value, and calculated NE value (DM basis) of diets fed to weaned pigs1

 
Diet treatments
P-value4
Lactobacillus reuteri R2
L. reuteri L3
Variable CTRL ACD REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV– SEM Acid Ferm. Exopol Ferm.with EPS Ferm.without EPS
ATTD of DM, %
    d 0–7 84.0 82.8 83.4 82.0 81.1 82.1 2.24 0.589 0.381 0.879 0.473 0.428
    d 8–14 83.4 83.1 82.9 83.7 84.4 84.8 0.93 0.757 0.283 0.346 0.614 0.171
    d 15–21 85.7 85.1 85.3 84.1 84.7 84.6 0.54 0.282 0.033 0.110 0.277 0.009
ATTD of CP, %
    d 0–7 75.6 75.1 76.9 72.0 72.2 74.2 3.58 0.894 0.494 0.586 0.740 0.412
    d 8–14 81.4 79.8 79.3 79.9 80.2 82.8 1.76 0.407 0.964 0.186 0.494 0.556
    d 15–21 83.7 83.4 82.8 80.7 81.7 82.0 0.97 0.743 0.005 0.192 0.063 0.003
ATTD of GE, %
    d 0–7 81.3 79.0 80.3 78.8 77.7 78.5 2.96 0.435 0.473 0.862 0.574 0.501
    d 8–14 82.6 81.7 81.8 82.9 83.2 84.0 1.15 0.450 0.247 0.245 0.638 0.123
    d 15–21 85.7 84.8 85.0 84.0 84.1 84.3 0.60 0.113 0.021 0.333 0.115 0.014
Energy value, Mcal/kg
    DE 3.79 3.74 3.78 3.77 3.76 3.78 0.04 0.125 0.740 0.800 0.869 0.683
    Calculated NE 2.67 2.63 2.63 2.63 2.63 2.62 0.03 0.177 0.139 0.711 0.262 0.147
1Phase 1 and Phase 2 diets were fed from d 0 to 7 and 8 to 21, respectively. Least squares means were based on 6 pigs per dietary treatment. CTRL = unfermented wheat; ACD = unfermented and chemically acidified wheat; REU+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 10% sucrose; REU– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose; LEV+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 10% sucrose; LEV– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.
2Lactobacillus reuteri R = L. reuteri strain TMW1.656, which produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) reuteran in the presence of sucrose.
3Lactobacillus reuteri L = L. reuteri strain LTH5794, which produces the EPS levan in the presence of sucrose.
4Acid = acid addition (CTRL vs. ACD); Ferm. = fermentation (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+, REU–, LEV+, and LEV–); Exopol = fermentation with or without the EPS reuteran or levan (REU+ and LEV+ vs. REU– and LEV–); Ferm. with EPS = fermentation with EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+ and LEV+); Ferm. without EPS = fermentation without EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU– and LEV–).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Growth performance of weaned pigs fed unfermented and fermented wheat grain with Lactobacillus reuteri1

 
Diet treatments
P-value4
L. reuteri R2
L. reuteri L3
Variable CTRL ACD REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV– SEM Acid Ferm. Exopol Ferm.with EPS Ferm.without EPS
ADFI, g
    d 0–7 154 172 133 153 132 126 32 0.335 0.024 0.625 0.028 0.081
    d 8–14 326 302 247 279 257 261 44 0.642 0.097 0.616 0.092 0.226
    d 15–21 535 510 512 511 499 496 51 0.664 0.601 0.960 0.668 0.633
    d 0–21 338 328 297 314 296 294 39 0.797 0.182 0.789 0.197 0.303
ADG, g
    d 0–7 76 121 87 99 58 76 33 0.036 0.151 0.326 0.086 0.453
    d 8–14 253 210 223 214 206 223 52 0.496 0.700 0.923 0.702 0.773
    d 15–21 444 462 413 408 368 420 42 0.670 0.056 0.424 0.042 0.198
    d 0–21 258 264 241 240 211 240 33 0.841 0.174 0.538 0.139 0.376
G:F
    d 0–7 0.48 0.69 0.64 0.61 0.43 0.61 0.11 0.061 0.865 0.364 0.540 0.747
    d 8–14 0.67 0.66 0.85 0.74 0.78 0.81 0.13 0.931 0.137 0.653 0.130 0.276
    d 15–21 0.84 0.93 0.81 0.79 0.75 0.86 0.09 0.245 0.066 0.350 0.042 0.248
    d 0–21 0.67 0.76 0.77 0.72 0.66 0.76 0.05 0.083 0.680 0.498 0.986 0.487
1The Phase 1 and Phase 2 diets were fed from d 0 to 7 and 8 to 21, respectively. Least squares means were based on 6 pigs per dietary treatment. CTRL = unfermented wheat; ACD = unfermented and chemically acidified wheat; REU+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 10% sucrose; REU– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose; LEV+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 10% sucrose; LEV– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.
2Lactobacillus reuteri R = L. reuteri strain TMW1.656, which produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) reuteran in the presence of sucrose.
3Lactobacillus reuteri L = L. reuteri strain LTH5794, which produces the EPS levan in the presence of sucrose.
4Acid = acid addition (CTRL vs. ACD); Ferm. = fermentation (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+, REU–, LEV+, and LEV–); Exopol = fermentation with or without the EPS reuteran or levan (REU+ and LEV+ vs. REU– and LEV–); Ferm. with EPS = fermentation with EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+ and LEV+); Ferm. without EPS = fermentation without EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU– and LEV–).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Villus height, crypt depth (μm), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (V:C) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of weaned pigs fed unfermented and fermented wheat-based diets1

 
Diet treatments
P-value4
Lactobacillus reuteri R2
L. reuteri L3
Variable CTRL ACD REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV– SEM Acid Ferm. Exopol Ferm.with EPS Ferm.without EPS
Duodenum
    Villus height 485 483 490 541 449 528 42.7 0.957 0.511 0.042 0.625 0.111
    Crypt depth 322 340 315 309 294 362 21.2 0.386 0.403 0.047 0.087 0.761
    V:C 1.51 1.43 1.56 1.74 1.56 1.46 0.12 0.509 0.164 0.680 0.311 0.159
Jejunum
    Villus height 492 497 453 511 460 514 36.5 0.893 0.667 0.039 0.155 0.484
    Crypt depth 231 237 243 233 234 260 12.0 0.612 0.277 0.353 0.628 0.163
    V:C 2.15 2.10 1.89 2.20 1.97 1.99 0.15 0.748 0.233 0.126 0.076 0.790
Ileum
    Villus height 373 374 325 319 328 355 20.9 0.960 0.003 0.455 0.004 0.022
    Crypt depth 212 227 184 181 180 193 24.5 0.557 0.027 0.749 0.037 0.072
    V:C 1.80 1.71 1.83 1.77 1.84 1.87 0.15 0.563 0.472 0.909 0.496 0.570
1Small intestinal tissues were collected after pig euthanasia on Day 21, fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, stained in hematoxylin and eosin, and measured under microscopy. Least squares means were based on 15 villi measured/segment per pig per dietary treatment. CTRL = unfermented wheat; ACD = unfermented and chemically acidified wheat; REU+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 10% sucrose; REU– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose; LEV+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 10% sucrose; LEV– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.
2Lactobacillus reuteri R = L. reuteri strain TMW1.656, which produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) reuteran in the presence of sucrose.
3Lactobacillus reuteri L = L. reuteri strain LTH5794, which produces the EPS levan in the presence of sucrose.
4Acid = acid addition (CTRL vs. ACD); Ferm. = fermentation (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+, REU–, LEV+, and LEV–); Exopol = fermentation with or without EPS reuteran or levan (REU+ and LEV+ vs. REU– and LEV–); Ferm. with EPS = fermentation with EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+ and LEV+); Ferm. without EPS = fermentation without EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU– and LEV–).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Concentrations and molar ratios of acetate, propionate, butyrate, branched-chain fatty acids, and total VFA (μmol/g ileal digesta) of ileal digesta resulting from feeding unfermented and fermented wheat-based diets to weaned pigs1

 
Diet treatments
P-value4
Lactobacillus reuteri R2
L. reuteri L3
Variable CTRL ACD REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV– SEM Acid Ferm. Exopol Ferm.with EPS Ferm.without EPS
Acetic acid 6.60 9.19 5.49 5.76 5.78 11.6 3.29 0.446 0.717 0.201 0.346 0.740
Propionic acid 0.17 0.68 0.44 0.31 0.41 0.41 0.26 0.067 0.843 0.721 0.996 0.724
Butyric acid 0.20 0.33 0.18 0.08 0.19 0.29 0.14 0.375 0.368 0.989 0.433 0.433
BCFA5 0.11 0.10 0.06 0.16 0.12 0.362 0.735 0.953 0.749 0.789
Total 7.09 10.4 6.44 6.24 6.65 12.6 3.72 0.394 0.741 0.285 0.418 0.802
Ratio, %:total VFA
    Acetic acid 94.5 91.0 87.1 93.0 87.8 93.5 4.50 0.455 0.394 0.078 0.112 0.875
    Propionic acid 1.87 5.22 6.57 4.29 5.87 3.35 2.54 0.204 0.355 0.188 0.154 0.879
    Butyric acid 2.17 2.56 2.96 1.31 2.67 1.91 1.07 0.728 0.817 0.121 0.561 0.322
    BCFA 0.76 1.04 0.77 0.39 0.67 0.281 0.682 0.147 0.286 0.703
    Acetic:propionic acid 18.0 18.4 16.4 16.0 17.3 23.7 7.20 0.961 0.975 0.528 0.806 0.762
    Acetic:butyric acid 32.8 30.3 24.2 36.0 36.0 33.0 9.76 0.797 0.898 0.536 0.834 0.681
1Digesta was collected at the end of the experiment, on Day 21, after pig euthanasia. Least squares means were based on 6 replicate pigs per dietary treatment. CTRL = unfermented wheat; ACD = unfermented and chemically acidified wheat; REU+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 10% sucrose; REU– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose; LEV+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 10% sucrose; LEV– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.
2Lactobacillus reuteri R = L. reuteri strain TMW1.656, which produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) reuteran in the presence of sucrose.
3Lactobacillus reuteri L = L. reuteri strain LTH5794, which produces the EPS levan in the presence of sucrose.
4Acid = acid addition (CTRL vs. ACD); Ferm. = fermentation (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+, REU–, LEV+, and LEV–); Exopol = fermentation with or without EPS reuteran or levan (REU+ and LEV+ vs. REU– and LEV–); Ferm. with EPS = fermentation with EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+ and LEV+); Ferm. without EPS = fermentation without EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU– and LEV–).
5BCFA = branched-chain fatty acids, including isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproic acid.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, branched-chain fatty acids, and total VFA (μmol/g wet feces) of wet feces resulting from feeding unfermented and fermented wheat-based diets to weaned pigs1

 
Diet treatments
P-value4
Lactobacillus reuteri R2
L. reuteri L3
Variable CTRL ACD REU+ REU– LEV+ LEV– SEM Acid Ferm. Exopol Ferm.with EPS Ferm.without EPS
Acetic acid
    d 0–7 53.4 77.4 78.3 60.1 72.8 38.4 19.8 0.222 0.806 0.075 0.469 0.256
    d 8–14 39.8 48.7 45.0 29.8 62.3 35.3 10.4 0.401 0.857 0.008 0.213 0.124
    d 15–21 36.5 31.3 49.6 30.4 31.9 33.0 7.08 0.469 0.597 0.081 0.183 0.664
    d 0–21 43.2 52.4 57.6 40.1 55.8 36.4 7.72 0.231 0.941 0.001 0.106 0.082
Propionic acid
    d 0–7 16.2 23.7 21.0 19.2 21.9 14.2 3.78 0.051 0.698 0.092 0.578 0.228
    d 8–14 13.2 14.3 13.5 11.2 16.4 13.7 2.21 0.635 0.980 0.122 0.443 0.418
    d 15–21 13.5 12.8 15.3 12.0 11.8 12.6 1.53 0.664 0.808 0.258 0.718 0.436
    d 0–21 14.3 16.9 16.6 14.1 16.7 13.7 1.56 0.093 0.723 0.016 0.352 0.125
Butyric acid
    d 0–7 5.79 6.40 6.53 6.77 7.12 4.92 1.42 0.658 0.780 0.347 0.470 0.806
    d 8–14 4.88 4.94 5.29 5.34 4.88 4.58 1.07 0.955 0.861 0.869 0.815 0.945
    d 15–21 6.48 5.80 5.31 5.14 5.04 5.60 1.02 0.510 0.177 0.792 0.194 0.295
    d 0–21 5.71 5.71 5.71 5.75 5.63 5.08 0.66 0.998 0.673 0.585 0.928 0.523
BCFA5
    d 0–7 6.82 12.4 11.2 7.96 10.7 5.66 3.28 0.089 0.716 0.089 0.562 0.233
    d 8–14 13.7 20.9 20.3 10.7 24.1 19.7 6.41 0.277 0.722 0.134 0.288 0.647
    d 15–21 10.3 9.40 16.1 8.79 8.70 10.8 3.33 0.795 0.538 0.278 0.284 0.990
    d 0–21 10.3 14.2 15.9 9.16 14.8 12.3 2.93 0.177 0.658 0.028 0.135 0.461
Total
    d 0–7 86.9 124.2 120.4 99.3 117.3 67.4 24.5 0.128 0.765 0.055 0.446 0.208
    d 8–14 72.6 90.5 85.2 58.6 109.3 74.8 17.1 0.303 0.969 0.018 0.206 0.229
    d 15–21 68.6 60.9 88.0 57.9 58.7 63.4 11.2 0.501 0.746 0.120 0.288 0.609
    d 0–21 76.0 91.9 97.9 71.9 95.5 69.9 10.9 0.145 0.981 0.001 0.100 0.093
1The Phase 1 and Phase 2 diets were fed from Days 0 to 7 and Days 8 to 21, respectively. Least squares means were based on 6 pigs per dietary treatment. CTRL = unfermented wheat; ACD = unfermented and chemically acidified wheat; REU+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 10% sucrose; REU– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose; LEV+ = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 10% sucrose; LEV– = fermented wheat with L. reuteri LTH5794 and 5% glucose + 5% fructose.
2Lactobacillus reuteri R = L. reuteri strain TMW1.656, which produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) reuteran in the presence of sucrose.
3Lactobacillus reuteri L = L. reuteri strain LTH5794, which produces the EPS levan in the presence of sucrose.
4Acid = acid addition (CTRL vs. ACD); Ferm. = fermentation (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+, REU–, LEV+, and LEV–); Exopol = fermentation with or without EPS reuteran or levan (REU+ and LEV+ vs. REU– and LEV–); Ferm. with EPS = fermentation with EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU+ and LEV+); Ferm. without EPS = fermentation without EPS (CTRL and ACD vs. REU– and LEV–).
5BCFA = branched-chain fatty acids, including isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproic acid.