View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredients and nutrient composition of the starter diets

 
LP1
NP1
Item AA-B2 AA-S2 AA-B AA-S
Ingredient, g/kg of feed
    Maize 320.00 320.00 400.00 400.00
    Soybean meal 182.02 182.00 227.54 227.54
    Barley 160.00 160.00 200.00 200.00
    Wheat 45.53 45.53 56.91 56.91
    Maize starch 206.79 204.64 40.65 37.90
    Sugarcane molasses 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
    Limestone 13.94 13.94 14.11 14.11
    Monocalcium phosphate 9.99 9.99 8.93 8.93
    Soybean oil 10.65 10.98 15.98 16.38
    Vitamin + mineral mix3 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
    Salt 3.19 3.19 3.83 3.83
    l-Lysine HCl 1.95 1.94 2.35 2.35
    Titanium dioxide 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Sodium bicarbonate 2.58 2.58 1.34 1.34
    l-Threonine 0.60 1.46 0.63 1.71
    l-Tryptophan 0.03 0.31 0.00 0.37
    dl-Methionine 0.23 0.94 0.23 1.13
    Cellulose4 15.00 15.00 0.00 0.00
Nutrients calculated, g/kg
    NE, MJ/kg5 9.80 9.80 9.80 9.80
    DM 889.60 889.80 893.20 884.90
    CP 138.00 136.00 168.00 167.00
    Starch4 474.10 472.30 410.00 407.70
    Lys6 8.60 8.60 10.50 10.50
    Thr6 5.40 6.20 6.60 7.40
    Trp6 1.70 1.90 2.00 2.30
    Met + Cys6 4.30 4.80 5.20 5.90
    Ile6 5.60 5.60 6.90 6.80
    Arg6 8.30 8.40 10.50 10.30
    Phe6 6.60 6.60 8.20 8.10
    His6 3.40 3.40 4.20 4.20
    Leu6 10.9 11.00 13.60 13.40
    Tyr6 4.40 4.50 5.70 5.70
    Val6 6.40 6.40 7.90 7.70
1LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
2AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
3Supplied the following per kilogram of diet: 3.0 mg riboflavin, 20 mg niacin, 10 mg d-pantothenic acid, 150 mg choline chloride, 0.015 mg cyanocobalamin, 40 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, 1.5 mg menadione, 6,000 IU retinyl acetate, 1,200 IU cholecalciferol, 0.2 folic acid, 1.0 thiamin, 1.0 pyridoxine HCl, 50 m manganese oxide, 267 mg iron SO4·H2O, 60 mg copper SO4·5H2O, 140 mg zinc SO4·H2O, 0.44 mg disodium selenium trioxide, and 1.0 potassium iodate.
4Opticell (Agromed Austria GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria).
5Based on chemical composition, digestibility, and energy values for pigs from the Centraal Veevoeder Bureau livestock feed table (CVB, 2011).
6Analyzed values.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Ingredients and nutrient composition of the grower diets

 
LP1
NP1
Item AA-B2 AA-S2 AA-B AA-S
Ingredient, g/kg of feed
    Maize 400.00 400.00 500.00 500.00
    Soybean meal 138.15 138.15 172.69 172.69
    Barley 171.36 171.36 214.19 214.19
    Maize starch 199.19 197.24 43.34 40.86
    Wheat 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
    Sugarcane molasses 13.11 13.11 13.33 13.33
    Limestone 8.62 8.62 7.67 7.67
    Monocalcium phosphate 9.19 9.48 10.20 10.57
    Soybean oil 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
    Vitamin + mineral mix3 3.95 3.95 3.61 3.61
    Salt 2.45 2.45 2.92 2.92
    l-Lysine HCl 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Titanium dioxide 1.56 1.56 2.00 2.00
    Sodium bicarbonate 3.87 3.87 1.52 1.52
    l-Threonine 0.72 1.49 0.74 1.72
    l-Tryptophan 0.21 0.46 0.22 0.55
    dl-Methionine 0.12 0.76 0.07 0.87
    Cellulose4 20.00 20.00 0.00 0.00
Nutrients calculated, g/kg
    NE, MJ/kg4 9.84 9.84 9.84 9.84
    DM 883.70 885.90 882.80 887.70
    CP 124.00 124.00 152.00 152.00
    Starch5 497.10 495.50 448.90 446.90
    Lys6 8.00 7.90 9.70 10.00
    Thr6 5.10 5.90 5.90 7.00
    Trp6 1.56 1.75 1.91 2.16
    Met + Cys6 3.98 4.52 4.76 5.58
    Ile6 4.80 4.70 5.90 5.80
    Arg6 7.20 7.00 9.00 9.00
    Phe6 5.80 5.70 7.10 7.10
    His6 3.00 3.00 3.70 3.60
    Leu6 10.0 9.90 12.3 12.3
    Tyr6 3.80 3.90 5.00 5.00
    Val6 5.70 5.80 6.90 6.90
1LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
2AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
3Supplied the following per kilogram of diet: 3.0 mg riboflavin, 20 mg niacin, 10 mg d-pantothenic acid, 150 mg choline chloride, 0.015 mg cyanocobalamin, 40 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, 1.5 mg menadione, 6,000 IU retinyl acetate, 1,200 IU cholecalciferol, 0.2 folic acid, 1.0 thiamin, 1.0 pyridoxine HCl, 50 m manganese oxide, 267 mg iron SO4·H2O, 60 mg copper SO4·5H2O, 140 mg zinc SO4·H2O, 0.44 mg disodium selenium trioxide, and 1.0 potassium iodate.
4Opticell (Agromed Austria GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria).
5Based on chemical composition, digestibility, and energy values for pigs from the Centraal Veevoeder Bureau livestock feed table (CVB, 2011).
6Analyzed values.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Ingredients and nutrient composition of the finisher diets

 
LP1
NP1
Item AA-B2 AA-S2 AA-B AA-S
Ingredient, g/kg of feed
    Maize 360.10 360.10 450.10 450.10
    Soybean meal 115.70 115.70 144.60 144.60
    Barley 240.00 240.00 300.00 300.00
    Maize starch 187.20 185.30 36.40 34.10
    Wheat 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
    Sugarcane molasses 12.20 12.20 12.50 12.50
    Limestone 7.40 7.40 6.50 6.50
    Monocalcium phosphate 14.00 14.30 13.20 13.60
    Soybean oil 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
    Vitamin + mineral mix3 2.30 2.30 2.60 2.60
    Salt 2.40 2.40 2.80 2.80
    l-Lysine HCl 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Titanium dioxide 5.30 5.30 3.00 3.00
    Sodium bicarbonate 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.70
    l-Threonine 0.70 1.40 0.70 1.60
    l-Tryptophan 0.10 0.40 0.10 0.40
    dl-Methionine 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00
    Cellulose4 25.00 25.00 0.00 0.00
Nutrients calculated, g/kg
    NE, MJ/kg5 9.84 9.84 9.84 9.84
    DM 885.90 886.50 881.60 887.70
    CP 132.00 126.00 151.00 148.00
    Starch5 541.70 509.40 541.70 540.20
    Lys6 8.00 7.60 8.90 8.90
    Thr6 5.30 5.60 5.90 6.50
    Trp6 1.51 1.62 1.68 1.91
    Met + Cys6 4.03 4.22 4.68 5.04
    Ile6 4.90 4.60 5.70 5.60
    Arg6 7.30 6.80 8.20 8.20
    Phe6 6.00 5.60 6.80 6.80
    His6 3.10 2.90 3.50 3.50
    Leu6 10.10 9.60 11.90 11.30
    Tyr6 4.00 3.70 4.70 4.70
    Val6 6.00 5.70 6.60 6.60
1LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
2AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
3Supplied the following per kilogram of diet: 3.0 mg riboflavin, 20 mg niacin, 10 mg d-pantothenic acid, 150 mg choline chloride, 0.015 mg cyanocobalamin, 40 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, 1.5 mg menadione, 6,000 IU retinyl acetate, 1,200 IU cholecalciferol, 0.2 folic acid, 1.0 thiamin, 1.0 pyridoxine HCl, 50 m manganese oxide, 267 mg iron SO4·H2O, 60 mg copper SO4·5H2O, 140 mg zinc SO4·H2O, 0.44 mg disodium selenium trioxide, and 1.0 potassium iodate.
4Opticell (Agromed Austria GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria).
5Based on chemical composition, digestibility, and energy values for pigs from the Centraal Veevoeder Bureau livestock feed table (CVB, 2011).
6Analyzed values.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Performance parameters of growing pigs kept under different sanitary conditions and fed diets differing in protein content and AA supplementation, (bold P-values are significant and underlined P-values are considered as tendency)

 
LSC1
HSC1
LP2
NP2
LP
NP
P-value5
Item AA-B3 AA-S3 AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S SEM4 SC CP AA SC ×CP SC × AA CP × AA SC × CP × AA
No. of pens6 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8
Start, kg BW 17.6 18.0 17.6 17.6 16.6 16.6 16.7 16.6 0.1 <0.0001 0.23 0.43 0.15 0.21 0.10 0.41
ADG, g/d
    0–34 d 602 591 655 652 618 660 697 724 16 0.01 <0.0001 0.22 0.53 0.06 0.86 0.60
    35–49 d 962 992 1,023 1,088 979 1,024 1,113 1,132 33 0.25 <0.0001 0.02 0.22 0.65 0.89 0.39
    17–110 kg BW 825 846 864 884 860 886 925 969 18 0.03 <0.0001 0.01 0.10 0.49 0.66 0.65
ADFI, g/d
    0–34 d 1,246 1,225 1,218 1,198 1,201 1,280 1,230 1,259 20 0.17 0.39 0.21 0.27 0.01 0.42 0.40
    35–49 d 2,122 2,123 2,120 2,070 2,100 2,222 2,220 2,244 51 0.11 0.45 0.49 0.17 0.17 0.27 0.69
    17–110 kg BW 1,950 1,924 1,901 1,890 1,910 1,989 1,940 1,998 37 0.25 0.66 0.24 0.13 0.04 0.90 0.63
G:F, g/g
    0–34 d 0.48 0.48 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.52 0.57 0.57 0.009 0.003 <0.0001 0.62 0.75 0.94 0.59 0.96
    35–49 d 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.47 0.46 0.5 0.51 0.013 0.93 <0.0001 0.11 0.91 0.09 0.60 0.81
    17–110 kg BW 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.45 0.44 0.48 0.48 0.004 0.002 <0.0001 0.01 0.70 0.03 0.32 0.15
1LSC = low sanitary conditions; HSC = high sanitary conditions.
2LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
3AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
4SEM = pooled SEM. Means are presented as least squares means.
5SC = sanitary conditions. Considered significant when P ≤ 0.05 and considered a tendency when 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10.
6A pen contained 9 pigs.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Concentrations of acute-phase protein and natural antibody titers against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in serum of pigs kept under different sanitary conditions and fed 1 of 4 diets, with a low or normal protein level and a basal or supplemented AA profile (bold P-values are significant and underlined P-values are considered as tendency)

 
LSC2
HSC2
LP3
NP3
LP
NP
P-value6
Item Phase AA-B4 AA-S4 AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S SEM5 SC CP AA SC × phase SC × CP SC × AA CP × AA SC × CP × AA
No. of pens7 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8
Haptoglobin, g/L Starter 1.15 0.75 1.36 1.37 0.91 0.79 0.86 0.98 0.16 0.004 0.25 0.91 0.02 0.01 0.42 0.12 0.74
Grower 0.97 0.97 1.21 1.11 0.63 0.47 0.46 0.62
Finisher 0.83 0.73 0.85 0.95 0.85 0.95 0.58 0.69
PigMAP, g/L Starter 0.17 0.14 0.14 0.25 0.18 0.16 0.19 0.21 0.03 0.25 0.19 0.55 0.04 0.99 0.35 0.22 0.39
Grower 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.09
Finisher 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.17 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.11
KLH8–IgM Starter 6.59 6.29 6.68 6.60 6.40 6.78 6.59 6.42 0.20 0.68 0.47 0.07 0.32 0.92 0.32 0.47 0.20
Grower 7.50 7.27 7.47 7.09 7.06 7.03 7.31 6.99
Finisher 7.85 7.46 7.80 7.69 7.78 7.65 7.90 7.84
KLH–IgG Starter 3.12 3.30 3.08 2.97 2.78 2.46 2.47 3.02 0.28 0.04 0.75 0.62 0.09 0.42 0.87 0.81 0.08
Grower 3.64 4.13 3.67 3.75 3.10 2.98 3.15 2.99
Finisher 3.62 3.70 3.82 3.52 3.46 3.59 3.36 3.59
1The experiment consisted of 3 different phases: starter, grower, and finisher.
2LSC = low sanitary conditions; HSC = high sanitary conditions.
3LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
4AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
5SEM = pooled SEM. Means are presented as least squares means.
6SC = sanitary conditions. Considered significant when P ≤ 0.05 and considered a tendency when 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10.
7All animals were group housed in pens with 9 animals per pen. Two animals per pen were selected for blood sampling.
8Keyhole limpet hemocyanin is a protein produced by a sea snail. Pigs have natural antibodies against this protein.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Cell count in fresh blood of pigs kept under different sanitary conditions and fed 1 of 4 diets, with a low or normal protein level and a basal or supplemented AA profile (bold P-values are significant and underlined P-values are considered as tendency)

 
LSC2
HSC2
LP3
NP3
LP
NP
P-value6
Item1 Phase AA-B4 AA-S4 AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S SEM5 SC CP AA Phase SC × phase SC × CP SC × AA CP × AA SC × CP × AA
No. of pens7 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8
WBC, 109/L Starter 24.3 26.6 20.8 25.0 26.0 25.0 25.1 23.4 1.31 0.89 0.02 0.15 <0.0001 0.08 0.60 0.04 0.18 0.46
Grower 22.7 24.9 22.5 22.0 21.9 22.7 21.3 19.9
Finisher 19.4 21.2 19.5 20.0 19.6 21.4 21.4 20.8
Lymphocytes, 109/L Starter 10.7 11.3 9.4 10.3 11.0 11.3 11.2 10.4 0.67 0.43 0.10 0.69 0.005 0.88 0.13 0.05 0.02 0.30
Grower 11.0 11.9 10.9 10.8 11.4 11.8 11.7 10.9
Finisher 11.2 12.5 11.2 11.1 11.1 11.6 13.2 10.9
Monocytes, 109/L Starter 13.6 15.3 11.3 14.8 15.0 13.9 13.9 13.0 0.900 0.34 0.01 0.049 <0.0001 0.005 0.55 0.13 0.69 0.56
Grower 11.7 13.1 11.6 11.3 10.4 10.8 9.5 8.8
Finisher 8.1 8.7 8.4 8.9 8.2 9.7 8.1 9.1
Granulocytes, 109/L Starter 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.011 0.007 0.27 0.88 0.007 0.01 0.39 0.61 0.74 0.10
Grower 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.04
Finisher 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01
RBC, 1012/L Starter 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4 6.0 5.5 5.4 0.13 0.83 0.83 0.95 <0.0001 0.30 0.95 0.08 0.44 0.36
Grower 5.9 5.8 5.9 5.6 5.7 6.0 5.9 5.8
Finisher 6.0 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.3
Hb, mmol/L Starter 6.4 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.5 6.0 0.14 0.13 0.01 0.03 <0.0001 0.045 0.62 0.046 0.18 0.07
Grower 6.6 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.7 7.2 6.7
Finisher 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.3 7.2 7.0 7.3 7.2
Ht, % Starter 47.8 30.9 31.4 30.9 30.3 31.0 31.0 29.3 3.7 0.49 0.45 0.28 0.64 0.23 0.41 0.40 0.48 0.29
Grower 31.6 31.6 32.3 31.2 31.9 32.3 33.0 31.6
Finisher 32.9 32.9 33.4 34.3 34.0 33.5 34.3 34.5
MCV, 10-15L Starter 54.8 55.1 55.8 56.1 56.0 54.4 56.0 54.1 0.59 0.48 0.04 0.06 0.13 0.24 0.31 <0.0001 0.52 0.95
Grower 54.0 54.7 54.8 55.3 56.0 54.3 56.4 54.9
Finisher 54.5 56.0 55.2 56.0 56.2 55.0 56.7 55.0
PTL, 109/L Starter 614 712 562 721 571 703 744 1,219 94.8 0.92 0.23 0.002 <0.0001 0.02 0.14 0.46 0.60 0.78
Grower 522 606 520 652 438 551 439 559
Finisher 489 555 480 494 405 508 447 401
1WBC = white blood cells; RBC = red blood cells; Hb = haemoglobin; Ht = haematocrit; MCV = mean cell volume; PTL = platelets.
2LSC = low sanitary conditions; HSC = high sanitary conditions.
3LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
4AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
5SEM = pooled SEM. Means are presented as least squares means.
6SC = sanitary conditions. Considered significant when P ≤ 0.05 and considered a tendency when 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10.
7All animals were group housed in pens with 9 animals in total. Two animals per pen we selected for blood sampling.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Slaughter results of fattening boars kept under different sanitary conditions and fed diets with 2 CP levels and 2 AA profiles (bold P-values are significant and underlined P-values are considered as tendency)

 
LSC1
HSC1
LP2
NP2
LP
NP
P-value5
Item AA-B3 AA-S3 AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S AA-B AA-S SEM4 SC CP AA SC × CP SC ×AA CP × AA SC × CP × AA
No. of pens6 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8
BW,7 kg 109.7 108.0 112.8 114.3 108.1 111.9 113.1 116.3 1.85 0.40 0.0007 0.20 0.98 0.17 0.62 0.48
Carcass weight, kg 84.7 82.3 86.4 88.2 82.0 85.7 86.3 88.8 1.55 0.78 0.001 0.20 0.95 0.12 0.49 0.23
Muscle,7 mm 55.4 55.6 55.3 59.1 55.3 56.6 55.8 56.6 0.90 0.78 0.12 0.008 0.19 0.42 0.18 0.07
Backfat,7 mm 15.3 13.9 13.3 12.9 14.7 14.3 13.4 13.7 0.33 0.45 <0.0001 0.047 0.25 0.07 0.08 0.88
Lean meat,7 % 58.1 58.9 59.3 59.7 58.4 58.7 59.2 59.1 0.23 0.53 <0.0001 0.03 0.26 0.11 0.13 0.90
Dressing, % 77.1 76.2 76.6 77.2 75.9 76.6 76.3 76.4 0.35 0.18 0.51 0.63 0.73 0.25 0.32 0.02
Pleuritis score8 0.44 0.50 0.59 0.43 0.15 0.21 0.12 0.33 0.08 <0.0001 0.43 0.51 0.96 0.10 0.87 0.09
Pleuritis lung, %9 1.82 1.26 2.55 1.04 0.39 0.96 0.06 0.36 0.60 0.004 0.39 0.77 0.83 0.49 0.66 0.58
Pneumonia score8 0.53 0.65 0.79 0.74 0.94 0.80 0.86 0.57 0.15 0.32 0.65 0.33 0.02 0.07 0.16 0.83
Pneumonia lung, %9 1.42 1.26 3.17 2.14 1.81 1.93 2.48 0.70 1.40 0.78 0.22 0.15 0.12 0.27 0.16 0.46
1LSC = low sanitary conditions; HSC = high sanitary conditions.
2LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
3AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
4SEM = pooled SEM. Means are presented as least squares means.
5SC = sanitary conditions. Considered significant when P ≤ 0.05 and considered a tendency when 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10.
6A pen contained 9 pigs.
7Body weight expressed 1 d before slaughter day; muscle, backfat, and lean meat is expressed as corrected for carcass weight, by including carcass weight as a covariate in the statistical model.
8Pleurits was scored on a scale of 0 to 2 and pneumonia was scored on a scale of 0 to 3.
9Percentage of lung surface affected by pleuritis or pneumonia.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Apparent fecal digestibility (%) of DM and N in fattening boars kept under different sanitary status and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets with either a low or normal protein level and a basal or supplemented AA profile (bold P-values are significant)

 
LSC1
HSC1
LP2
NP2
LP
NP
P-value5
Item AA-B3 AA-S3 AA- B AA- S AA- B AA- S AA- B AA- S SEM4 SC CP AA Phase6 SC × CP SC × AA CP × AA SC × CP × AA
No. of pens7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
DM 88.1 88.5 87.9 88.6 88.8 88.9 88.3 88.5 0.16 0.047 0.10 0.03 <0.0001 0.21 0.19 0.51 0.70
N 82.3 82.1 82.9 83.1 83.6 83.4 84.2 83.1 0.43 0.02 0.14 0.28 <0.0001 0.31 0.30 0.62 0.31
1LSC = low sanitary conditions; HSC = high sanitary conditions.
2LP = low CP concentration diet; NP = normal CP concentration diet.
3AA-B = basal dietary AA profile; AA-S = supplemented dietary AA profile containing 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp compared with the basal profile.
4SEM = pooled SEM. Means are presented as least squares means.
5SC = sanitary conditions. Considered significant when P ≤ 0.05.
6Results are presented as average values of measurement of digestibility at 3 time points, once in each of the 3 experimental phases.
7A pen contained 9 pigs.