View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredients and chemical composition of supplements and pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés

 
Crude glycerin in supplement, g/kg DM
Item 0 70 140 210 280 Pasture1
Ingredients, % of DM
    Corn grain 50 41 33.2 25.3 17.5
    Crude glycerin 0 7 14 21 28
    Corn gluten 0 2 2.8 3.7 4.5
    Soybean meal 42 42 42 42 42
    Urea/ammonium sulfate 3 3 3 3 3
    Mineral mix2 5 5 5 5 5
Chemical composition
    DM, % 91.1 91.1 91.0 91.0 91.0 90.0 ± 0.37
    CP, % DM 37.1 37.1 37.1 37.0 37.0 12.1 ± 0.67
    NDF, % DM 14.0 13.0 12.0 10.1 9.1 59.1 ± 1.44
    Ether extract, % DM 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.1 2.1 1.0 ± 0.12
    NFC,3 % DM 40.1 41.1 43.0 44.0 45.1 19.0 ± 1.15
1Average and SD of the mean of samples obtained by the simulated grazing technique in 5 periods.
2Composition = calcium: 210 g/kg; phosphorus: 20g/kg; sulfur: 37g/kg, sodium: 80g/kg; copper: 490 mg/kg, manganese: 1.424 mg/kg, zinc: 1.830 mg/kg, iodine: 36 mg/kg; cobalt: 29 mg/kg, selenium: 9 mg/kg; fluorine (maximum): 333 mg/kg.
3NFC = nonfibrous carbohydrates: Calculated as 100 − (CP + ether extract + ash + NDF).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Effect of supplements containing different crude glycerin (CG) concentration on intake and coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of young Nellore bulls in pasture

 
CG in the supplement, g/kg DM
P-value
Contrast1
Item 0 70 140 210 280 SEM Supplement L Q
Intake, kg/d
    DM 11.19 11.08 10.41 10.37 10.97 0.99 0.53 0.40 0.21
    Forage DM 9.17 9.47 8.59 8.73 8.80 0.85 0.41 0.19 0.67
    Supplement DM 2.01 1.61 1.81 1.64 2.17 0.58 0.47 0.66 0.12
    OM 10.33 10.23 9.58 9.54 10.09 0.92 0.50 0.36 0.21
    CP 1.99 1.66 1.83 1.67 1.86 0.25 0.24 0.47 0.11
    NDF 5.86 6.14 5.55 5.75 5.77 0.51 0.49 0.41 0.76
    GE, MJ/d 204.7 201.3 190.5 190.4 191.0 22.6 0.50 0.31 0.28
Digestibility, % DM
    DM 59.9 58.6 56.6 57.0 59.1 3.4 0.49 0.51 0.11
    OM 65.0 62.9 59.9 60.4 62.6 3.8 0.23 0.18 0.06
    CP 70.3 64.9 65.9 64.4 68.5 4.6 0.21 0.53 0.03
    NDF 61.0 60.7 56.2 55.9 56.0 4.6 0.17 0.03 0.24
    TDN 61.9 59.3 56.8 57.1 59.2 3.9 0.23 0.16 0.06
1Contrasts: L = linear, Q = quadratic.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Effect of supplements containing different crude glycerin (CG) concentrations on performance of young Nellore bulls in pasture

 
CG in the supplement, g/kg DM
P-value
Contrast1
Item 0 70 140 210 280 SEM Supplement L Q
Initial BW, kg 425.2 427.9 423.7 425.2 428.6 17.11 0.97 0.41 0.26
Final BW, kg 548.2 553.7 527.4 553.2 557.3 27.50 0.17 0.21 0.09
ADG, kg/d 0.872 0.892 0.735 0.930 0.912 0.124 0.01 0.20 0.002
G:F 0.075 0.073 0.070 0.095 0.086 0.012 0.06 0.03 0.54
CrG,2 kg/d 0.53 0.55 0.47 0.57 0.53 0.076 0.13 0.68 0.48
LM area, cm2 83.14 84.26 83.57 88.69 82.60 7.823 0.50 0.68 0.37
RFT,3 mm 3.04 2.99 2.66 2.99 2.94 0.817 0.87 0.82 0.52
1Contrasts: L = linear, Q = quadratic.
2CrG = carcass gain.
3RFT = rib fat thickness.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Effect of level of crude glycerin (CG) inclusion in the supplement on VFA concentrations of Nellore steers grazing tropical grass

 
CG in the supplement, g/kg DM
P-value
Contrast1
Item 0 70 140 210 280 SEM Supplement L Q
Total VFA, mM 114.3 113.1 114.2 114.8 108.7 4.9 0.07 0.29 0.32
Acetate,2 % 70.0 68.7 68.4 67.0 65.6 0.57 0.001 0.001 0.37
Propionate, % 16.7 16.6 17.1 17.1 18.1 0.39 0.015 0.001 0.18
Butyrate, % 9.8 11.0 10.6 12.0 12.4 0.38 0.001 0.001 0.83
Isobutyrate, % 1.08 1.05 1.14 1.04 1.05 0.07 0.63 0.61 0.55
Valerate, % 0.82 0.94 0.97 1.07 1.18 0.03 0.001 0.001 0.62
Isovalerate, % 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 0.07 0.31 0.28 0.19
A:P ratio,3 % 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.7 0.10 0.007 0.001 0.37
1Contrasts: L = linear, Q = quadratic.
2The percent sign (%) indicates VFA in a molar proportion basis.
3Acetate to propionate ratio.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Effect of supplements containing different crude glycerin (CG) concentration on methane emission of Nellore bulls in pasture

 
CG in the supplement, g/kg DM
P-value2
Contrasts3
Item1 0 70 140 210 280 SEM Supplement L Q
CH4, g·animal−1·d−1 125.5 143.6 137.5 142.3 121.1 32.1 0.74 0.82 0.22
CH4, kg·animal−1·yr−1 45.8 52.4 50.1 51.9 44.2 11.7 0.74 0.82 0.22
CH4, g/kg DMI 11.2 12.7 13.1 13.7 11.5 3.3 0.69 0.72 0.20
CH4, g/kg DNDFI 43.4 48.8 53.1 57.0 47.9 12.1 0.42 0.30 0.15
CH4, % GEI 3.4 3.9 3.9 4.1 3.5 1.0 0.76 0.74 0.23
CH4, g/kg CrG 241.3 312.2 286.2 269.2 226.6 76.3 0.48 0.51 0.11
1DNDFI = digestible NDF intake; GEI = GE intake; CrG = carcass gain.
2Significant at P > 0.05.
3Contrasts: L = linear, Q = quadratic.