View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Composition of growing diets, %DM

 
Year 1
Year 2
Item Forage Grain Forage Grain
High-moisture corn 20 30
Dry rolled corn 30 20
Distillers grains with solubles 15 15
Corn husklage 25
Corn silage 47.5 47.5 25
Alfalfa haylage 47.5 47.5
Low calcium supplement1 5 5
Medium calcium supplement2 10
High calcium supplement3 10
Analyzed values
NDF, % 44.6 25.0 48.7 24.6
ADF, % 28.4 8.6 33.4 10.9
Fat, % 3.0 4.6 3.5 3.6
CP, % 15.0 16.3 13.2 13.5
1Contains 85.94% ground corn, 10% limestone, 2% dairy trace mineral salt (Trace mineral salt contains: 8.5% Ca [as CaCO3], 5% Mg [as MgO and MgSO4], 7.6% K [as KCl2], 6.7% Cl [as KCl2], 10% S [as S8, prilled], 0.5% Cu [as CuSO4 and Availa-4; Zinpro Performance Minerals; Zinpro Corp, Eden Prairie, MN]), 2% Fe [as FeSO4], 3% Mn [as MnSO4 and Availa-4], 3% Zn [as ZnSO4 and Availa-4], 278 mg/kg Co [as Availa-4], 250 mg/kg I [as Ca(IO3)2], 150 Se [Na2SeO3], 2,205 KIU/kg VitA [as retinyl acetate], 662.5 KIU/kg VitD [as cholecalciferol], 22,047.5 IU/kg VitE [as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate], and less than 1% CP, fat, crude fiber, salt), 0.34% Rumensin (198 mg monensin/kg DM; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), 0.22% Tylan (88 mg tylosin/kg DM; Elanco Animal Health), and 1.5% fat.
2Contains 73.87% ground corn, 6.6% urea, 17.5% limestone, 1% dairy trace mineral salt, 0.17% Rumensin (Elanco), 0.11% Tylosin (Elanco), and 0.75% fat.
3Contains 57.97% ground corn, 25% limestone, 15% urea, 1% dairy trace mineral salt, 0.17% Rumensin (Elanco), 0.11% Tylosin (Elanco), and 0.75% fat.



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Composition of finishing diets, %DM

 
Item Year 1 Year 2
High-moisture corn 20 30
Dry rolled corn 30 20
Distillers grains with solubles 15 15
Corn husklage 25
Corn silage 25
Medium calcium supplement1 10
High calcium supplement2 10
Analyzed values
NDF, % 23.2 22.8
ADF, % 8.5 9.2
Fat, % 4.1 3.1
CP, % 17.0 13.0
1Contains 73.87% ground corn, 6.6% urea, 17.5% limestone, 1% dairy trace mineral salt (Trace mineral salt contains: 8.5% Ca [as CaCO3], 5% Mg [as MgO and MgSO4], 7.6% K [as KCl2], 6.7% Cl [as KCl2], 10% S [as S8, prilled], 0.5% Cu [as CuSO4 and Availa-4; Zinpro], 2% Fe [as FeSO4], 3% Mn [as MnSO4 and Availa-4], 3% Zn [as ZnSO4 and Availa-4], 278 mg/kg Co [as Availa-4], 250 mg/kg I [as Ca(IO3)2], 150 Se [Na2SeO3], 2205 KIU/kg VitA [as retinyl acetate], 662.5 KIU/kg VitD [as cholecalciferol], 22,047.5 IU/kg VitE [as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate], and less than 1% CP, fat, crude fiber, salt), 0.17% Rumensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), 0.11% Tylosin (Elanco), and 0.75% fat.
2Contains 57.97% ground corn, 25% limestone, 15% urea, 1% dairy trace mineral salt, 0.17% Rumensin (Elanco), 0.11% Tylosin (Elanco), and 0.75% fat.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Raw mean postweaning performance, efficiency, and SD of all steers fed grain during the growing and finishing periods

 
Item Mean SD Minimum Maximum
Year 1
n = 145
Growing ADG, kg 1.68 0.27 0.58 2.23
Growing DMI, kg 7.04 1.09 3.80 9.55
Growing residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.51 -1.53 1.48
Growing residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.18 -0.70 0.49
Growing feed conversion ratio, kg1 4.21 0.61 2.66 7.67
Growing G:F 0.24 0.03 0.13 0.38
Finishing ADG, kg 1.78 0.25 0.81 2.31
Finishing DMI, kg 9.74 1.01 7.13 13.05
Finishing residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.65 -1.96 2.66
Finishing residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.19 -0.53 0.49
Finishing feed conversion ratio1 5.58 0.89 3.81 9.77
Finishing G:F 0.18 0.03 0.10 0.26
Year 2
n = 175
Growing ADG, kg 1.84 0.21 1.12 2.43
Growing DMI, kg 8.03 1.06 2.87 10.46
Growing residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.61 -1.72 1.45
Growing residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.15 -0.38 0.39
Growing feed conversion ratio, kg1 4.40 0.54 2.57 5.71
Growing G:F 0.23 0.03 0.18 0.39
Finishing ADG, kg 1.79 0.24 0.98 2.39
Finishing DMI, kg 9.90 1.03 6.08 12.31
Finishing residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.67 -2.08 1.45
Finishing residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.18 -0.66 0.50
Finishing feed conversion rato1 5.61 0.71 3.96 8.88
Finishing G:F 0.18 0.02 0.11 0.25
1Expressed as feed:gain



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Simple phenotypic correlations between postweaning traits for steers fed grain1

 
Item Growing DMI Growing ADG Growing RFI2 Growing
RG3
Growing FCR4 Finishing
DMI
Finishing
ADG
Finishing
RFI2
Finishing
RG3
Finishing
FCR4
Growing DMI 1 0.64 0.49 0.00 0.51 0.56 -0.02 0.27 -0.30 0.44
Growing ADG 1 0.00 0.71 -0.31 0.29 0.11 -0.04 -0.04 0.11
Growing RFI2 1 -0.42 0.59 0.38 -0.06 0.63 -0.39 0.34
Growing RG3 1 -0.76 -0.04 0.19 -0.28 0.24 -0.22
Growing FCR4 1 0.38 -0.13 0.37 -0.30 0.41
Finishing DMI 1 0.49 0.66 0.00 0.22
Finishing ADG 1 0.00 0.77 -0.72
Finishing RFI2 1 -0.51 0.49
Finishing RG3 1 -0.84
Finishing FCR4 1
1|R| values in bold are significant (P < 0.05).
2Residual feed intake.
3Residual BW gain.
4Feed conversion ratio expressed as feed:gain.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Simple phenotypic correlations between measurements of ADG during different feeding periods and biological timepoints1

 
Item Growing Finishing 161ADG2 R_FPADG3 FPADG4
Growing 1 0.11 0.57 0.58 0.58
Finishing 1 0.76 0.69 0.58
161ADG2 1 0.96 0.81
R_FPADG3 1 0.85
FPADG4 1
1|R| values in bold are significant (P < 0.05).
2161 d intake period.
3Total feeding period (regressed ADG).
4Total feeding period



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Simple phenotypic correlations between measures of feed efficiency for grain-fed steers in the growing period, finishing period, intake evaluation period, and total feeding period1

 
Item Growing RFI2 Growing RG3 Growing FCR4 Finishing RFI2 Finishing RG3 Finishing FCR4
161RFI5 0.89 -0.31 0.48 0.86 -0.47 0.41
161RG6 -0.34 0.59 -0.53 -0.20 0.72 -0.58
161FCR7 0.61 -0.46 0.77 0.51 -0.64 0.75
1|R| values in bold are significant (P < 0.05).
2Residual feed intake.
3Residual BW gain.
4Feed conversion ratio expressed as feed:gain.
5161 d intake period residual feed intake.
6161 d intake period residual BW gain.
7161 d intake period feed conversion ratio expressed as feed:gain.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Simple phenotypic correlations during different durations of mean DMI observations from the end of the 70d growing period in grain fed steers1

 
Item 70–63DMI 70–56DMI 70–49DMI 70–42DMI 70–35DMI 70–28DMI 70–21DMI 70–14DMI 70–7DMI 70–0DMI FDMI2 161DMI3
70–63DMI 1 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.88 0.58 0.86
70–56DMI 1 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.91 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.62 0.87
70–49DMI 1 0.99 0.97 0.93 0.93 0.91 0.91 0.89 0.62 0.88
70–42DMI 1 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.61 0.89
70–35DMI 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.61 0.90
70–28DMI 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.58 0.89
70–21DMI 1 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.56 0.89
70–14DMI 1 1 0.99 0.56 0.90
70–7DMI 1 1 0.56 0.90
70–0DMI 1 0.56 0.90
FDMI2 1 0.85
161DMI3 1
1|R| values in bold are significant (P < 0.05).
2Finishing period DMI (d91–161DMI).
3161 d intake period total DMI (d0–161DMI).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Simple linear phenotypic correlations during different durations of mean DMI observations from the beginning of the 70 d finishing phase in grain fed steers1

 
Item 0–7DMI 0–14DMI 0–21DMI 0–28DMI 0–35DMI 0–42DMI 0–49DMI 0–56DMI 0–63DMI 0–70DMI GDMI2 161DMI3
0–7DMI 1 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.62 0.81
0–14DMI 1 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.60 0.79
0–21DMI 1 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.56 0.80
0–28DMI 1 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.95 0.93 0.91 0.53 0.79
0–35DMI 1 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.93 0.52 0.80
0–42DMI 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.57 0.84
0–49DMI 1 1 0.99 0.98 0.57 0.85
0–56DMI 1 1 0.99 0.56 0.85
0–63DMI 1 1 0.56 0.85
0–70DMI 1 0.56 0.85
GDMI2 1 0.9
161DMI3 1
1|R| values in bold are significant (P < 0.05).
2Growing period DMI.
3161 d intake period total DMI.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 9.

Simple phenotypic correlations between measures of feed efficiency for grain fed steers during the growing, finishing, and total feeding period using decoupled DMI and ADG variables in the predicted DMI model in the total feeding period1

 
Item Growing RFI2 Finishing RFI2
0–35RFI3 0.70 0.28
36–70RFI4 0.54 0.62
90–125RFI5 0.56 0.85
126–161RFI6 0.46 0.79
1|R| values in bold are significant (P < 0.05).
2Residual feed intake.
3Total feeding period residual feed intake when predicted total feeding period DMI is a linear function of the first 35 d of recorded DMI during the growing period, FPADG and mid-test metabolic BW, and carcass BF.
4Total feeding period residual feed intake when predicted total feeding period DMI is a linear function of the final 35 d of recorded DMI during the growing period, FPADG and mid-test metabolic BW, and carcass BF.
5Total feeding period residual feed intake when predicted total feeding period DMI is a linear function of the first 35 d of recorded DMI during the finishing period, FPADG and mid-test metabolic BW, and carcass BF.
6Total feeding period residual feed intake when predicted total feeding period DMI is a linear function of the final 35 d of recorded DMI during the finishing period, FPADG and mid-test metabolic BW, and carcass BF.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 10.

Raw mean postweaning performance, efficiency, and SD of all heifers on study during the growing and finishing periods

 
Item Mean SD Min Max
Year 1
n = 132
Forage ADG, kg 0.97 0.20 0.41 1.74
Forage DMI, kg 5.81 0.89 3.33 7.96
Forage residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.41 -1.07 1.41
Forage residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.13 -0.33 0.38
Forage feed conversion ratio1 6.11 1.04 4.52 10.01
Forage G:F 0.17 0.02 0.10 0.22
Grain ADG, kg 1.70 0.24 1.16 2.52
Grain DMI, kg 9.20 0.95 6.26 12.20
Grain residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.62 -1.66 1.70
Grain residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.20 -0.61 0.48
Grain feed conversion ratio1 5.53 0.95 3.85 9.07
Grain G:F 0.19 0.03 0.11 0.26
Year 2
n = 176
Forage ADG, kg 0.64 0.16 0.17 1.04
Forage DMI, kg 6.30 1.25 3.65 14.73
Forage residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.96 -2.18 6.89
Forage residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.12 -0.36 0.24
Forage feed conversion ratio1 10.44 3.72 6.50 40.30
Forage G:F 0.10 0.02 0.02 0.15
Grain ADG, kg 1.84 0.25 0.93 2.58
Grain DMI, kg 9.44 1.12 5.95 12.55
Grain residual feed intake, kg 0.00 0.72 -3.13 2.26
Grain residual BW gain, kg 0.00 0.21 -0.57 0.70
Grain feed conversion ratio1 5.20 0.71 3.46 7.33
Grain G:F 0.20 0.03 0.14 0.29
1Expressed as feed:gain.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 11.

Simple linear phenotypic correlations between postweaning traits in heifers fed different diets1

 
Item Forage DMI Forage ADG Forage RFI2 Forage RG3 Forage FCR4 Grain DMI Grain ADG Grain RFI2 Grain RG3 Grain FCR4
Forage DMI 1 0.25 0.69 0.00 0.24 0.58 -0.01 0.24 -0.26 0.43
Forage ADG 1 0.00 0.53 -0.72 0.16 -0.30 -0.03 -0.17 0.42
Forage RFI2 1 -0.29 0.39 0.25 0.00 0.40 -0.17 0.17
Forage RG3 1 -0.53 -0.08 -0.11 -0.15 -0.10 0.05
Forage FCR4 1 0.14 0.27 0.17 0.06 -0.16
Grain DMI 1 0.36 0.65 0.00 0.38
Grain ADG 1 0.00 0.82 -0.70
Grain RFI2 1 -0.36 0.46
Grain RG3 1 -0.79
Grain FCR4 1
1|R| values in bold are significant (P < 0.05).
2Residual feed intake.
3Residual BW gain.
4Feed conversion ratio expressed as feed:gain.