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Ingredient and nutrient composition of dietary treatments (DM basis, except DM)

 
Dietary treatment1
Item, % DM basis 5SG 5LG 10SG
Steam-flaked corn 54.45 54.35 55.90
Wet corn gluten feed 30.00 30.20 24.39
Short-grind corn stalks2 5.10 9.75
Long-grind corn stalks2 5.10
Supplement premix3 3.98 4.01 3.83
Urea 0.51 0.51 0.77
Limestone 2.41 2.26 1.83
Corn oil 3.55 3.58 3.53
Calculated nutrient values
    DM, % 78.38 78.88 80.14
    CP, % 13.40 13.40 13.20
    NDF, % 18.00 18.00 20.00
    Ether extract, % 6.03 6.04 5.93
    Ca, % 0.94 0.87 0.76
    P, % 0.42 0.42 0.37
    S, % 0.19 0.19 0.17
    ME,4 Mcal/kg 2.93 2.93 2.89
    NEm,4 Mcal/kg 2.23 2.23 2.16
    NEg,4 Mcal/kg 1.32 1.32 1.28
15SG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% short-grind corn stalks; 5LG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% long-grind corn stalks; 10SG = 25% wet corn gluten feed with 10% short-grind corn stalks.
2Short-grind corn stalks were passed through a commercial tub grinder twice and long-grind corn stalks were passed through a commercial tub grinder once. The tub grinder was equipped with a 7.6-cm screen.
3Supplement was formulated to meet or exceed vitamin and mineral requirements established by the NRC (2000). Supplement provided 35.6 mg/kg of monensin and 7.9 mg/kg of tylosin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN).
4Values for the experimental diets were calculated from NRC (2000)tabular degradable intake protein and NE values based on proximate analysis of ingredients.



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Particle separation analysis and estimated physically effective NDF (peNDF) of feed ingredients

 
Ingredient1
Item SFC WCGF SG-CS LG-CS SEM P-value
No. of samples 16 16 16 16
NDF, % DM 8.40 33.80 70.76 73.00
Retained/screen, %
Sieve screen size, mm
    19.0 1.04cf 5.46ce 21.88b 30.60a 2.617 <0.01
    8.0 75.25a 30.32c 33.38bc 38.76b 4.060 <0.01
    4.0 13.26b 32.83a 16.12b 15.44b 2.067 <0.01
Particles less than 4 mm 10.45b 31.40a 28.62a 15.20b 3.332 <0.01
Particles greater than 4 mm 89.55a 68.60b 71.38b 84.80a 3.332 <0.01
Estimated peNDF,2 % DM 7.52d 23.19c 50.51b 61.91a 1.895 <0.01
a–cMeans within a row without a common superscript differ (P ≤ 0.05).
d–fMeans within a row without a common superscript tend to differ (P ≤ 0.10).
1SFC = steam-flaked corn; WCGF = wet corn gluten feed; SG-CS = short-grind corn stalks (passed through a commercial tub grinder twice); LG-CS = long-grind corn stalks (passed through a commercial tub grinder once). The tub grinder was equipped with a 7.62-cm screen.
2Percent peNDF was estimated by multiplying the percentage of sample larger than 4 mm in particle size (top 3 sieves) by the percent NDF (as a decimal) of the ingredient before separation.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Particle separation analysis and estimated physically effective NDF (peNDF) of treatment diets

 
Dietary treatment1
Item 5SG 5LG 10SG SEM P-value
No. of samples 21 21 21
NDF, % DM 18.00 18.00 20.00
Retained/screen, %
Sieve screen size, mm
    19.0 1.56c 2.47b 3.27a 0.386 <0.01
    8.0 39.93 38.74 41.70 1.464 0.13
    4.0 21.82a 21.52a 20.05b 0.562 0.01
Particles less than 4 mm 36.69 37.26 34.98 1.409 0.25
Particles greater than 4 mm 63.31 62.74 65.02 1.409 0.25
Estimated peNDF,2 % DM 11.40b 11.29b 13.00a 0.260 <0.01
a–cMeans within a row without a common superscript differ (P ≤ 0.05).
15SG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% short-grind corn stalks; 5LG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% long-grind corn stalks; 10SG = 25% wet corn gluten feed with 10% short-grind corn stalks.
2Percent peNDF was estimated by multiplying the percentage of sample larger than 4 mm in particle size (top 3 sieves) by the percent NDF (as a decimal) of the ingredient before separation.



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Effect of corn stalk particle size and inclusion rate on finishing steer performance

 
Dietary treatment1
P-value
Item 5SG 5LG 10SG SEM Treatment Day Treatment × day
No. of steers 18 17 16
DOF2 155 155 155
Initial SBW,3 kg 386 385 383 6.7 0.95
Final SBW,3 kg 635 632 622 11.6 0.52
DMI, kg/d 9.73ab 9.92a 9.54b 0.14 0.03 0.46 0.97
ADG, kg/d 1.62 1.58 1.54 0.08 0.17 0.05 0.96
G:F, kg/kg 0.164d 0.160e 0.158e 0.003 0.10 <0.01 0.90
Carcass-adjusted performance4
    Final SBW, kg 631ab 639a 614b 11.8 0.10
    ADG, kg/d 1.53a 1.54a 1.39b 0.062 0.03
    G:F 0.156a 0.155a 0.142b 0.005 0.01
a,bMeans within a row without a common superscript differ (P ≤ 0.05).
d,eMeans within a row without a common superscript tend to differ (P ≤ 0.10).
15SG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% short-grind corn stalks; 5LG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% long-grind corn stalks; 10SG = 25% wet corn gluten feed with 10% short-grind corn stalks.
2DOF = days on feed; Block 1 = 162 and Block 2 = 148.
3SBW = shrunk BW. A 4% shrink was applied to BW.
4Carcass-adjusted final SBW was calculated from HCW divided by the average dressing percent across treatments (63.52%) and carcass-adjusted ADG was calculated from carcass-adjusted final SBW, initial BW, and days on feed, with carcass-adjusted G:F calculated as carcass-adjusted ADG divided by average DMI.



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Effect of corn stalk particle size and inclusion rate on fecal NDF and starch concentrations and energy values calculated from animal performance

 
Dietary treatment1
P-value2
Item 5SG 5LG 10SG SEM Treatment Day Treatment × day
Fecal NDF, % 49.35a 47.36b 47.08b 0.779 0.03 <0.01 0.12
Fecal starch, % 0.87 1.01 1.23 0.130 0.15 0.04 0.19
Calculated energy values,2 Mcal/kg of DM
    ME 3.04 3.01 2.99 0.045 0.50
    NEm 2.07 2.04 2.02 0.038 0.50
    NEg 1.40 1.38 1.36 0.033 0.49
a,bMeans within a row without a common superscript differ (P ≤ 0.05).
15SG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% short-grind corn stalks; 5LG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% long-grind corn stalks; 10SG = 25% wet corn gluten feed with 10% short-grind corn stalks.
2Dietary NEm and NEg values were calculated as described by Zinn and Shen (1998).



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Effect of corn stalk particle size and inclusion rate on carcass characteristics of finished beef steers

 
Dietary treatment1
Item 5SG 5LG 10SG SEM P-value
HCW, kg 401de 406d 390e 7.5 0.10
DP2 63.59a 64.32a 62.49b 0.586 0.01
Marbling score3 383 409 384 24.1 0.43
12th-rib fat, cm 1.34 1.28 1.15 0.159 0.49
LM area, cm2 89.9 89.6 87.0 3.37 0.65
KPH, % 2.03 2.03 2.04 0.137 0.99
Calculated yield grade 3.11 3.11 3.02 0.247 0.92
Choice or greater, % 37.5 47.9 35.7 13.26 0.65
Select or less, % 62.5 52.1 64.3 13.26 0.65
Normal livers, % 94.4 88.9 92.9 7.39 0.76
Abscessed livers, % 5.6 11.1 7.1 7.39 0.76
a,bMeans within a row without a common superscript differ (P ≤ 0.05).
d,eMeans within a row without a common superscript tend to differ (P ≤ 0.10).
15SG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% short-grind corn stalks; 5LG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% long-grind corn stalks; 10SG = 25% wet corn gluten feed with 10% short-grind corn stalks.
2DP = dressing percent: HCW/final shrunk BW.
3300 = Slight0; 400 = Small0.



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Effect of corn stalk particle size and inclusion rate on rumination time per kilogram of DM, NDF, and physically effective NDF (peNDF) consumed

 
Dietary treatment1
P-value
Item 5SG 5LG 10SG SEM Treatment Day Treatment × day
Rumination, min/d 245.44c 288.74b 307.16a 20.504 0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Rumination, min/kg
    DM 25.35be 29.31ad 30.45a 2.226 0.07 <0.01 <0.01
    NDF 140.78 162.84 152.29 12.008 0.16 <0.01 <0.01
    peNDF 222.28 259.62 234.29 18.902 0.11 <0.01 <0.01
a–cTreatment means within a row without a common superscript differ (P ≤ 0.05).
d,eTreatment means within a row without a common superscript tend to differ (P ≤ 0.10).
15SG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% short-grind corn stalks; 5LG = 30% wet corn gluten feed with 5% long-grind corn stalks; 10SG = 25% wet corn gluten feed with 10% short-grind corn stalks.