View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Diet composition of experimental diets, Exp. 1 (as-fed basis)1

 
Dietary phase
Item 1 2 3 4 5
Ingredient, %
    Corn 61.11 67.78 72.36 73.82 84.33
    Soybean meal (46.5% CP) 20.11 13.50 9.00 7.80 12.49
    Choice white grease 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
    Dried distillers’ grains with solubles 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00
    Monocalcium phosphate (21% P) 0.25 0.15 0.10 0.00 0.25
    Limestone 1.15 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.00
    Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    l-Lys HCl 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.38 0.21
    dl-Met 0.07 0.04 0.02
    l-Thr 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.06
    l-Trp 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.01
    Vitamin and trace mineral premix2,3 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.15
Total 100 100 100 100 100
Calculated analysis
    Standard ileal digestible (SID) AA, %
        Lys 1.05 0.90 0.79 0.71 0.65
        Ile:Lys ratio 61 59 58 61 66
        Met:Lys ratio 33 32 31 32 31
        Met + Cys:Lys ratio 58 58 58 61 62
        Thr:Lys ratio 62 62 62 64 67
        Trp:Lys ratio 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0
        Val:Lys ratio 70 70 70 75 78
    Total Lys, % 1.20 1.03 0.91 0.83 0.75
ME,4 kcal/kg 3,332 3,337 3,342 3,347 3,376
NE,4 kcal/kg 2,502 2,541 2,570 2,575 2,594
SID Lys:ME ratio, g/Mcal 3.15 2.70 2.36 2.12 1.92
CP, % 19.0 16.5 14.8 14.2 13.0
Crude fiber, % 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.2
Ca, % 0.58 0.56 0.53 0.51 0.49
P, % 0.44 0.39 0.36 0.34 0.36
Available P, % 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.10
1Phase 1 diets were fed from d 0 to 28, Phase 2 from 28 to 56, Phase 3 from 56 to 84, Phase 4 from d 84 to 98, and Phase 5 from d 98 to 118.
2Provided, per kilogram of premix, 4,537,205 IU vitamin A, 1,088,929 IU vitamin D3, 19,963 IU vitamin E, 2,117 mg vitamin K, 2,722 mg riboflavin, 12,704 mg pantothenic acid, 16,334 mg niacin, and 18.1 mg vitamin B12. Provided, per kilogram of premix, 53.3 g Mn from manganese oxide, 134 g Fe from iron sulfate, 160 g Zn from zinc sulfate, 13 g Cu from copper sulfate, and 137 mg I from calcium iodate.
3Quantum Blue 5 G (AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) provided 455 phytase units/kg diet, with a release of 0.12% available P.
4NRC (2012).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Chemical analysis of ingredients (as-fed basis)1

 
Item Corn2 Soybean meal Dried distillers’ grains with solubles3
DM, % 88.87 91.05 90.68
CP, % 9.1 (8.2) 45.1 (46.5) 29.8 (27.7)
ADF, % 3.0 6.3 10.1
NDF, % 6.1 7.4 24.8
Ca, % 0.05 (0.02) 0.41 (0.33) 0.15 (0.20)
P, % 0.29 (0.26) 0.74 (0.71) 0.81 (0.77)
Ether extract, % 3.1 (3.5) 1.8 (1.5) 8.7 (7.3)
Starch, % 60.7 4.0 3.7
1A composite sample of 3 subsamples taken throughout the experiment at the feed mill were used for analysis.
2Values in parenthesis for corn and soybean meal were taken from the NRC (2012).
3Values in parenthesis for dried distillers’ grains with solubles are taken from Stein and Shurson (2009).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis)1,2

 
Dietary phase
Item Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5
DM, % 90.90 90.43 89.92 90.19 89.39
CP, % 19.1 16.5 15.3 14.8 12.6
ADF, % 4.3 3.5 4.7 3.8 1.9
NDF, % 10.1 10.6 11.6 11.0 8.6
Ca, % 0.64 0.56 0.53 0.50 0.57
P, % 0.45 0.42 0.40 0.36 0.35
Ether extract, % 4.8 4.9 5.2 4.9 4.2
Starch, % 39.6 42.7 43.6 45.9 51.2
Particle size, μm 683 692 705 714 641
Particle size SD 2.16 2.16 2.17 2.04 2.33
Pellet fines, % 26.7 34.6 20.3 33.1 3.7
PDI,3 % 84.5 85.8 86.9 90.2 94.5
1A composite sample consisting of 6 subsamples was used for analysis.
2Meal and pelleted diet samples within phase were individually analyzed and the results were averaged. Particle size represents the complete meal diet for each phase. Percentage fines and pellet durability index represent the pelleted diet for each phase.
3PDI = pellet durability index.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

The effect of pellet feeding regimen on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and stomach morphology1

 
Diet form and period, d 0 to 70/d 70 to 118
Meal
Pelletv
Meal
Pelletv
Rotated2
Rotated3
Item, Meal Pellet Pellet Meal Rotated Rotated SEM
BW, kg
    d 0 31.5 31.6 31.4 31.4 31.6 31.5 0.60
    Final wt4 135.6 136.6 136.0 134.0 135.3 136.2 1.95
d 0 to 118
    ADG, kg 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.012
    ADFI, kg 2.36a 2.26c 2.30bc 2.28bc 2.30b 2.29bc 0.024
    G:F 0.407c 0.430a 0.421b 0.422b 0.420b 0.423b 0.002
    Pigs removed/pen 0.50b 1.92a 1.06b 0.93b 0.85b 0.92b 0.265
    Keratinization score 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.8 2.1 0.22
    Ulceration score 1.5 2.0 2.2 1.6 1.8 1.6 0.20
    Ulcer index5 5.25ab 6.72a 6.72a 4.61b 6.15ab 5.32ab 0.61
Carcass characterisitcs
    HCW, kg 97.9 99.2 98.6 97.9 98.4 98.9 1.06
    Yield, % 74.8 75.2 74.7 74.8 75.3 75.6 0.50
    Backfat, mm 16.7 17.1 16.8 16.5 16.8 16.8 0.26
    Loin depth, mm 72.8 73.8 73.9 73.4 73.7 73.9 0.36
    Lean, %6 56.3 56.2 56.2 56.5 56.5 56.3 0.19
a–cSuperscripts within a row are different (P < 0.05).
1A total of 2,100 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 31.5 ± 0.13 kg BW) were used in a 118-d trial; there were 25 pigs per pen and 14 pens per treatment (7 barrows and 7 gilts).
2Meal and pellet were rotated every 2 wk starting with meal and ending with pellet. Pigs were fed a meal diet for 10 d prior to collecting stomach morphology scores.
3Meal and pellet were rotated every 2 wk starting with pellet and ending with meal. Pigs were fed a pelleted diet for 10 d prior to collecting stomach morphology scores.
4On d 110, 4 pigs (2 barrows and 2 gilts) were removed from each pen and a combined keratinization and ulceration score was assigned to each stomach. On day 112 all barrows were marketed (7 pens per treatment). On day 118, all gilts were marketed (7 pens per treatment).
5An index of stomach morphology was developed by adding a pig’s ulcer and keratinization score. An additional score of 4 was added to each pig that had an ulceration score greater than 1.
6Calculated using the equation lean % = 48.3575 (6.38916 × backfat, mm) + (4.424677 × loin depth, mm).