View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Source of data for Analysis I and Analysis II

 
Experiment Breed composition N Singles/Twins Analysis I Analysis II
1953 Hereford 6 Twins No Yes
1954 Hereford 8 Twins No Yes
1959 Hereford 8 Twins No Yes
1964 Hereford 33 Twins Yes Yes
Hereford x Guernsey 1 Twins Yes Yes
Hereford x Shorthorn 1 Twins Yes Yes
Hereford x Holstein 1 Twins Yes Yes
Hereford x Brown Swiss 1 Twins Yes Yes
1969 Hereford 17 Twins Yes Yes
Hereford x Shorthorn 2 Twins Yes Yes
Hereford x Charolais 2 Twins Yes Yes
Holstein 24 Twins Yes Yes
1974 Hereford x Holstein 14 Singles Yes Yes
Angus x Holstein 14 Singles Yes Yes
Simmental x Holstein 15 Singles Yes Yes
Chianina x Holstein 13 Singles Yes Yes



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Definitions of symbols and acronyms

 
Item Definition
PW1, PW2, PW3 Progeny weights. Sex-adjusted weaning weight (240-d weight) of the first, second, and third calf from each cow.
PF1, PF2, PF3 Progeny feed consumptions. Sex-adjusted feed consumption of the first, second, and third calf from 60 to 240 d of age.
DW1, DW2, DW3 Dam weights. Weight of the cow when her first, second, and third calf was weaned.
DF0 An estimate of the feed consumed by the dam from her birth to 240 d of age.
DF1, DF2, DF3 Dam feed consumptions. Feed consumed by the cow from 240 d of age to the weaning of the first calf, from the weaning of the first calf to the weaning of the second calf, and from the weaning of the second calf to the weaning of the third calf.
k1, k2, k3 Weighting factors to accumulate first, second, and third (subscripts 1, 2, and 3) progeny weights on a life cycle basis.
l1, l2, l3 Weighting factors to estimate average weight of the dam on a life cycle basis where subscripts 1, 2, and 3 denote first, second, and third parity, respectively.
m1, m2, m3 Weighting factors to accumulate first, second, and third (subscripts 1, 2, and 3) progeny feed consumptions on a life cycle basis.
n0, n1, n2, n3 Weighting factors to accumulate feed consumption of the dam on a life cycle basis where subscripts 0, 1, 2, and 3 denote periods from birth to 240 d and first, second, and third parity, respectively.
R1 Progeny and dam output divided by progeny and dam input computed on a life cycle basis (analysis I) as:
R2 Progeny output divided by progeny and dam input computed on a life cycle basis (analysis I) as:
R3 Progeny and dam output divided by progeny and dam input computed on an actual lifetime basis for cows weaning 3 calves (analysis II) as:
R4 Progeny output divided by progeny and dam input computed on an actual lifetime basis for cows weaning 3 calves (analysis II) as:



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Means, SD, and minimum and maximum values for dependent variables1

 
Trait N Mean SD Minimum Maximum
PW1, kg 125 256 26 150 311
PW2, kg 152 285 28 163 341
PW3, kg 160 294 21 239 363
PF1, Mcal 125 1,239 243 691 1,847
PF2, Mcal 152 1,267 266 502 2,070
PF3, Mcal 160 1,316 229 620 1,939
DW1, kg 160 487 50 377 634
DW2, kg 160 534 53 413 702
DW3, kg 160 566 55 437 743
DF0, Mcal 160 1,626 194 838 2,171
DF1, Mcal 160 13,537 1,810 8,814 22,286
DF2, Mcal 160 9,361 1,437 5,905 17,353
DF3, Mcal 160 9,601 1,438 6,502 14,208
DMI, kg d-1 160 7.82 0.89 5.41 13.82
ADG, kg d-1 160 0.48 0.06 0.37 0.68
MMW, kg 160 75 5 58 94
RFI, kg d-1 160 0 0.54 -1.48 3.21
RG, kg d-1 160 0 0.04 -0.13 0.15
R1 160 0.0529 0.0037 0.0437 0.0664
R2 160 0.0244 0.0030 0.0161 0.0318
R3 110 0.0308 0.0019 0.0262 0.0363
R4 110 0.0223 0.0017 0.0185 0.0267
Feed consumption from 240 d to first calving, Mcal 160 8,078 1,495 4,090 15,503
Feed efficiency from 240 d to first calving, Mcal/kg 160 33.62 3.43 24.14 49.85
240-d weight, kg 160 196 22 113 255
Weight at first calving, kg 160 437 47 310 660
Weight at second calving, kg 160 494 51 359 640
Weight at third calving, kg 159 532 53 417 702
240-d height, cm 160 97 4 84 108
Height at first calving, cm 160 120 4 102 136
Height at second calving, cm 160 124 4 110 138
Height at third calving, cm 159 125 4 116 135
Height at first weaning, cm 160 122 4 109 137
Height at second weaning, cm 160 124 4 112 135
Height at third weaning, cm 160 125 4 110 137
240-d wt:ht ratio 160 2.00 0.18 1.28 2.36
Wt:ht at first calving 160 3.61 0.30 2.90 4.68
Wt:ht at second calving 160 3.98 0.33 3.09 5.04
Wt:ht at third calving 159 4.25 0.35 3.22 5.39
Wt:ht at first weaning 160 3.97 0.33 3.21 4.83
Wt:ht at second weaning 160 4.28 0.34 3.50 5.14
Wt:ht at third weaning 160 4.52 0.37 3.51 5.36
Change in wt:ht, lactation 1 160 0.36 0.22 -0.19 1.07
Change in wt:ht, lactation 2 160 0.30 0.21 -0.38 1.05
Change in wt:ht, lactation 3 159 0.25 0.25 -0.52 0.83
Weight gain, lactation 1, kg 160 50 27 -25 126
Weight gain, lactation 2, kg 160 39 26 -47 133
Weight gain, lactation 3, kg 159 31 30 -64 112
Age at puberty, d 138 406 53 208 592
Age at first calving, d 160 748 65 529 1,031
Age at second calving, d 160 1,123 88 895 1,421
Age at third calving, d 159 1,491 103 1,257 1,777
Milk production, lactation 1, Mcal ME 122 820 163 511 1,272
Milk production, lactation 2, Mcal ME 147 1,023 226 469 1,650
Milk production, lactation 3, Mcal ME 139 1,065 224 515 1,794
1See Table 2 for definitions of symbols and acronyms.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Correlations1 among residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG), dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and metabolic weight (MMW)2

 
Variable RG DMI ADG MMW
RFI -0.47 0.67 0 -0.01
<0.0001 <0.0001 0.99 0.94
RG 0 0.75 -0.05
0.96 <0.0001 0.55
DMI 0.63 0.60
<0.0001 <0.0001
ADG 0.47
<0.0001
1Significance level for the test Prob > |r| under H0: ρ = 0 is presented below the correlation coefficient.
2See Table 2 for definitions of symbols and acronyms.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Correlations1 of residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG), dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and metabolic weight (MMW) with cow efficiency ratios2

 
Variable RFI RG DMI ADG MMW
R1 -0.12 0.12 -0.09 0.03 -0.02
0.12 0.13 0.26 0.72 0.80
R2 -0.07 0.03 -0.23 -0.14 -0.27
0.37 0.72 <0.01 0.07 <0.001
R3 -0.18 0.18 -0.27 -0.05 -0.29
0.06 0.06 <0.01 0.61 <0.01
R4 -0.09 0.07 -0.29 -0.16 -0.40
0.36 0.49 <0.01 0.10 <0.0001
1Significance level for the test Prob > |r| under H0: ρ = 0 is presented below the correlation coefficient.
2See Table 2 for definitions of symbols and acronyms.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Correlations1 of residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG), dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and metabolic weight (MMW) with component traits of cow efficiency ratios2

 
Variable RFI RG DMI ADG MMW
DW1 0.04 0.07 0.56 0.51 0.80
0.62 0.36 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
DW2 0.00 0.12 0.51 0.51 0.76
0.97 0.13 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
DW3 -0.04 0.15 0.47 0.51 0.71
0.65 0.06 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
DF0 0.05 -0.24 0.38 0.13 0.73
0.52 <0.01 <0.0001 0.09 <0.0001
DF1 0.31 -0.21 0.65 0.33 0.73
<0.0001 <0.01 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
DF2 -0.01 0.10 0.19 0.22 0.27
0.86 0.22 0.02 <0.01 <0.001
DF3 -0.05 0.04 0.14 0.17 0.26
0.54 0.59 0.08 0.03 <0.01
PW1 0.13 -0.05 0.23 0.10 0.16
0.14 0.60 0.01 0.29 0.07
PW2 -0.03 0.05 0.18 0.18 0.26
0.68 0.56 0.02 0.03 <0.01
PW3 -0.09 0.09 0.03 0.13 0.12
0.25 0.26 0.68 0.11 0.12
PF1 0.17 0.01 0.18 0.10 0.02
0.06 0.95 0.04 0.26 0.82
PF2 0.02 0.06 0.06 0.08 -0.02
0.84 0.49 0.44 0.35 0.81
PF3 0.02 -0.10 -0.02 -0.07 -0.01
0.76 0.23 0.77 0.36 0.88
1Significance level for the test Prob > |r| under H0: ρ = 0 is presented below the correlation coefficient.
2See Table 2 for definitions of symbols and acronyms.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Correlations1 of residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG), dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and metabolic weight (MMW) with traits of the dam2

 
Variable RFI RG DMI ADG MMW
Age at puberty -0.14 -0.04 -0.09 -0.05 0.08
0.11 0.62 0.30 0.58 0.37
Age at first calving -0.08 -0.33 0.03 -0.16 0.37
0.30 <0.0001 0.73 0.05 <0.0001
Age at second calving -0.11 -0.23 -0.04 -0.15 0.25
0.18 <0.01 0.63 0.05 <0.01
Age at third calving -0.01 -0.19 0.06 -0.08 0.20
0.92 0.02 0.42 0.33 0.01
Feed consumption, 240 d to first calving 0.32 -0.27 0.62 0.26 0.69
<0.001 <0.001 <0.0001 <0.01 <0.0001
Feed efficiency 240 d to first calving 0.73 -0.87 0.32 -0.47 0.11
<0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.15
240-d weight 0.05 -0.25 0.38 0.13 0.73
0.55 <0.01 <0.0001 0.10 <0.0001
240-d height -0.02 0.13 0.34 0.20 0.66
0.76 0.10 <0.0001 0.01 <0.0001
240-d wt:ht ratio 0.08 -0.29 0.34 0.07 0.56
0.33 <0.001 <0.0001 0.39 <0.0001
Wt at first calving -0.04 0.06 0.60 0.54 0.94
0.62 0.42 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt at second calving 0.02 0.11 0.53 0.52 0.76
0.78 0.15 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt at third calving -0.06 0.23 0.46 0.55 0.71
0.45 <0.01 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Ht at first calving -0.09 0.10 0.41 0.43 0.69
0.27 0.20 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Ht at second calving -0.08 0.14 0.39 0.44 0.62
0.32 0.07 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Ht at third calving -0.09 0.20 0.36 0.44 0.57
0.27 0.01 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Ht at first weaning -0.07 0.09 0.42 0.42 0.67
0.40 0.26 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Ht at second weaning -0.08 0.18 0.40 0.47 0.62
0.30 0.02 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Ht at third weaning -0.15 0.22 0.34 0.46 0.59
0.06 <0.01 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt:ht at first calving -0.01 0.05 0.59 0.52 0.90
0.94 0.51 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt:ht at second calving 0.07 0.09 0.50 0.46 0.68
0.39 0.27 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt:ht at third calving -0.04 0.19 0.40 0.48 0.63
0.64 0.01 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt:ht at first weaning 0.08 0.06 0.52 0.46 0.70
0.33 0.43 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt:ht at second weaning 0.04 0.08 0.47 0.43 0.68
0.66 0.34 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Wt:ht at third weaning 0.01 0.09 0.41 0.41 0.60
0.85 0.26 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Change in wt:ht, lactation 1 0.12 0.03 -0.03 -0.02 -0.18
0.12 0.72 0.68 0.82 0.02
Change in wt:ht, lactation 2 -0.05 -0.02 -0.03 -0.03 0.03
0.54 0.81 0.72 0.72 0.71
Change in wt:ht, lactation 3 0.08 -0.11 0.01 -0.09 -0.04
0.32 0.18 0.93 0.26 0.64
Wt gain, lactation 1 0.14 0.03 0.01 0.01 -0.15
0.07 0.73 0.90 0.92 0.06
Wt gain, lactation 2 -0.05 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.05
0.54 0.84 0.96 0.87 0.50
Wt gain, lactation 3 0.05 -0.06 -0.01 -0.06 -0.05
0.57 0.45 0.95 0.42 0.57
Milk production, lactation 1 0.00 -0.10 0.17 0.05 0.24
0.97 0.30 0.07 0.60 0.01
Milk production, lactation 2 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.07
0.98 0.83 0.44 0.39 0.37
Milk production, lactation 3 -0.11 0.08 -0.06 0.04 0.01
0.18 0.37 0.48 0.67 0.88
1Significance level for the test Prob > |r| under H0: ρ = 0 is presented below the correlation coefficient.
2See Table 2 for definitions of symbols and acronyms.