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Warner-Bratzler shear force values, proximate composition, L*, a*, b*, pH, and moisture losses for strip loin steaks of differing treatments

 
Treatment Warner-Bratzler shear force, kg Moisture, % Protein, % Fat, % Ash, % L*1 a*2 b*3 pH Thaw loss,4 % Cooking loss,5 % Total loss,6 %
Prime 2.1c 66.7c 22.0 8.9a 1.3 49.5a 25.9 19.3 5.6 1.8c 20.2b 22.4b
Certified Angus Beef 2.7b 69.7b 22.5 5.4b 1.4 43.7b,c 27.4 19.2 5.7 2.0c 21.9a,b 24.2a,b
Choice 2.7b 71.2a 23.0 3.7c 1.4 44.4b 26.8 19.0 5.6 2.2b,c 23.0a 25.9a
Select 3.0a,b 72.2a 22.3 2.7c 1.4 44.1b 26.6 18.4 5.6 2.8a 23.2a 26.2a
Angus Select 3.1a 71.9a 22.5 2.9c 1.4 40.8c 26.0 17.5 5.8 2.5a,b 23.4a 26.0a
SEM7 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.1 1.2 0.5 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.8
P-value <0.01 <0.01 0.34 <0.01 0.54 <0.01 0.26 0.24 0.39 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
a–cLeast squares means in the same column lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1L* = lightness (0 = black and 100 = white).
2a* = redness (−60 = green and 60 = red).
3b* = blueness (−60 = blue and 60 = yellow).
4Thaw loss: [(raw weight − thaw weight)/raw weight] × 100.
5Cooking loss: [(thaw weight − cooked weight)/thaw weight] × 100.
6Total loss: [(raw weight − cooked weight)/raw weight] × 100.
7SE (largest) of the least squares means.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Demographic characteristics of consumers (n = 112) who participated in steak sensory panels

 
Characteristic Response Percentage of consumers
Sex Male 42.2
Female 57.8
Household size 1 person 9.9
2 people 17.1
3 people 16.2
4 people 32.4
5 people 8.1
6 people 13.5
>6 people 2.7
Marital status Single 33.0
Married 67.0
Age group Under 20 9.0
20–29 29.0
30–39 18.2
40–49 21.8
50–59 18.2
>60 3.6
Ethnic origin African American 15.6
Caucasian/white 72.5
Hispanic 10.0
Native American 1.8
Annual household income, $ 25,000 to 34,999 14.4
35,000 to 49,999 8.1
50,000 to 74,999 23.4
75,000 to 100,000 27.9
>100,000 26.1
Highest level of education completed High school graduate 9.5
Some college/technical school 27.6
College graduate 34.3
Postgraduate 28.6
Weekly beef consumption 1 to 3 times 47.8
4 to 6 times 46.9
7 or more times 5.4
Most important palatability trait when eating beef Flavor 49.6
Juiciness 9.9
Tenderness 40.5
Meat product most preferred for flavor Beef 63.1
Chicken 18.0
Fish 5.4
Lamb 0.9
Pork 5.4
Shellfish 3.6
Turkey 0.0
Veal 0.9
Venison 2.7



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Fresh beef steak purchasing motivators of consumers (n = 112) who participated in consumer sensory panels

 
Characteristic Importance of trait1
Price 74.4a
Steak color 74.2a
Size, weight and thickness 71.3a
USDA Grade 63.9b
Marbling level 62.9b
Familiarity of cut 58.7b,c
Eating satisfaction claims (e.g., guaranteed tender) 54.2c,d
Nutrient content 52.7c,d
Country of origin 51.6d
Animal welfare 49.2d,e
Local 49.1d,e
Antibiotic use in the animal 47.8d,e,f
Growth promotant use in the animal 42.4e,f
Natural and organic claims 41.3f
Brand of product 41.0f
SEM2 2.5
P-value <0.01
a–fLeast squares means lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Purchasing motivators: 0 = extremely unimportant, 100 = extremely important.
2SE (largest) of the least squares means.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Brand and USDA grade knowledge and perceived brand quality level of consumers (n = 112) who participated in sensory panels

 
Brand Consumers with knowledge of brand, % Perceived quality level by consumers who recognized the brand1
Angus Pride 6.3d 7.9a,b,c
Angus Select 25.9c 7.5b,c
Black Canyon Angus Beef 9.8d 6.9c,d
Certified Angus Beef 83.0a 8.1a,b
Choice 86.5a 6.4d
Creekstone Farms 7.2d 7.1b,c,d
Prime 80.4a 8.5a
Private Selection 66.1b 7.1c,d
Select 79.3a 6.7c,d
SEM2 0.4 0.6
P-value <0.01 <0.01
a–dLeast squares means in the same column lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Perceived quality level: 1 = very low quality, 10 = very high quality.
2SE (largest) of the least squares means.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Consumer (n = 112) palatability ratings for blind and informed testing of strip loin steaks of various treatments1

 
Treatment Tenderness Juiciness Flavor liking Overall liking
Blind testing
    Prime 73.7a 68.7a 66.9a 69.4a
    Certified Angus Beef 66.2a,b 58.2b 63.2a,b 64.2a,b
    Choice 65.0b 58.1b 60.7b,c 61.0b,c
    Select 62.1b 55.9b 55.2c 56.0c
    Angus Select 58.7b 54.8b 57.0b,c 56.8c
    SEM2 2.9 2.8 2.2 2.2
    P-value <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Informed testing
    Prime 77.9a 73.7a 74.4a 76.3a
    Certified Angus Beef 70.0a 64.1b 71.2a 69.8b
    Choice 60.3b 53.9c 59.9c 58.6c,d
    Select 55.9b 56.3c 59.3c 57.0d
    Angus Select 59.4b 60.2b,c 65.7b 63.0c
    SEM2 3.1 3.2 2.0 2.3
    P-value <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
a–dLeast squares means in the same section (blind or informed) of the same column and lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Sensory scores: 0 = not tender/juicy, dislike flavor/overall extremely; 50 = neither tough nor tender, dry nor juicy or neither like or dislike flavor/overall; 100 = very tender/juicy, like flavor/overall extremely.
2SE (largest) of the least squares means.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Percentage of beef strip steaks considered acceptable for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking by consumers (n = 112)

 
Treatment Tenderness acceptability Juiciness acceptability Flavor acceptability Overall acceptability
Blind testing
    Prime 98.2a 92.7a 87.2a 92.8a
    Certified Angus Beef 92.0a,b 81.3b 90.0a 90.2a
    Choice 88.3b 81.3b 83.1a,b 79.5b
    Select 86.4b,c 75.7b 74.9b 72.1b
    Angus Select 75.9c 74.8b 72.4b 70.5b
    SEM1 4.0 4.1 5.3 4.3
    P-value <0.01 0.02 <0.01 <0.01
Informed testing
    Prime 95.8a 98.2a 97.6a 99.2a
    Certified Angus Beef 95.8a 90.2b 95.0a,b 93.2b
    Choice 90.7a 75.0c 87.6b,c 86.3b,c
    Select 80.3b 75.7c 80.4c 78.9c
    Angus Select 78.2b 77.6c 86.6c 80.8c
    SEM1 4.6 4.8 5.3 5.0
    P- value <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
a–cLeast squares means in the same section (blind or informed) of the same column and lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1SE of the least squares means.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Percentage of beef strip steaks of varying treatments categorized by perceived eating quality level by consumers (n = 112)

 
Treatment Unsatisfactory quality Everyday quality Better than everyday quality Premium quality
Blind testing
    Prime 2.7b 36.9c 42.3a 17.6a
    Certified Angus Beef 4.4b 54.5a,b 27.6b,c 13.1a
    Choice 13.4a 42.9b,c 33.8a,b 9.6a
    Select 15.1a 63.4a 19.5c 1.7b
    Angus Select 18.7a 47.3b,c 23.1b,c 10.5a
    SEM1 3.8 4.7 4.9 4.1
    P-value <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.02
Informed testing
    Prime 0.0 23.4b 41.0 35.0a
    Certified Angus Beef 3.4 35.1b 42.8 18.0b
    Choice 7.7 57.6a 30.3 4.2c
    Select 14.7 54.0a 26.8 4.2c
    Angus Select 11.2 35.1b 33.0 19.8b
    SEM1 3.7 5.0 4.7 5.5
    P-value 0.08 <0.01 0.06 <0.01
a–cLeast squares means in the same section (blind or informed) of the same column and lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1SE of the least squares means.