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Journal of Animal Science - Nonruminant Nutrition

Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentrations of phosphorus as indicated by growth performance, bone ash concentration, and calcium and phosphorus balances1

 

This article in JAS

  1. Vol. 94 No. 12, p. 5272-5285
     
    Received: June 24, 2016
    Accepted: Oct 14, 2016
    Published: November 28, 2016


    2 Corresponding author(s): hstein@illinois.edu
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doi:10.2527/jas.2016-0751
  1. J. C. González-Vega*,
  2. C. L. Walk,
  3. M. R. Murphy* and
  4. H. H. Stein 2‡*
  1. * Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801
     AB Vista, Marlborough, SN8 4AN, United Kingdom
     Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to determine the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different concentrations of STTD P. Twenty corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated with diets containing 4 concentrations of STTD P (0.15, 0.31, 0.39, or 0.47%) and 5 concentrations of STTD Ca (0.13, 0.27, 0.42, 0.57, or 0.72%). Diets were mixed in 1 batch and were used in both experiments. In Exp. 1, 240 pigs (initial average BW: 24.70 ± 1.27 kg) were randomly allotted to the 20 diets in 6 blocks with 1 pen per diet in each block using a 4 × 5 factorial design. There was 1 gilt and 1 barrow in each pen. At the conclusion of the 28 d experiment, all barrows were euthanized and the right femur was collected. Results indicated that there were interactions (P < 0.001) between concentration of STTD Ca and concentration of STTD P in diets for ADG, G:F, and bone ash. The predicted maximum ADG at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 0.76, 0.87, 0.90, and 0.92 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.12, 0.36, 0.47, and 0.59%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.80:1, 1.16:1, 1.21:1, and 1.26:1. The predicted maximum G:F ratio at the 4 STTD P concentrations were 0.43, 0.46, 0.48, and 0.50 kg/kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.09, 0.38, 0.52, and 0.67%, respectively, and these values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.60:1, 1.23:1, 1.33:1, and 1.43:1. The predicted maximum bone ash at the 4 STTD P concentrations were 14.5, 21.0, 23.1, and 24.5 g at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.41, 0.56, 0.64, and 0.72%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 2.73:1, 1.81:1, 1.64:1, and 1.53:1. In Exp. 2, 120 pigs (initial average BW: 29.45 ± 2.15 kg) were placed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to the 20 diets in 6 blocks with 1 pig per diet in each block. Fecal and urine samples were collected. Results indicated that the predicted maximum retention of Ca in the body at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 4.7, 7.1, 8.6, and 10.2 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.77, 0.96, 1.06, and 1.15%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 5.13:1, 3.10:1, 2.72:1, and 2.45:1. These observations indicate that if STTD P meets or exceeds the requirement, the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize ADG and G:F by 25 to 50 kg pigs is between 1.16:1 and 1.43:1. However, a greater ratio may be needed to maximize bone ash or Ca retention.



INTRODUCTION

Inclusion of excess Ca in diets fed to pigs may increase P excretion due to formation of Ca-P complexes in the intestinal tract (Clark, 1969; Brink et al., 1992; Stein et al., 2011). However, if diets are formulated to meet requirements for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and STTD P, excesses of Ca and P can be minimized and maximum utilization of both minerals is expected. Requirements for STTD P by different categories of pigs have been reported (NRC, 2012), but requirements for STTD Ca have not been published because of a lack of information about Ca digestibility in feed ingredients. However, values for STTD of Ca in some Ca sources have been recently reported (González-Vega et al., 2014, 2015a, 2015b, 2016; Merriman and Stein, 2016), and as a consequence, requirements for STTD Ca in pigs can be determined. An attempt to determine the requirement for STTD Ca by 11 to 25 kg pigs was made (González-Vega et al., 2016), and results indicated that the STTD Ca to STTD P ratio was important in the diet. A negative effect of increasing concentration of dietary STTD Ca was observed for ADG and G:F, and ADG and G:F were maximized at a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio of approximately 1.35:1. However, bone ash and the quantity of Ca and P retained in the body were maximized if the STTD Ca: STTD P ratio was between 1.33:1 and 1.67:1. These ratios are in agreement with the ratio of Ca and P in the body of pigs, which has been reported to be in the range between 1.20:1 and 1.60:1 (Rymarz et al., 1982; Hendriks and Moughan, 1993; Mahan and Shields, 1998; Wiseman et al., 2009; Pettey et al., 2015). There are, however, no estimates for the STTD Ca requirement for 25 to 50 kg pigs. Thus, the present experiments were conducted to predict responses on pig growth performance, Ca and P balances, and bone mineralization to varying dietary concentrations of both STTD Ca and STTD P in diets fed to pigs from 25 to 50 kg.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Illinois reviewed and approved the protocol for 2 experiments. Pigs used in both experiments were the offspring of PIC 359 boars and F-46 sows (Pig Improvement Company, Hendersonville, TN).

Experiment 1: Requirements for Digestible Calcium to Maximize Growth Performance and Bone Ash

Animals, Diets, and Feeding.

Two hundred and forty pigs (initial average BW: 24.70 ± 1.27 kg) were randomly allotted to 20 diets in 6 blocks with 1 pen per diet in each block using a 4 × 5 factorial design. The Experimental Animal Allotment Program (Kim and Lindemann, 2007) was used to allot pigs to experimental diets. Pen was the experimental unit and there was 1 gilt and 1 barrow in each pen. Room temperature was controlled and each pen had a feeder, a nipple drinker, and a fully slatted concrete floor. Feed and water were available at all times.

Twenty corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated to contain different Ca and P concentrations, but to keep the concentration of phytate constant, all diets contained the same amount of corn and soybean meal (Table 1). Diets were formulated to contain 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, or 0.47% STTD P and 0.18, 0.42, 0.66, 0.90, or 1.14% total Ca, which corresponds to 0.13, 0.27, 0.42, 0.57, or 0.72% STTD Ca, respectively (Tables 2 and 3). Concentrations of P ranged from 48 to 152% of the STTD P requirement (NRC, 2012) and concentrations of Ca ranged from 27 to 173% of the total Ca requirement (NRC, 2012). The concentration of P was increased in the diets by adding increased concentrations of monosodium phosphate (MSP), but to maintain the same Na concentration among diets, inclusion of sodium bicarbonate was reduced as MSP increased in the diets.


View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Analyzed composition of ingredients, as-fed basis, Exp. 1 and 2

 
Ingredient
Item Corn Soybean meal Calcium carbonate Monosodium phosphate Monocalcium phosphate Sodium chloride
GE, kcal/kg 3810 4199
DM, % 85.58 88.33 99.88 99.13 91.59 99.86
Ash, % 1.43 7.55 93.12 91.30 80.34 100.00
CP, % 7.91 48.49
Ca, % 0.02 0.52 38.20 0.17 17.10 ND3
P, % 0.23 0.63 0.06 24.60 20.60 ND
Na, % ND 0.02 0.17 20.30 0.25 38.80
Cl, % ND 0.01 ND ND ND 58.52
Phytate, % 0.69 1.60
Phytate-bound P,1% 0.19 0.45
Nonphytate P,2% 0.04 0.18
1Phytate-bound P was calculated as 28.2% of phytate (Tran and Sauvant, 2004).
2Nonphytate P was calculated as the difference between total P and phytate-bound P.
3ND = not detectable.

View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Ingredient composition and analyzed composition of experimental diets containing 0.15 or 0.31% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, as-fed basis, Exp. 1 and 2

 
0.15% STTD P
0.31% STTD P
Total Ca, %: 0.18 0.42 0.66 0.90 1.14 0.18 0.42 0.66 0.90 1.14
STTD Ca, %: 0.13 0.27 0.42 0.57 0.72 0.13 0.27 0.42 0.57 0.72
Ingredient, % STTD Ca:STTD P: 0.87:1 1.80:1 2.80:1 3.80:1 4.80:1 0.42:1 0.87:1 1.35:1 1.84:1 2.32:1
Ground corn 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00
Soybean meal 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00
Cornstarch 8.95 7.13 5.30 3.47 1.63 8.35 6.58 4.78 2.93 1.10
Soybean oil 1.20 2.40 3.60 4.80 0.40 1.55 2.73 3.95 5.15
Calcium carbonate 0.03 0.65 1.28 1.91 2.55 0.03 0.65 1.28 1.91 2.55
Monocalcium phosphate 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
Monosodium phosphate 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
Sodium bicarbonate 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.53
L-Lys HCl 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29
DL-Met 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
L-Thr 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
Sodium chloride 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Vitamin mineral premix1 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated composition
NE, kcal/kg 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552
CP, % 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81
Indispensable SID2 AA, %
Arg 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
His 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
Ile 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
Leu 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31
Lys 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Met 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
Phe 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72
Thr 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59
Trp 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
Val 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67
P, % 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51
Na, % 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
Cl, % 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21
K, % 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Analyzed composition
DM, % 85.83 86.50 86.61 86.66 86.80 86.64 86.83 86.83 85.21 86.21
CP, % 15.65 15.30 15.46 15.65 16.29 15.88 15.53 16.22 15.38 15.95
Ash, % 3.63 4.02 4.62 5.01 6.45 3.85 5.02 5.28 5.85 6.65
Ca, % 0.18 0.38 0.61 0.90 1.10 0.16 0.44 0.68 0.94 1.16
P, % 0.38 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.38 0.52 0.53 0.52 0.53 0.53
Phytate,3% 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.67 0.67 0.57 0.57 0.78
Phytate-bound P, % 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.16 0.22
Non-phytate P,4% 0.18 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.33 0.34 0.36 0.37 0.31
Na, % 0.37 0.35 0.37 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.36 0.35 0.39 0.33
Cl, % 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.16 0.18 0.17
DCAD,5 mEq/kg 297 288 300 292 307 310 292 299 311 288
1The vitamin-micromineral premix provided the following quantities of vitamins and micro minerals per kilogram of complete diet: Vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 11,136 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 2208 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 66 IU; vitamin K as menadione dimethylprimidinol bisulfite, 1.42 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.24 mg; riboflavin, 6.59 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.24 mg; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 23.5 mg; niacin, 44.1 mg; folic acid, 1.59 mg; biotin, 0.44 mg as D-biotin; Cu, 20 mg as copper sulfate; Fe, 126 mg as iron sulfate; I, 1.26 mg as ethylenediamine dihydriodide; Mn, 60.2 mg as manganous sulfate; Se, 0.25 mg as sodium selenite and selenium yeast; and Zn, 124.9 mg as zinc sulfate.
2SID = standardized ileal digestible.
3Phytate was calculated by dividing the phytate-bound P by 0.282 (Tran and Sauvant, 2004).
4Non-phytate P was calculated as the difference between total P and phytate-bound P.
5DCAD = dietary cation-anion difference. The DCAD was calculated as Na + K– Cl.

View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Ingredient composition and analyzed composition of experimental diets containing 0.39 or 0.47% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, as-fed basis, Exp. 1 and 2

 
0.39% STTD P
0.47% STTD P
Total Ca, %: 0.18 0.42 0.66 0.90 1.14 0.18 0.42 0.66 0.90 1.14
STTD Ca, %: 0.13 0.27 0.42 0.57 0.72 0.13 0.28 0.42 0.57 0.72
Ingredient, % STTD Ca:STTD P: 0.33:1 0.69:1 1.08:1 1.46:1 1.85:1 0.28:1 0.60:1 0.89:1 1.21:1 1.53:1
Ground corn 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00
Soybean meal 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00
Cornstarch 8.13 6.36 4.53 2.70 0.86 7.90 6.13 4.30 2.53 0.63
Soybean oil 0.55 1.70 2.90 4.10 5.30 0.70 1.85 3.05 4.20 5.45
Calcium carbonate 0.03 0.65 1.28 1.91 2.55 0.03 0.65 1.28 1.90 2.55
Monocalcium phosphate 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
Monosodium phosphate 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40
Sodium bicarbonate 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27
L-Lys HCl 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29
DL-Met 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
L-Thr 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
Sodium chloride 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Vitamin mineral premix1 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated composition
NE, kcal/kg 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552 2552
CP, % 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81 16.81
Indispensable SID2 AA, %
Arg 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
His 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
Ile 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
Leu 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31
Lys 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Met 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
Phe 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72
Thr 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.59
Trp 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
Val 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67
P, % 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.59 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68
Na, % 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
Cl, % 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21
K, % 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Analyzed composition
DM, % 85.68 85.38 86.51 86.44 85.99 86.16 86.32 86.44 86.90 87.12
CP, % 14.82 15.85 15.76 15.88 15.55 16.59 15.27 15.92 15.69 16.27
Ash, % 3.99 4.84 5.80 5.96 6.54 4.21 4.96 5.68 6.72 6.92
Ca, % 0.20 0.42 0.64 0.87 1.25 0.18 0.45 0.62 1.03 1.27
P, % 0.59 0.65 0.64 0.65 0.59 0.67 0.70 0.72 0.73 0.79
Phytate,3% 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.85 0.78 0.71 0.71 0.78 0.78 0.78
Phytate-bound P, % 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.22
Non-phytate P,4% 0.37 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.37 0.47 0.50 0.50 0.51 0.57
Na, % 0.36 0.40 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.41 0.34 0.35 0.37
Cl, % 0.17 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.16 0.16 0.17
DCAD,5 mEq/kg 301 310 301 297 292 292 314 295 299 305
1The vitamin-micromineral premix provided the following quantities of vitamins and micro minerals per kilogram of complete diet: Vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 11,136 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 2208 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 66 IU; vitamin K as menadione dimethylprimidinol bisulfite, 1.42 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.24 mg; riboflavin, 6.59 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.24 mg; vitamin B12, 0.03 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 23.5 mg; niacin, 44.1 mg; folic acid, 1.59 mg; biotin, 0.44 mg as D-biotin; Cu, 20 mg as copper sulfate; Fe, 126 mg as iron sulfate; I, 1.26 mg as ethylenediamine dihydriodide; Mn, 60.2 mg as manganous sulfate; Se, 0.25 mg as sodium selenite and selenium yeast; and Zn, 124.9 mg as zinc sulfate.
2SID = standardized ileal digestible.
3Phytate was calculated by dividing the phytate-bound P by 0.282 (Tran and Sauvant, 2004).
4Non-phytate P was calculated as the difference between total P and phytate-bound P.
5DCAD = dietary cation-anion difference. The DCAD was calculated as Na + K– Cl.

Growth Performance and Bone Measurements.

Pig weights were recorded on d 1 and 28. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and the amount of feed offered each day was recorded. To calculate feed intake, the amount of feed in the feeders on d 28 was subtracted from the total amount of feed offered. On d 28, all barrows were euthanized via captive bolt stunning. Stomach contents were immediately collected to measure pH. The right femurs were removed, cleaned, and stored at -20°C. The frozen bones were later thawed, broken, and soaked in petroleum ether under a chemical hood for 72 h to remove bone marrow and fat. Bones were dried overnight at 130°C and then ashed at 600°C for 24 h.

Sample Analysis.

Corn, soybean meal, calcium carbonate, MSP, monocalcium phosphate (MCP), NaCl, and diets were analyzed for DM by oven drying at 135°C for 2 h (Method 930.15; AOAC International, 2007), for ash (Method 942.05; AOAC International, 2007), for Na by flame emission photometry (Method 956.01; AOAC International, 2007), and for Cl by manual titration (Method 9.15.01, 943.01; AOAC, 2006). Ingredients, diets, and bone ash were analyzed for Ca and P by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES; Method 985.01 A, B, and C; AOAC International, 2007) after wet ash sample preparation [Method 975.03 B(b); AOAC Internantional, 2007]. Corn, soybean meal, and diets were analyzed for N using the combustion procedure (Method 990.03; AOAC International, 2007) on an Elementar Rapid N-cube protein/nitrogen apparatus (Elementar Americas Inc., Mt. Laurel, NJ) and CP was calculated as N × 6.25. Corn and soybean meal were analyzed for GE using an isoperibol bomb calorimeter (Model 6300, Parr Instruments, Moline, IL) and for phytic acid (Megazyme method; AB Vista, Ystrad Mynach, UK). Diets were analyzed for phytate-P using a Foss near-infrared spectrometer with the phytate-P levels predicted using AUNIR calibration standards (AB Vista, Memphis, TN). The pH of the stomach content was measured using a pH meter (Oakton pH 11 Standard Portable Meter, Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA).

Calculations and Statistical Analyses.

The percentage of phytate-bound P in corn and soybean meal was calculated as 28.2% of phytate (Tran and Sauvant, 2004). The percentage of phytate in diets was calculated by dividing the analyzed phytate-bound P by 0.282, and non-phytate P was calculated by subtracting the amount of phytate-bound P from total P. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) was calculated using the following equation:where Na, K, and Cl are expressed in percentage of inclusion in diet. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated. Bone ash percentage was calculated by dividing the quantity of bone ash by the quantity of fat-free dried bone and multiplying by 100.

Normality of residuals and identification of outliers were determined by the UNIVARIATE procedure of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Data for BW, ADG, ADFI, G:F, bone ash, bone Ca, bone P, and stomach pH were analyzed using the Proc MIXED of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The fixed effects of the model were dietary concentration of STTD Ca, dietary concentration of STTD P, and the interaction between STTD Ca and STTD P; the random effect was block. Effect of dietary STTD Ca, STTD P, or the interaction between STTD Ca and STTD P were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05. If the interaction or the main effects were significant, the program NLREG version 5.3 (Sherrod, 2002) was used to determine parameter estimates for the surface response model to increasing concentrations of STTD Ca and STTD P as outlined by Khuri and Cornell (1996). The parameter estimates of the model that were not significant (P > 0.05) and were not included in a significant interaction were removed from the model and the estimates were recalculated. The surface response full model was:where Y is the dependent variable, a is the intercept, b, c, d, e, and f are the coefficients, and STTD Ca and STTD P are the percentage concentrations of dietary STTD Ca and STTD P. If parameter estimate c was significant (P ≤ 0.05), the concentrations of STTD Ca at the maximum response values were calculated using the following equation:where STTD Ca max is the concentration of STTD Ca at the maximum response and STTD P is the percentage concentration of STTD P in the diet. The maximum response values were, therefore, calculated using the respective model equations with the concentrations of STTD Ca at the maximum response in each concentration of STTD P. The LSMEANS procedure was used to calculate mean values for treatments and the pen was the experimental unit for all analyses.

Experiment 2. Ca and P Balance

Animals, Diets, and Feeding.

One hundred and twenty pigs (initial average BW: 29.45 ± 2.15 kg) were randomly allotted to 20 diets in 6 blocks with 1 pig per diet in each block using a 4 × 5 factorial design. The 20 diets used in Exp. 1 were also used in Exp. 2, and the amount of each diet that was needed for both experiments was mixed in 1 batch. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates that were equipped with a slatted floor, a feeder, and a nipple drinker. Pigs had free access to water throughout the experiment. Each crate had a screen floor for fecal collection and a urine pan with a urine bucket for total urine collection.

Pigs were fed 3 times the daily maintenance energy requirement (i.e., 197 kcal of ME/kg BW0.60; NRC, 2012). The daily allotments of feed were divided into 2 equal meals and provided at 0800 and 1700 h. Pigs were fed each diet for 13 d, the initial 5 d were an adaptation period to the diets and fecal samples were collected quantitatively from the feed provided from d 6 to 11 using the marker-to-marker approach (Adeola, 2001). The beginning of fecal collections was marked by adding a color marker (indigo carmine) to the morning meal on d 6, and the conclusion of fecal collection was marked by adding ferric oxide to the morning meal on d 11. Urine samples were collected every morning from d 6 to d 11 and 50 mL of 6N HCl was added to each bucket after they were emptied. Fecal samples and 20% of the collected urine were stored at -20°C immediately after collection. Orts collected during the collection period were dried in a forced-air oven at 65°C and feed intake was calculated by subtracting the orts from feed allowance. Blood samples were collected on d 1 and d 13 by jugular venipuncture. Samples were immediately centrifuged and plasma samples were collected and stored at -20°C for Ca and P analysis.

Sample Analysis and Statistical Analyses.

Fecal samples were dried in a forced-air oven at 65°C and ground in a Wiley mill (model 4; Thomas Scientific, Swedesboro, NJ) using a 1-mm screen. Fecal samples were analyzed for DM as explained for Exp. 1. Fecal and urine samples were analyzed for Ca and P as explained for Exp. 1. Plasma samples were analyzed for Ca and P (Method 968.08 D(b); AOAC International, 2007). Values for retention of Ca and P were calculated as explained by González-Vega et al. (2013). Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS and parameter estimates for the surface response model to increasing levels of STTD Ca and STTD P were determined as explained for Exp. 1. For the urine Ca output and urine P output data, the surface response full model was:where Y is the dependent variable, a is the intercept, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i are the coefficients, STTD Ca and STTD P are the percentage concentrations of dietary STTD Ca and STTD P. The concentrations of STTD Ca at the maximum or minimum response values were calculated using the following equation:where STTD Ca max/min is the percentage concentration of STTD Ca at the maximum or minimum response and STTD P is the percentage concentration of STTD P in the diet. The maximum or minimum response values were, therefore, calculated using the respective model equations with the concentrations of STTD Ca at the maximum or minimum response in each concentration of STTD P. Pig was the experimental unit for all analyses.


RESULTS

Experiment 1: Requirements for Digestible Ca to Maximize Growth Performance and Bone Ash

All pigs consumed their diets without apparent problems, but 1 gilt and 1 barrow fed the diet containing 0.13% STTD Ca and 0.47% STTD P died from blocks 3 and 4, respectively. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F of the pen for these pigs were adjusted (Lindemann and Kim, 2007). However, values for bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P from the dead barrow were missing.

The maximum BW, ADG, ADFI, and G:F at different dietary concentrations of STTD Ca and STTD P were predicted from the least squares means (Table 4). The predicted maximum BW at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% was 46.0, 49.0, 49.9, and 50.5 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.14, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.56%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.93:1, 1.13:1, 1.15:1, and 1.19:1 (Fig. 1). The predicted maximum ADG at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% was 0.76, 0.87, 0.90, and 0.92 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.12, 0.36, 0.47, and 0.59%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.80:1, 1.16:1, 1.21:1, and 1.26:1 (Fig. 2). The predicted maximum ADFI at the 4 STTD P concentrations was 1.80, 1.90, 1.89, and 1.85 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.14, 0.33, 0.43, and 0.52%, respectively, and these values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.93:1, 1.06:1, 1.10:1, and 1.11:1 (Fig. 3). The predicted maximum G:F at the 4 STTD P concentrations was 0.43, 0.46, 0.48, and 0.50 kg/kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.09, 0.38, 0.52, and 0.67%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.60:1, 1.23:1, 1.33:1, and 1.43:1 (Fig. 4).


View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Least squares means for BW at d 28, and ADG, ADFI, and G:F from d 1 to 28 in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P, Exp. 11

 
STTD Ca, %
Item 0.13 0.27 0.42 0.57 0.72
BW, kg2,3
0.15% STTD P 46.96 44.98 42.69 41.15 35.89
0.31% STTD P 47.03 48.68 50.17 49.28 44.47
0.39% STTD P 46.13 48.53 48.43 48.89 48.53
0.47% STTD P 45.42 49.89 49.05 50.84 49.36
ADG, kg4,5
0.15% STTD P 0.80 0.72 0.64 0.58 0.41
0.31% STTD P 0.80 0.86 0.90 0.88 0.71
0.39% STTD P 0.78 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.86
0.47% STTD P 0.69 0.89 0.86 0.93 0.89
ADFI, kg6,7
0.15% STTD P 1.82 1.74 1.66 1.54 1.35
0.31% STTD P 1.81 1.88 1.98 1.90 1.61
0.39% STTD P 1.79 1.88 1.82 1.79 1.78
0.47% STTD P 1.59 1.85 1.79 1.85 1.85
G:F, kg:kg8,9
0.15% STTD P 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.38 0.30
0.31% STTD P 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.44
0.39% STTD P 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.49
0.47% STTD P 0.43 0.48 0.48 0.50 0.48
1Data are least square means of 6 observations.
2Results indicated that BW at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 41.8265- 3.30995 × Ca- 28.9672 × Ca2 + 35.4607 × P-77.1011 × P2 + 76.0425 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
3Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 1.37.
4Results indicated that ADG at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 0.61476- 0.20212 × Ca- 0.98679 × Ca2 + 1.36823 × P-3.10677 × P2 + 2.92181 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
5Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.04.
6Results indicated that ADFI at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 1.5745- 0.1117 × Ca- 1.41036 × Ca2 + 2.01723 × P-4.76539 × P2 + 3.36731 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
7Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.08.
8Results indicated that G:F at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 0.3896- 0.09482 × Ca- 0.26695 × Ca2 + 0.35043 × P -0.77095 × P2 + 0.95727 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
9Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.02.
Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for BW at d 28 in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum BW at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 46.0, 49.0, 49.9, and 50.5 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.14, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.56%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.93:1, 1.13:1, 1.15:1, and 1.19:1.

 
Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for average daily gain (ADG) from d 1 to 28 in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum ADG at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 0.76, 0.87, 0.90, and 0.92 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.12, 0.36, 0.47, and 0.59%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.80:1, 1.16:1, 1.21:1, and 1.26:1.

 
Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for average daily feed intake (ADFI) from d 1 to 28 in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum ADFI at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 1.80, 1.90, 1.89, and 1.85 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.14, 0.33, 0.43, and 0.52%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.93:1, 1.06:1, 1.10:1, and 1.11:1.

 
Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for gain to feed ratio (G:F) from d 1 to 28 in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum G:F ratio at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 0.43, 0.46, 0.48, and 0.50 kg/kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.09, 0.38, 0.52, and 0.67%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.60:1, 1.23:1, 1.33:1, and 1.43:1.

 

The maximum bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P at different dietary concentrations of STTD Ca and STTD P were predicted from the least squares means (Table 5). The predicted maximum bone ash at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% was 14.5, 21.0, 23.1, and 24.5 g at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.41, 0.56, 0.64, and 0.72%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 2.73:1, 1.81:1, 1.64:1, and 1.53:1 (Fig. 5). The predicted maximum bone Ca and bone P at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 9.6 g Ca at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.42, 0.57, 0.65, and 0.73%, and 2.7, 3.9, 4.3, and 4.6 g P at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.40, 0.55, 0.63, and 0.71%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 2.80:1, 1.84:1, 1.67:1, and 1.55:1 for bone Ca (Fig. 6) and 2.67:1, 1.77:1, 1.62:1, and 1.51:1 for bone P (Fig. 7). The stomach pH was less (P = 0.016) in pigs fed the diet containing 0.13% STTD Ca than in pigs fed diets containing 0.27, 0.57, or 0.72% STTD Ca, but not different from the pH of the diet containing 0.42% STTD Ca.


View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Least squares means for bone ash, bone Ca, bone P, and stomach pH in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P, Exp. 11

 
STTD Ca, %
Item 0.13 0.27 0.42 0.57 0.72
Bone ash, g2,3
0.15% STTD P 12.49 13.48 12.95 13.11 11.63
0.31% STTD P 13.59 17.44 21.76 21.71 19.49
0.39% STTD P 12.98 15.71 21.14 23.86 22.02
0.47% STTD P 12.44 18.56 20.29 23.67 24.37
Bone Ca, g4,5
0.15% STTD P 4.80 5.30 5.13 5.14 4.63
0.31% STTD P 5.16 6.76 8.49 8.47 7.65
0.39% STTD P 5.02 6.12 8.20 9.24 8.74
0.47% STTD P 4.82 7.26 7.95 9.32 9.58
Bone P, g6,7
0.15% STTD P 2.32 2.51 2.41 2.37 2.10
0.31% STTD P 2.53 3.29 4.09 4.03 3.57
0.39% STTD P 2.47 2.95 3.93 4.42 4.11
0.47% STTD P 2.35 3.53 3.82 4.46 4.55
Ca:P in bone
0.15% STTD P 2.07 2.11 2.13 2.17 2.20
0.31% STTD P 2.04 2.05 2.08 2.10 2.14
0.39% STTD P 2.03 2.07 2.09 2.09 2.13
0.47% STTD P 2.05 2.06 2.08 2.09 2.11
Stomach pH7,8,9 2.27b 2.86a 2.73ab 3.19a 3.07a
a,bWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).
1Data are least square means of 6 observations.
2Results indicated that bone ash at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 2.9550 + 20.3139 × Ca– 38.5764 × Ca2 + 48.1313 × P– 95.6806 × P2 + 75.0046 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
3Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 1.15.
4Results indicated that bone Ca at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 1.2282 + 8.2355 × Ca– 15.0966 × Ca2 + 17.3926 × P– 34.9669 × P2 + 29.1245 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
5Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.46.
6Results indicated that bone P at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 0.5601 + 3.7735 × Ca– 7.3960 × Ca2 + 8.8805 × P– 17.5142 × P2 + 14.2338 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
7Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.22.
8Concentration of STTD Ca in diet affect (P < 0.016) pH in stomach.
9Standard error of means = 0.24.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for bone ash (g) in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum bone ash at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 14.5, 21.0, 23.1, and 24.5 g at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.41, 0.56, 0.64, and 0.72%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 2.73:1, 1.81:1, 1.64:1, and 1.53:1.

 
Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for bone Ca (g) in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum bone Ca at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 9.6 g at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.42, 0.57, 0.65, and 0.73%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 2.80:1, 1.84:1, 1.67:1, and 1.55:1.

 
Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for bone P (g) in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum bone P at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 2.7, 3.9, 4.3, and 4.6 g at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.40, 0.55, 0.63, and 0.71%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 2.67:1, 1.77:1, 1.62:1, and 1.51:1.

 

Experiment 2. Ca and P Balance

Pigs consumed the diets without problems throughout the experiment, but 1 barrow fed the diet containing 0.57% STTD Ca and 0.31% STTD P was euthanized on d 9 of the experiment due to an injured leg. Therefore, this diet had 1 missing observation.

The maximum urine output of Ca and P and the maximum retention of Ca and P at different dietary concentrations of STTD Ca and STTD P were predicted from the least squares means (Table 6). The predicted maximum urine Ca output at 0.15% STTD P was 8.8 g/d at STTD Ca concentration of 0.64%, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratio of 4.27:1 (Fig. 8). However, the predicted minimum urine Ca output at STTD P concentrations of 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 0.4, -0.3, and 0.2 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.24, 0.29, and 0.29%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.77:1, 0.74:1, and 0.62:1. The predicted minimum urine P output at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, and 0.39% were 0.0, 0.2, and 0.7 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.49, 0.62, and 0.78%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 3.27:1, 2.00:1, and 2.00:1, respectively (Fig. 9). The values for minimum urine P output at 0.47% STTD P was not estimated due to a nearly linear response. The predicted maximum retention of Ca in the body at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 4.7, 7.1, 8.6, and 10.2 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.77, 0.96, 1.06, and 1.15%, respectively, and these values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 5.13:1, 3.10:1, 2.72:1, and 2.45:1 (Fig. 10). The STTD Ca concentrations needed to maximize retention of Ca in the body were extrapolations of the model. The predicted maximum retention of P in the body at the 4 STTD P concentrations were 1.8, 2.6, 3.2, and 4.0 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.15, 0.45, 0.61, and 0.76%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 1.00:1, 1.46:1, 1.55:1, and 1.61:1 (Fig. 11).


View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Least squares means for retention of Ca and P in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P, Exp. 21

 
STTD Ca, %
Item 0.13 0.27 0.42 0.57 0.72
Urine Ca output, g/d2,3
0.15% STTD P 1.30 6.12 7.73 8.78 9.13
0.31% STTD P 0.22 0.31 1.93 4.16 8.73
0.39% STTD P 0.89 0.39 0.61 1.64 5.90
0.47% STTD P 0.28 0.30 0.46 1.07 3.13
Urine P output, g/d4,5
0.15% STTD P 0.28 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.15
0.31% STTD P 7.79 3.29 0.50 0.47 0.42
0.39% STTD P 8.45 6.85 3.76 2.33 0.71
0.47% STTD P 14.83 10.03 5.95 3.57 1.17
Retention of Ca in the body, g/d6,7
0.15% STTD P 0.94 2.39 3.77 4.17 5.13
0.31% STTD P 1.26 3.23 5.00 6.44 6.67
0.39% STTD P 0.90 3.22 5.45 6.99 7.63
0.47% STTD P 1.11 3.00 5.28 6.92 8.38
Retention of P in the body, g/d8,9
0.15% STTD P 1.86 1.55 1.36 1.21 0.87
0.31% STTD P 2.21 2.53 3.15 2.95 2.45
0.39% STTD P 2.76 2.71 3.37 3.33 3.35
0.47% STTD P 2.37 2.88 3.53 3.79 3.87
1Data are least square means of 6 observations.
2Results indicated that urine Ca output at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model:- 11.2788 + 133.541 × Ca- 154.747 × Ca2 + 76.1041 × P– 104.612 × P2– 830.115 × Ca × P + 1084.04 × Ca2 × P + 1124.03 × Ca × P2– 1541.08 × Ca2 × P2 (P < 0.001).
3Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.72.
4Results indicated that urine P output at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model:- 14.6788 + 70.134 × Ca– 68.942 × Ca2 + 121.048 × P– 124.258 × P2– 622.705 × Ca × P + 631.354 × Ca2 × P + 917.568 × Ca × P2– 1026.05 × Ca2 × P2 (P < 0.001).
5Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.63.
6Results indicated that retention of Ca in the body at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model:- 0.1145 + 10.5371 × Ca– 8.8014 × Ca2– 2.8922 × P + 20.6228 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
7Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.35.
8Results indicated that retention of P in the body at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 1.7735– 1.0789 × Ca– 3.9067 × Ca2– 0.0664 × P + 14.9090 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
9Standard error of the within treatments least squared means = 0.23.
Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for urine Ca output (g/d) in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum urine Ca output at STTD P concentrations of 0.15% was 8.8 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.64%, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 4.27:1. However, the predicted minimum urine Ca output at STTD P concentrations of 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 0.4, -0.3, and 0.2 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.24, 0.29, and 0.29%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.77:1, 0.74:1, and 0.62:1.

 
Figure 9.
Figure 9.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for urine P output (g/d) in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted minimum urine P output at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, and 0.39% were 0.0, 0.2, and 0.7 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.49, 0.62, and 0.78%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 3.27:1, 2.00:1, and 2.00:1. The values for minimum urine P output at 0.47% STTD P was not estimated due to a nearly linear response.

 
Figure 10.
Figure 10.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for retention of Ca in the body (g/d) in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum retention of Ca in the body at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 4.7, 7.1, 8.6, and 10.2 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.77, 0.96, 1.06, and 1.15%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 5.13:1, 3.10:1, 2.72:1, and 2.45:1. These STTD Ca concentrations needed to maximize retention of Ca in the body were extrapolations of the model.

 
Figure 11.
Figure 11.

Predicted values, based on the interaction between Ca and P (P < 0.001), for retention of P in the body (g/d) in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P. The predicted maximum retention of P in the body at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 1.8, 2.6, 3.2, and 4.0 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.15, 0.45, 0.61, and 0.76%, respectively. These values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 1.00:1, 1.46:1, 1.55:1, and 1.61:1.

 

Calcium in plasma increased (P < 0.001) in pigs fed diets containing 0.15% STTD P as the concentration of dietary Ca increased, but for pigs fed diets containing 0.31, 0.39, or 0.47% STTD P no change in plasma concentration of Ca was observed as dietary Ca increased (interaction, P < 0.001; Table 7). However, P in plasma linearly decreased (P = 0.003) as the concentration of STTD Ca increased, and linearly increased (P = 0.003) as the concentration of STTD P increased. Due to the linear response for Ca and P in plasma, maximum values were not estimated.


View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Least squares means for Ca and P in plasma (mg/dL) at d13 in pigs fed diets containing from 0.13 to 0.72% standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and from 0.15 to 0.47% STTD P, Exp. 21

 
STTD Ca, %
Item 0.13 0.27 0.42 0.57 0.72
Plasma Ca, mg/dL2,3
0.15% STTD P 10.1 11.0 12.6 12.7 14.7
0.31% STTD P 9.4 10.3 10.2 10.9 12.5
0.39% STTD P 10.1 10.3 10.3 10.2 11.3
0.47% STTD P 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.1 10.2
Plasma P, mg/dL4,5
0.15% STTD P 15.8 17.1 14.9 12.7 9.7
0.31% STTD P 16.7 19.2 17.6 15.4 14.5
0.39% STTD P 18.8 18.6 18.5 16.4 16.0
0.47% STTD P 19.0 16.9 17.0 18.5 18.0
1Data are least square means of 6 observations.
2Results indicated that Ca in plasma at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 10.5277 + 10.6516 × Ca– 13.5555 × P + 27.7143 × P2– 22.8713 × Ca × P (P < 0.001).
3Standard error of the within treatments least squares means = 0.32.
4Results indicated that P in plasma at different combinations of STTD Ca and STTD P can be described by the following model: 14.7573– 6.16262 × Ca + 12.7857 × P (P = 0.003).
5Standard error of the within treatments least squares means = 2.59.


DISCUSSION

The concentration of Ca, P, Na, and Cl in corn, calcium carbonate, MSP, MCP, and NaCl were in agreement with reported values (Sauvant et al., 2004; de Blas et al., 2010; Rostagno et al., 2011; NRC, 2012). The concentration of P, Na, and Cl in soybean meal were close to reported values (Sauvant et al., 2004; de Blas et al., 2010; Rostagno et al., 2011; NRC, 2012), but the concentration of Ca was greater than expected (Sauvant et al., 2004; de Blas et al., 2010; Rostagno et al., 2011; NRC, 2012). However, diets were formulated based on analyzed values for Ca and P in all ingredients and the concentration of Ca, P, Na, and Cl in all diets were, therefore, close to calculated values.

Utilization of Ca and P in the body is dependent on the excess or deficiency of 1 mineral or the other (Crenshaw, 2001), therefore, the ratio between Ca and P needs to be considered in diet formulations. Studies that are designed to determine Ca or P requirements usually are designed to contain a constant dietary concentration of 1 mineral with graded levels of the other mineral, or alternatively, a constant Ca:P ratio may be used. Results obtained from a previous experiment that aimed at determining STTD Ca requirements by 11 to 25 kg pigs, indicated that the ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P was important for maximizing ADG, G:F, the quantity of deposited bone ash, Ca retained, and P retained (González-Vega et al., 2016). Due to the negative effect of increasing the concentration of STTD Ca in diets with a constant concentration of STTD P on ADG and G:F (González-Vega et al., 2016), the current experiments were designed to include 4 concentrations of STTD P and 5 concentrations of STTD Ca, which allowed us to determine requirements of STTD Ca at different concentrations of STTD P.

The fact that increasing concentrations of STTD Ca had a negative effect on growth performance of pigs fed diets containing concentrations of STTD P between 48.4 and 151.6% of the requirement (NRC, 2012), especially at low P concentration, is in agreement with results obtained in our previous study with 11 to 25 kg pigs (González-Vega et al., 2016). The negative effect of increasing dietary Ca on growth performance was also observed in fast-growing Cobb broiler chickens (Hurwitz et al., 1995). This may be caused by formation of Ca-P complexes in the gastrointestinal tract due to excess Ca in diets, which reduces digestibility of P (Clark, 1969; Brink et al., 1992; Stein et al., 2011; González-Vega et al., 2014). However, the negative effect of increasing concentration of STTD Ca on growth performance of pigs was ameliorated as concentration of STTD P increased, which further indicates that the negative effects of high dietary concentrations of STTD Ca may have been caused by reduced P digestibility.

Regardless of the concentration of STTD P in the diet, final BW, ADG, and G:F were less affected by Ca concentrations below the requirement than if Ca was provided above the requirement, which indicates that at low concentrations of dietary Ca, pigs were able to mobilize Ca from Ca stores to compensate for the deficiency of dietary Ca. Theoretically, it could also be possible that the absorption efficiency of Ca increased at the lower dietary Ca concentrations, but the apparent total tract digestibility of Ca was almost constant among treatments (data not shown) indicating that dietary Ca concentration only marginally influenced efficiency of absorption. These results are in agreement with previous reports (Eklou-Kalonji et al., 1999; González-Vega et al., 2016). The implications of the results obtained for growth performance is that the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio is important in diet formulation and excess Ca needs to be avoided because maximum animal growth performance is achieved only if diets are formulated based on the optimum STTD Ca: STTD P ratio.

Results from our study with 11 to 25 kg pigs indicated that the quantity of STTD Ca that was needed to maximize bone ash and retention of Ca was greater than the quantity needed to maximize growth performance (González-Vega et al., 2016). Results obtained from the current experiments support this observation, and these results are also in agreement with data from studies that aimed at determining P requirements in pigs (Ketaren et al., 1993; Partanen et al., 2010; Adeola et al., 2015). It is possible that these responses are a result of the fact that depositions of Ca and P in bones and in soft tissue are independent (Crenshaw, 2001). However, it is also possible that the results for bone ash and Ca retention simply reflect that the pig is able to deposit significantly more Ca and P in bones than what is needed to maximize ADG and G:F. Thus, bones seem to be the default storage site for Ca and P if availability exceeds the requirement to maximize growth performance.

If diets met or exceeded the STTD P requirement (NRC, 2012), the STTD Ca values to maximize ADG and G:F ranged from 0.36 to 0.67%, which corresponded to a STTD Ca:STTD P ratios between 1.16:1 and 1.43:1. However, the STTD Ca values to maximize bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P ranged from 0.55 to 0.73%, which corresponded to a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio between 1.55:1 and 1.77:1. These values are close to the Ca:P ratio in the body, which ranges between 1.25:1 and 1.70:1 for a 50 kg pig (Rymarz et al., 1982; Hendriks and Moughan, 1993; Mahan and Shields, 1998; Wiseman et al., 2009; Pettey et al., 2015).

Requirements for STTD Ca to maximize bone ash were expected to be close to requirements to maximize Ca retention, because 96 to 99% of Ca is believed to be stored in skeletal tissue (Crenshaw, 2001). However, results from Exp. 2 indicated that the STTD Ca values to maximize Ca retention ranged from 0.96 to 1.15%, which corresponded to a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio between 2.45:1 and 3.10:1. There is not a clear explanation for the greater quantities needed to maximize Ca retention than the quantities needed to maximize bone ash, but similar results were observed previously in 11 to 25 kg pigs (González-Vega et al., 2016). Thus, results from our 2 experiments indicate that there may be Ca stored in tissues other than bones, that the Ca:P ratio in bone ash is not constant, or that retention of ash in the femur is not representative of deposition of ash in all skeletal tissue. Results from the present experiment demonstrate that plasma Ca is influenced by dietary Ca if P is deficient, but plasma Ca concentration was not increased as dietary Ca increased for pigs fed a diet that was not deficient in P, which indicates that it is unlikely that significant quantities of Ca are stored in plasma if dietary Ca is increased. The reason for the lack of response in plasma Ca is most likely that concentrations of Ca in the blood are regulated by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D, and plasma Ca is, therefore, usually relatively constant.

Deposition of minerals in bones is a result of the exchange of minerals among 3 compartments: the hydration shell, the crystal surface, and the crystal interior (Szymendera, 1970). Because bone ash accounts only for the crystalline mineral, minerals present in the hydration shell are not included in values for bone ash. This may explain the difference between the concentration of Ca needed to maximize bone Ca concentration and Ca needed to maximize Ca retention, however, it is not clear, why this difference was not also observed for P retention. Accumulation of minerals in the cecum has been observed in rats fed diets varying in the concentration of inulin (Levrat et al., 1991). However, if minerals are deposited in the cecum it is expected that not only Ca, but also P, are deposited. In the present experiment, the quantity of P required to maximize P in bone ash was in very good agreement with the quantity needed to maximize P retention. It is, therefore, unlikely, that deposition of minerals in the cecum contributed to the discrepancy between Ca needed to maximize Ca retention and Ca needed to maximize Ca in bone ash.

Although deposition of Ca in soft tissue is negligible (Crenshaw, 2001; Pettey et al., 2015), calcification of soft tissue has been reported. A tenfold increase of Ca concentration in kidneys was observed in dogs fed phosphates (Laflamme and Jowsey, 1972), and calcification of soft tissues has been observed in rats and rabbits (Spaulding and Walser, 1970; Jowsey and Balasubramaniam, 1972). The Ca:P ratios in the bones in 11 to 25 kg pigs were between 2.03:1 and 2.14:1 (González-Vega et al., 2016) and the Ca:P ratios in the bones from pigs in the current study ranged between 2.03:1 and 2.20:1, which are close to the ratio of 2.15:1 that is needed to form hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)]. Bones differ in size and mineral content (Han et al., 2015), which may result in challenges to quantify deposition of ash in all skeletal tissue, however, data from Crenshaw et al. (1981, 2009) indicated that the femur is an accurate indicator of whole body bone mineral content. Therefore, the observation that greater quantities of STTD Ca are needed to maximize Ca retention than the quantities needed to maximize bone ash is likely a result of accumulation of Ca in soft tissues. However, further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

The fact that pigs fed diets that were deficient in either Ca or P excreted Ca and P in the urine indicates that there are obligatory losses of Ca and P in urine. A minimum urinary loss of P of 7 mg/kg BW per d was reported by NRC (2012); therefore, a minimum of 0.21 g P excreted in the urine per d was expected in Exp. 2. The predicted value (0.20 g/d) for the diet containing 0.31% STTD P was in very good agreement with this estimate, indicating that for pigs that are fed diets that do not exceed the requirement for P, at least 7 mg of P per kg BW will be excreted in the urine every d. There is also an obligatory loss of Ca in humans (Nordin and Morris, 1989), but to our knowledge, the obligatory losses of Ca in pigs have not been quantified. However, results of this experiment indicate that the obligatory loss of Ca likely is less than the obligatory loss of P because estimates that were close to zero were observed.

The observation that the concentration of Ca in plasma from pigs fed diets containing the least concentration of STTD P increased as the concentration of STTD Ca increased, may be a result of deficiency of P, which limited Ca deposition in bones. Therefore, absorbed Ca that could not be deposited in bones was circulating in blood to be excreted in the urine at a later time. Increased concentration of Ca in plasma as the concentration of dietary Ca increased has also been observed in chickens (Hurwitz et al., 1995).

Conclusions

Data from these experiments indicate that utilization of both Ca and P is influenced by the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio. Therefore, if STTD P is below the recommended requirement (NRC, 2012), the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize ADG and G:F is between 0.60:1 and 0.80:1, but the STTD Ca: STTD P ratio needed to maximize bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P is between 2.67:1 and 2.80:1. However, the ratio needed to maximize bone ash will negatively affect growth performance of pigs. In contrast, if STTD P meets or exceeds the requirement (NRC, 2012), a STTD Ca: STTD P ratio between 1.16:1 and 1.43:1 is needed to maximize ADG and G:F. A greater ratio will reduce growth performance, although a ratio between 1.55:1 and 1.77:1 is needed to maximize bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P. The implication of this observation is that the ratios needed to maximize bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P may reduce growth performance. As a consequence, it is recommended that, for commercial production of growing-finishing pigs, diets should be formulated using a ratio of STTD Ca: STTD P between 1.16:1 and 1.43:1. It is, however, possible that pigs that are destined to be kept for breeding should be fed a diet that maximizes bone ash rather than growth performance to increase longevity.

 

References

Footnotes


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