Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Photos and sampling localities of pigs: (a) the Formosan wild boar, (b) the Lanyu pig, and (c) the sampling localities of 278 Formosan wild boars in Taiwan. Six different populations are designated populations A to F with different colors across mountain areas from north to south in Taiwan. Bold dotted lines show the major mountain ranges in Taiwan. The orange star indicates Lanyu Islet. The inset in the upper left corner indicates the location of Taiwan relative to East Asia.

 


Figure 2.
Figure 2.

A map of Asia with country and Chinese provincial boundaries, and the Bayesian consensus tree of 552 Asian wild boars, Lanyu pigs, and Philippine native pigs showing phylogenetic relationships among clades in the region. Each clade is represented by a specific color corresponding to its region on the map of Asia. Abbreviations of clades are as follows: GEAWB = general East Asian wild boar; AWB = Asian wild boar; FWBLYL = Formosan wild boar with Lanyu sign lineage. Light blue regions depict depth contours at 130 m below present sea level. These areas could have provided land bridges during glacial periods (Fleming et al., 1998). Color nodes on the phylogenetic tree show posterior probability larger than 0.50. Additional detailed information on haplotypes and posterior probabilities is given in Supplemental Fig. S2 (see the online version of the article at http://journalofanimalscience.org). The bold frame at the bottom right corner shows a detailed map of Taiwan, Lanyu Islet, and the Philippines. The orange stars show the sampling sites of pigs of FWBLYL found in Taiwan, Lanyu Islet, and the Philippines.

 


Figure 3.
Figure 3.

A Bayesian phylogenetic tree was constructed by full mitochondrial DNA control-region haplotypes of 101 wild boars in insular East Asia and the Korean Peninsula, Lanyu pigs, and Philippine native pigs. Warty pigs (Sus verrucosus [NC_ 023536] and Sus cebifrons [NC_023541]) are used as the outgroup. Numbers on the nodes are Bayesian posterior probability and divergence time (95% highest posterior density [HPD] in parentheses). Support of Bayesian posterior probabilities larger than 0.50 are presented, and blue bars indicate 95% HPD on the corresponding nodes. Each clade name is listed in the right column. Abbreviations of clades are as follows: FWBL = Formosan wild boar lineage; JWB = Japanese wild boar; KWB = Korean wild boar; RWB = Ryukyu wild boar; FWBLYL = Formosan wild boar with Lanyu sign lineage. MYA = million yr ago.