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Journal of Animal Science : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Keele, J. W., L. A. Kuehn, T. G. McDaneld, R. G. Tait, S. A. Jones, B. N. Keel and W. M. Snelling. 2015. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9887

Current issue: J. Anim. Sci. 95(10)



  • ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND COGNITION

    • A. N. Pullin, M. D. Pairis-Garcia, B. J. Campbell, M. R. Campler and K. L. Proudfoot
      Technical note: Instantaneous sampling intervals validated from continuous video observation for behavioral recording of feedlot lambs

      When considering methodologies for collecting behavioral data, continuous sampling provides the most complete and accurate data set whereas instantaneous sampling can provide similar results and also increase the efficiency of data collection. However, instantaneous time intervals require validation to ensure accurate estimation of the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate scan sampling intervals for lambs housed in a feedlot environment. Feeding, lying, standing, drinking, locomotion, and oral manipulation were measured on 18 crossbred lambs housed in an indoor feedlot facility for 14 h (0600–2000 h). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1835
      Published: October 5, 2017



  • ANIMAL GENETICS AND GENOMICS

    • V. H. Huynh-Tran, H. Gilbert and I. David
      Genetic structured antedependence and random regression models applied to the longitudinal feed conversion ratio in growing Large White pigs

      The objective of the present study was to compare a random regression model, usually used in genetic analyses of longitudinal data, with the structured antedependence (SAD) model to study the longitudinal feed conversion ratio (FCR) in growing Large White pigs and to propose criteria for animal selection when used for genetic evaluation. The study was based on data from 11,790 weekly FCR measures collected on 1,186 Large White male growing pigs. Random regression (RR) using orthogonal polynomial Legendre and SAD models was used to estimate genetic parameters and predict FCR-based EBV for each of the 10 wk of the test. The results demonstrated that the best SAD model (1 order of antedependence of degree 2 and a polynomial of degree 2 for the innovation variance for the genetic and permanent environmental effects, i.e., 12 parameters) provided a better fit for the data than RR with a quadratic function for the genetic and permanent environmental effects (13 parameters), with Bayesian information criteria values of −10,060 and −9,838, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1864
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • S. Toghiani, E. Hay, P. Sumreddee, T. W. Geary, R. Rekaya and A. J. Roberts
      Genomic prediction of continuous and binary fertility traits of females in a composite beef cattle breed

      Reproduction efficiency is a major factor in the profitability of the beef cattle industry. Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool that may improve the predictive accuracy and genetic gain of fertility traits. There is a wide range of traits used to measure fertility in dairy and beef cattle including continuous (days open), discrete (pregnancy status), and count (number of inseminations) responses. In this study, a joint analysis of age of puberty (AOP), age at first calving (AOC), and the heifer pregnancy status (HPS) was performed. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1944
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • T. W. Murphy, Y. M. Berger, P. W. Holman, M. Baldin, R. L. Burgett and D. L. Thomas
      Estimates of genetic parameters, genetic trends, and inbreeding in a crossbred dairy sheep research flock in the United States

      For the past 2 decades, the Spooner Agriculture Research Station (ARS) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America. The objectives of the present study were to 1) obtain estimates of genetic parameters for lactation and reproductive traits in dairy ewes, 2) estimate the amount of genetic change in these traits over time, and 3) quantify the level of inbreeding in this flock over the last 20 yr. Multiple-trait repeatability models (MTRM) were used to analyze ewe traits through their first 6 parities. The first MTRM jointly analyzed milk (180-d-adjusted milk yield [180d MY]), fat (180-d-adjusted fat yield [180d FY]), and protein (180-d-adjusted protein yield [180d PY]) yields adjusted to 180 d of lactation; number of lambs born per ewe lambing (NLB); and lactation average test-day somatic cell score (LSCS). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1844
      Published: September 7, 2017



    • E. Dervishi, M. Blanco, J. A. Rodríguez-Sánchez, A. Sanz, J. H. Calvo and I. Casasús
      Milk yield and genomewide expression profiling in the mammary gland of beef primiparous cows in response to the dietary management during the pre- and postweaning periods

      Accelerated growth programs during prepubertal periods have been promoted to advance the first calving of beef heifers. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate nutrition-induced changes on first lactation milk yield and composition and on gene expression of the mammary gland in Parda de Montaña primiparous cows. Female calves (n = 16) were involved in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment. In the preweaning period (PRE-W; 0–6 mo), female calves were either fed a creep feed supplement (Creep) or fed only their dam’s milk (Control). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1736
      Published: September 7, 2017



    • S. I. Mortimer, S. Hatcher, N. M. Fogarty, J. H. J. van der Werf, D. J. Brown, A. A. Swan, R. H. Jacob, G. H. Geesink, D. L. Hopkins, J. E. Hocking Edwards, E. N. Ponnampalam, R. D. Warner, K. L. Pearce and D. W. Pethick
      Genetic correlations between wool traits and meat quality traits in Merino sheep

      Genetic correlations between 29 wool production and quality traits and 25 meat quality and nutritional value traits were estimated for Merino sheep from an Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations among the meat quality and nutritional value traits are also reported. The IN comprised 8 flocks linked genetically and managed across a range of sheep production environments in Australia. The wool traits included over 5,000 yearling and 3,700 adult records for fleece weight, fiber diameter, staple length, staple strength, fiber diameter variation, scoured wool color, and visual scores for breech and body wrinkle. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1628
      Published: September 7, 2017



    • R. R. Mota, P. Mayeres, C. Bastin, G. Glorieux, C. Bertozzi, S. Vanderick, H. Hammami, F. G. Colinet and N. Gengler
      Genetic evaluation for birth and conformation traits in dual-purpose Belgian Blue cattle using a mixed inheritance model

      The segregation of the causal mutation (mh) in the muscular hypertrophy gene in dual-purpose Belgian Blue (dpBB) cattle is considered to result in greater calving difficulty (dystocia). Establishing adapted genetic evaluations might overcome this situation through efficient selection. However, the heterogeneity of dpBB populations at the mh locus implies separating the major gene and other polygenic effects in complex modeling. The use of mixed inheritance models may be an interesting option because they simultaneously assume both influences. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1748
      Published: September 7, 2017



    • P. F. Gao, X. H. Guo, M. Du, G. Q. Cao, Q. C. Yang, Z. D. Pu, Z. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, M. Li, Y. S. Jin, X. J. Wang, H. Liu and B. G. Li
      LncRNA profiling of skeletal muscles in Large White pigs and Mashen pigs during development

      Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of muscle development. Large White pigs have a higher muscle growth rate than do Mashen pigs. In the present study, the lncRNA expression profiles in skeletal muscle of these 2 pig breeds were compared at 1, 90, and 180 d of age using RNA sequencing. We obtained 2,718 million clean reads and identified a total of 5,153 novel lncRNA. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1297
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL BEING

    • Y. Z. Li, H. F. Zhang, L. J. Johnston, W. Martin, J. D. Peterson and J. F. Coetzee
      Effects of tail docking and tail biting on performance and welfare of growing–finishing pigs in a confinement housing system

      A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tail docking on the welfare and performance of victimized pigs by tail biting and tail biters. Pigs (n = 240; 25.7 ± 2.9 kg average weight), including 120 pigs that were tail docked at birth and 120 pigs that remained with intact tails, were used. Pigs were housed in 8 pens of 30 pigs in a confinement barn for 16 wk, with 4 pens each housing pigs of both sexes with docked or intact tails. Tail biters and victimized pigs with damaged tails were identified during outbreaks of tail biting. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1571
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • D. M. Meléndez, S. Marti, E. A. Pajor, D. Moya, C. E. M. Heuston, D. Gellatly, E. D. Janzen and K. S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein
      Effect of band and knife castration of beef calves on welfare indicators of pain at three relevant industry ages: I. Acute pain

      Three experiments evaluated the effect of band and knife castration on acute pain for the first 7 d after the procedure on 1-wk-, 2-mo-, and 4-mo-old calves. All calves were blocked by age and weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: sham castration (control, CT), band castration (BA), and knife castration (KN). Experiment 1 evaluated 1-wk-old Angus bull calves (n = 34; 43.0 ± 6.61 kg BW), Exp. 2 evaluated 2-mo-old Angus bull calves (n = 34; 91.5 ± 11.93 kg BW), and Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1762
      Published: September 28, 2017



    • E. N. Ferjak, C. A. Cavinder, D. D. Burnett, C. Mc. Argo and T. T. N. Dinh
      Body fat of stock-type horses predicted by rump fat thickness and deuterium oxide dilution and validated by near-infrared spectroscopy of dissected tissues

      Body condition score and percent body fat (BF; %) of horses are positively correlated with reproductive efficiency and are indicative of metabolic issues. However, BF in horses may be poorly predicted because current procedures are either subjective or dependent on one anatomical location. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to compare 2 methods of predicting BF using rump fat thickness (RFT) and deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution with actual tissue fat analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in stock-type horses and to identify the relationship between BF and BCS. Twenty-four stock-type horses were selected to be humanely euthanized based on 3 primary criteria: geriatric, crippled, and/or unsafe. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1676
      Published: September 21, 2017



    • D. M. Meléndez, S. Marti, E. A. Pajor, D. Moya, C. E. M. Heuston, D. Gellatly, E. D. Janzen and K. S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein
      Effect of band and knife castration of beef calves on welfare indicators of pain at three relevant industry ages: I. Acute pain

      Three experiments evaluated the effect of band and knife castration on acute pain for the first 7 d after the procedure on 1-wk-, 2-mo-, and 4-mo-old calves. All calves were blocked by age and weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: sham castration (control, CT), band castration (BA), and knife castration (KN). Experiment 1 evaluated 1-wk-old Angus bull calves (n = 34; 43.0 ± 6.61 kg BW), Exp. 2 evaluated 2-mo-old Angus bull calves (n = 34; 91.5 ± 11.93 kg BW), and Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1762
      Published: September 14, 2017



    • S. Marti, D. M. Meléndez, E. A. Pajor, D. Moya, C. E. M. Heuston, D. Gellatly, E. D. Janzen and K. S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein
      Effect of band and knife castration of beef calves on welfare indicators of pain at three relevant industry ages: II. Chronic pain

      Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of band and knife castration on behavioral and physiological indicators of chronic pain in beef calves at 3 different ages (36 calves/age group): 1 wk of age (Exp. 1, 4 ± 1.1 d of age, 43 ± 1.1 kg BW), 2 mo of age (Exp. 2, 63 ± 2.3 d of age, 92 ± 1.7 kg BW), and 4 mo of age (Exp. 3, 125 ± 4.6 d of age, 160 ± 3.4 kg BW). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1763
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • ANIMAL MODELS

    • M. E. V. Swanson, H. C. Murray, M. H. Oliver, H. J. Waldvogel, E. C. Firth and M. A. Curtis
      Imposed running exercise does not alter cell proliferation in the neurogenic niches of young lambs

      Neurogenesis, the process by which neurons are generated in the brain from progenitor cells, occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the adult human brain. Recently, rodent studies have demonstrated that exercise can increase neurogenesis in the SGZ; however, it is unclear if exercise also has this effect in more complex mammalian brains. The overarching aim of this study was to explore whether exercised-induced neurogenesis occurs in larger mammalian brains more representative of human brains and to explore the use of a model for exercising large animals such as sheep. For these studies, 6 male twin lambs had a structured exercise regime for 4 wk and 6 other twin male lambs were kept in an open field pen. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1710
      Published: September 14, 2017



  • ANIMAL NUTRITION

    • M. Wang, R. Wang, P. H. Janssen, X. M. Zhang, X. Z. Sun, D. Pacheco and Z. L. Tan
      Sampling procedure for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen and volatile fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows

      Dissolved hydrogen (dH2) influences the pathways of VFA production and is a precursor of methane formation in the rumen. Measurements of dH2 in rumen fluid taken at the same time as measuring other rumen fermentation end products would improve our quantitative understanding of the role of dH2 as a controller of rumen fermentation. Sample collections though a rumen cannula and using oral stomach tubing were compared for measurements of dissolved gases and fermentation end products in the rumen fluid of 4 ruminally cannulated dairy cows fed a total mixed ration of corn silage and concentrate. Rumen fluid was collected at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after morning feeding through the cannula from cranial dorsal rumen, cranial ventral rumen, central rumen, caudal dorsal rumen, and caudal ventral rumen and in parallel by oral stomach tubing at 2 insertion depths of 180 cm (sampling the central rumen) and 200 cm (sampling the caudal dorsal rumen). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9658
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • A. V. Strathe, T. S. Bruun, J.-E. Zerrahn, A.-H. Tauson and C. F. Hansen
      The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth

      A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9267
      Published: December 3, 2015



    • U. Agarwal, Q. Hu and B. J. Bequette
      Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep

      Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep (n = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9226
      Published: September 15, 2015



    • G. A. Casas and H. H. Stein
      Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs

      The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-8877
      Published: July 24, 2015



    • J. R. Segers, T. L. Felix, A. R. Green, G. N. Maia, B. C. Ramirez and D. W. Shike
      Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers’ solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers’ solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.3766/jas.2015-8917
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • W. A. D. Nayananjalie, T. R. Wiles, D. E. Gerrard, M. A. McCann and M. D. Hanigan
      Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers

      The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage–based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8374
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    • J. C. Matthews, J. Huang and G. Rentfrow
      High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages

      Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9901
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • W. Kayser, J. B. Glaze, C. M. Welch, M. Kerley and R. A. Hill
      Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8337
      Published: August 3, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    • B. Bartz, M. Collins, G. Stoddard, A. Appleton, R. Livingood, H. Sobcynski and K. D. Vogel
      Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the “head-only” method—application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun (n = 45). The second group (n = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the “head/heart” method—initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). (continued)


      doi:10.5326/jas.2015-9332
      Published: August 21, 2015



  • ENVIRONMENTAL ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • T. Bird-Gardiner, P. F. Arthur, I. M. Barchia, K. A. Donoghue and R. M. Herd
      Phenotypic relationships among methane production traits assessed under ad libitum feeding of beef cattle

      Angus cattle from 2 beef cattle projects in which daily methane production (MPR) was measured were used in this study to examine the nature of the relationships among BW, DMI, and methane traits of beef cattle fed ad libitum on a roughage diet or a grain-based feedlot diet. In both projects methane was measured using the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring system, which provides multiple short-term breath measures of methane production. The data used for this study were from 119 Angus heifers over 15 d on a roughage diet and 326 Angus steers over 70 d on a feedlot diet. Mean (±SD) age, BW, and DMI were 372 ± 28 d, 355 ± 37 kg, and 8.1 ± 1.3 kg/d for the heifers and 554 ± 86 d, 577 ± 69 kg, and 13.3 ± 2.0 kg/d for the steers, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1477
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • FORAGE BASED LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS

    • K. R. Bivens, M. K. Mullenix, J. J. Tucker, B. E. Gamble and R. B. Muntifering
      Stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass for backgrounding stocker cattle

      A 2-yr grazing trial was conducted to evaluate the use of conserved forage type, stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.; T85) or T85 hay, and supplement type for stocker cattle during the fall forage deficit in the southeastern United States. The study site consisted of six 0.75-ha paddocks of stockpiled T85 for grazing and six 0.20-ha drylot paddocks for feeding T85 hay. Steers (n = 5 per paddock; mean initial BW for both yr, 263 ± 30 kg) were randomly assigned to paddocks on November 11, 2014 and October 28, 2015 in yr 1 and yr 2, respectively. Treatments included T85 hay or stockpile (control), T85 hay or stockpile plus 0.2 kg cottonseed meal and 0.7 kg soybean hulls∙steer-1∙d-1 (SUPPL1), or 0.45 kg cottonseed meal and 0.45 kg soybean hulls∙steer-1∙d-1 (SUPPL2). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1579
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • GASTROINTESTINAL BIOLOGY

    • A. P. Foote, B. N. Keel, C. M. Zarek and A. K. Lindholm-Perry
      Beef steers with average dry matter intake and divergent average daily gain have altered gene expression in the jejunum

      The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing diet containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% dry-rolled corn, 20% wet distillers grains with solubles, 8% alfalfa hay, and 4.2% vitamin/mineral supplement. From the cohort, a subset of steers with DMI within ±0.32 SD of the mean for DMI and the greatest (high) and least (low) ADG were chosen for slaughter and jejunum mucosa collection (n = 8 for each group). Dry matter intake (10.1 ± 0.05 kg/d) was not different (P = 0.41) but ADG was greater in the high-gain group (2.17 and 1.72 ± 0.02 kg/d for the high- and low-ADG groups, respectively; P < 0.01). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1804
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • HOUSING AND MANAGEMENT

    • A. M. S. Huting, K. Almond, I. Wellock and I. Kyriazakis
      What is good for small piglets might not be good for big piglets: The consequences of cross-fostering and creep feed provision on performance to slaughter

      Major improvements in sow prolificacy have resulted in larger litters but, at the same time, increased the proportion of piglets born light weight. Different management strategies aim to enhance the performance of, and limit light-weight piglet contribution to, BW variation within a batch; however, consequences on heavy-weight littermates are often neglected. This study investigated the effects of different litter compositions, created through cross-fostering, and the provision of creep feed on preweaning behavior and short- and long-term performance of piglets born either light weight (≤1.25 kg) or heavy weight (1.50–2.00 kg). Piglets were cross-fostered at birth to create litters with only similar-sized piglets (light weight or heavy weight; UNIFORM litters) and litters with equal numbers of light-weight and heavy-weight piglets (MIXED litters); half of the litters were offered creep feed and the remaining were not. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1889
      Published: October 5, 2017



  • LACTATION AND MAMMARY GLAND BIOLOGY

    • R. Özçelik, R. M. Bruckmaier and L. E. Hernández-Castellano
      Prepartum daylight exposure increases serum calcium concentrations in dairy cows at the onset of lactation

      In dairy cows, hypocalcemia is caused by the sudden calcium demand by the mammary gland at the onset of lactation. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D; 1,25-VitD) increases the intestinal calcium absorption and the renal calcium reabsorption. Daylight contributes to the formation of 1,25-VitD, as it transforms 7-dehydrocholesterol into cholecalciferol, a 1,25-VitD precursor. Calving pens are usually set in quiet places where cows can stay calm and relaxed before parturition. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1834
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • MEAT SCIENCE

    • S. Lobón, M. Blanco, A. Sanz, G. Ripoll, J. R. Bertolín and M. Joy
      Meat quality of light lambs is more affected by the dam’s feeding system during lactation than by the inclusion of quebracho in the fattening concentrate

      The inclusion of natural antioxidants in the diet, through fresh forages or condensed tannins, might prolong meat shelf life and modify the meat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dam’s feeding system during lactation and the inclusion of quebracho in the fattening concentrate of male lambs on meat color, chemical composition, and lipid oxidation. Dams and their suckling lambs were fed indoors or allowed to graze on alfalfa or sainfoin until lambs reached 42 d old. Thereafter, the weaned lambs were fed concentrates with 5% quebracho or without quebracho until reaching 22 to 24 kg BW. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1595
      Published: October 12, 2017



    • R. Rossi, S. Stella, S. Ratti, F. Maghin, E. Tirloni and C. Corino
      Effects of antioxidant mixtures in the diet of finishing pigs on the oxidative status and shelf life of longissimus dorsi muscle packaged under modified atmosphere

      The effect of pig dietary supplementation with an antioxidant mixture (AOX), containing vitamin E and verbascoside, on animal oxidative status, meat quality parameters, and shelf life of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was examined. Seventy pigs with an average live weight of 95.2 ± 1.2 kg were selected and assigned to 2 dietary treatments. The control (CTR) group was fed a commercial diet, and the AOX group was fed the same diet supplemented with the AOX, containing vitamin E and verbascoside from Verbenaceae extract, for 45 d before slaughter. At the beginning and at the end of the trial, blood samples were collected to determine oxidative status, using the Kit Radicaux Libres test. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1603
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • B. N. Harsh, E. K. Arkfeld, D. A. Mohrhauser, D. A. King, T. L. Wheeler, A. C. Dilger, S. D. Shackelford and D. D. Boler
      Effect of hot carcass weight on loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility , ,

      The objective was to determine the predictive abilities of HCW for loin, ham, and belly quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were targeted on all carcasses, whereas in-plant instrumental loin color and belly quality were assessed on 52.0 and 47.5% of carcasses, respectively. Loin chop slice shear force (SSF), cured ham quality, and adipose iodine value (IV) were evaluated on at least 10% of the population. The slope of regression lines and coefficients of determination between HCW and quality traits were computed using PROC REG of SAS and considered significant at P ≤ 0.05. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1674
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • J. K. Apple, C. V. Maxwell, B. E. Bass, J. W. S. Yancey, R. L. Payne and J. Thomson
      Effects of reducing dietary crude protein levels and replacement with crystalline amino acids on growth performance, carcass composition, and fresh pork quality of finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride

      Progeny of GPK-35 females mated to PIC 380 boars were blocked by initial BW, and within the 9 blocks, pens of pigs (3 gilts and 3 barrows/pen) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments where CP of finisher-I, -II, and -III diets was 1) 16.04, 14.55, and 16.23%, respectively (Ctrl); 2) 14.76, 13.48, and 15.27%, respectively (ILE); 3) 14.26, 12.78, and 14.28%, respectively (VAL); or 4) 12.65, 12.38, and 13.32%, respectively (NoSBM). All finisher-III diets included 10 mg/kg of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) and a Lys:ME ratio of 2.79 g/Mcal. At slaughter, HCW and Fat-O-Meatʹer data were recorded before carcasses were subjected to a rapid chilling process. A subsample of whole hams (2/pen) and whole loins (2/pen) were transported under refrigeration to the University of Arkansas. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1818
      Published: October 5, 2017



  • NONRUMINANT NUTRITION

    • L. Chen, L. X. Gao, Q. H. Huang, R. Q. Zhong, L. L. Zhang, X. F. Tang and H. F. Zhang
      Viscous and fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides affect intestinal nutrient and energy flow and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs

      Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of viscosity and fermentability of purified nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) on intestinal nutrient and energy flow and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 15 ileal-cannulated pigs (50.5 ± 2.9 kg BW) were allotted to 5 diets in a 2-period incompletely randomized design. Pigs were provided a cornstarch N-free diet (CST) or a diet containing 5% inulin (INU), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), or Solka-Floc (SFC). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1662
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • C. Q. Wang, Y. S. Bai, X. Zhao, B. M. Shi, X. Y. Meng and A. S. Shan
      Effects of feeding sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate diets to lactating sows on performance, digestibility of nutrients, composition, and fat globule size in milk

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL) as a new feeding emulsifier diet with and without soybean oil (SO) on the milk fat globule (MFG) size, milk composition, digestibility of nutrients, and performance in lactating sows. Sixty sows (Large White × Landrace) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each treatment had 15 replicates composed of 1 sow. The factors included 1) the fat level (0% vs. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1851
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • C. S. Marcolla, D. M. Holanda, S. V. Ferreira, G. C. Rocha, N. V. L. Serão, M. S. Duarte, M. L. T. Abreu and A. Saraiva
      Chromium, CLA, and ractopamine for finishing pigs

      This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium, CLA, and ractopamine on performance, carcass traits, and pork quality of finishing pigs slaughtered at 115 kg BW. Ninety-six crossbred barrows (initial BW = 70.21 ± 1.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. There were 8 replicates per treatment (48 pens; 2 pigs/pen). A diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements was used as the control (CON). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1753
      Published: September 21, 2017



    • W. D. Mansilla, J. K. Htoo and C. F. M. de Lange
      Replacing dietary nonessential amino acids with ammonia
      nitrogen does not alter amino acid profile of deposited protein in the carcass of growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential amino acid nitrogen

      Amino acid usage for protein retention, and, consequently, the AA profile of retained protein, is the main factor for determining AA requirements in growing animals. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing ammonia N on whole-body N retention and the AA profile of retained protein in growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential AA (NEAA) N. In total, 48 barrows with a mean initial BW of 13.6 kg (SD 0.7) were used. At the beginning of the study, 8 pigs were euthanized for determination of initial protein mass. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1631
      Published: September 14, 2017



  • RAPID COMMUNICATION

    • J. Kim, W. Lim, F. W. Bazer and G. Song
      Rapid Communication: MicroRNA co-expression network reveals apoptosis in the reproductive tract during molting in laying hens ,

      The aim of this study was to determine the regulatory mechanisms of molting and recrudescence via studying the micro-RNA (miRNA) expression in the oviduct of laying hens. We performed a cDNA microarray analysis in the magnum tissue from the oviduct to identify the whole miRNA profiles through the molting and recrudescence periods. A total of 35 laying hens (47-wk-old) were divided into 7 groups (0 d: a control group; 6 and 12 d: 2 molting-period groups fed on a high-zinc diet; and 20, 25, 30, and 35 d: 4 recrudescence-period groups fed on a normal diet after a 12-d period on a high-zinc diet). An miRNA co-expression network (miRCN) was generated using the differentially expressed miRNA (DEM) according to the entire data integration. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1972
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • M. D. Weinroth, C. R. Carlson, J. N. Martin, J. L. Metcalf, P. S. Morley and K. E. Belk
      Rapid Communication: 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid characterization of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle from three states in the United States

      Liver abscesses are a major economic burden to beef producers. Although a few causative organisms have been cultured from purulent material, the full polymicrobial diversity of liver abscesses has not been reported. The objective of this study was to characterize purulent material collected from liver abscess in beef cattle produced in different production systems in 3 cattle producing states in the United States using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Differences between purulent material microbial communities among geographic region of feeding and application of a common antimicrobial were also investigated. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1743
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • RAPID COMMUNICATOIN

    • L.Y. Hu, M.Z. Wang, J.L. Ouyang, P.F. Li and J. J. Loor
      Rapid Communication: Period2 gene silencing increases the synthesis of α s –casein protein in bovine mammary epithelial cells

      Period2 (PER2), a core clock gene, encodes a circadian rhythm protein which has been shown to control mammary metabolism in rodents. Whether PER2 regulates milk component synthesis such as αs–casein protein in bovine mammary cells is unknown. Thus, we used gene silencing technology to determine if PER2 silencing could affect αs–casein synthesis and cell growth in cultured primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). The BMEC were established by enzymatic digestion of mammary tissue from mid-lactation cows. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1938
      Published: September 21, 2017



  • REPRODUCTION

    • D. D. Shane, R. L. Larson, M. W. Sanderson, M. Miesner and B. J. White
      A deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow–calf production: The effects of breeding replacement heifers before mature cows over a 10-year horizon

      Some cattle production experts believe that cow–calf producers should breed replacement heifers (nulliparous cows) before cows (primiparous and multiparous cows), sometimes referred to as providing a heifer lead time (tHL). Our objective was to model the effects different durations of tHL may have on measures of herd productivity, including the percent of the herd cycling before the end of the first 21 d of the breeding season (%C21), the percent of the herd pregnant at pregnancy diagnosis (%PPD), the distribution of pregnancy by 21-d breeding intervals, the kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed (KPC), and the replacement percentage (%RH), using a deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow–calf production over a 10-yr horizon. We also wished to examine differences in the effect of tHL related to the primiparous duration of postpartum anestrus (dPPAp). The study model examined 6 different dPPAp for primiparous cows (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, or 110 d). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1653
      Published: September 7, 2017



  • RUMINANT NUTRITION

    • L. D. Prezotto, T. C. Gilbery, M. L. Bauer, A. Islas and K. C. Swanson
      Influence of limit-feeding and time of day of feed availability to growing calves on growth performance and feeding behavior in cold weather

      Objective swere to determine the effects of limit-feeding and time of feed access in cold weather on growth performance and feeding behavior of growing calves fed a corn silage-based diet. Sixty-six steers (BW = 317 ± 5.3 kg) and 30 heifers (BW = 239 ± 7.6 kg) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment: 1) ad libitum feed intake (AL), 2) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the daytime (0601–1759 h; LF-D), 3) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the nighttime (1800–0559 h; LF-N), and 4) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis, split 1/2 in the daytime and 1/2 in the nighttime (LF-S). Feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored over 84 d using the Insentec feeding system. Average daily gain, DMI, and G:F were greater (P ≤ 0.002) in the AL group compared with others. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1925
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • M. C. Tabke, J. O. Sarturi, M. L. Galyean, S. J. Trojan, J. C. Brooks, B. J. Johnson, J. Martin, J. Baggerman and A. J. Thompson
      Effects of tannic acid on growth performance, carcass characteristics, digestibility, nitrogen volatilization, and meat lipid oxidation of steers fed steam-flaked corn–based finishing diets

      Effects of a tannic acid blend (ByPro; Silvateam USA, Ontario, CA) added to steam-flaked corn–based fishing diets on beef cattle growth performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, fecal N volatilization, and meat lipid oxidation were evaluated. Steers (n = 144; 349 ± 25 kg initial BW) were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 4 steers/pen and fed ad libitum. Treatments included a control (CON; no ByPro) and ByPro fed at 30 or 60 g DM/steer daily (30-ByPro and 60-ByPro, respectively). Pen fecal samples were collected 7 d after cattle were shipped to slaughter for estimation of N volatilization. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1464
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • M. Capelari and W. Powers
      The effect of nitrate and monensin on in vitro ruminal fermentation

      Two experiments evaluated the effect of calcium ammonium nitrate decahydrate (calcium nitrate [NIT]) and monensin sodium (MON) on in vitro fermentation parameters of 2 contrasting diets (100:0 and 10:90 forage-to-concentrate ratios). Diet addition of NIT (0, 1.25, and 2.5 g/100 g DM) and MON (0, 3, and 6 mg/L) were tested alone and combined (9 treatments total; 5 bottles per treatment). Mixed ruminal microorganisms were incubated in anaerobic media containing 0.5 g of substrate diet, 1 of 9 treatments, and 40 mL buffer solution. Incubations were performed in batch cultures for 48 h at 39°C. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas2017.1657
      Published: October 5, 2017



    • S. L. Ishaq, C. J. Yeoman and T. R. Whitney
      Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs Part 2: Ewe lamb rumen microbial communities

      This study evaluated effects of ground redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) and urea in dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 48) on rumen physiological parameters and bacterial diversity. In a randomized study (40 d), individually-penned lambs were fed ad libitum ground sorghum-sudangrass hay and of 1 of 8 supplements (6 lambs/treatment; 533 g/d; as-fed basis) in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 concentrations of ground juniper (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 levels of urea (1% or 3% of DM). Increasing juniper resulted in minor changes in microbial β-diversity (PERMANOVA, pseudo F = 1.33, P = 0.04); however, concentrations of urea did not show detectable broad-scale differences at phylum, family, or genus levels according to ANOSIM (P > 0.05), AMOVA (P > 0.10), and PERMANOVA (P > 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis indicated some genera were specific to certain dietary treatments (P < 0.05), though none of these genera were present in high abundance; high concentrations of juniper were associated with Moraxella and Streptococcus, low concentrations of urea were associated with Fretibacterium, and high concentrations of urea were associated with Oribacterium and Pyramidobacter. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1731
      Published: September 21, 2017



    • J. W. Zhou, C. L. Zhong, H. Liu, A. A. Degen, E. C. Titgemeyer, L. M. Ding, Z. H. Shang, X. S. Guo, Q. Qiu, Z. P. Li, G. Yang and R. J. Long
      Comparison of nitrogen utilization and urea kinetics between yaks ( Bos grunniens ) and indigenous cattle ( Bos taurus )

      Under traditional management on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, yaks (Bos grunniens) graze only on natural pasture without supplements and are forced to cope with sparse forage of low N content, especially in winter. In contrast, indigenous Tibetan yellow cattle (Bos taurus) require supplements during the cold season. We hypothesized that, in response to harsh conditions, yaks cope with low N intakes better than cattle. To test this hypothesis, a study of whole-body N retention and urea kinetics was conducted in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin squares, with 1 square using yaks and 1 square using cattle. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1428
      Published: September 14, 2017



    • J. A. C. Vargas, A. K. Almeida, A. P. Souza, M. H. M. R. Fernandes, K. T. Resende and I. A. M. A. Teixeira
      Sex effects on macromineral requirements for growth in Saanen goats: A meta-analysis

      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex on the net requirements of growth for Ca (NCag), P (NPg), Na (NNag), K (NKg), and Mg (NMgg) in Saanen goats from 5 to 45 kg BW, with or without consideration of the degree of maturity. A database containing 209 individual records for Saanen goats (69 castrated males, 71 intact males, and 69 females) was generated from 6 comparative slaughter studies. Total amounts of Ca, P, Na, K, and Mg in the body were fitted to logarithmized allometric equations using empty BW (EBW) or degree of maturity (EBW/mature EBW) as regressors. The equations were fitted using a mixed model, where sex was considered a fixed effect and study was considered a random effect. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1825
      Published: September 14, 2017



    • A. Ruiz-González, S. Debruyne, J. Jeyanathan, L. Vandaele, S. De Campeneere and V. Fievez
      Polyunsaturated fatty acids are less effective to reduce methanogenesis in rumen inoculum from calves exposed to a similar treatment early in life

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose response on in vitro methane (CH4) production of PUFA to which the inoculum donor animals had been exposed early in life. Sixteen Holstein calves (160 ± 3 and 365 ± 2 kg BW) at 6 and 12 mo of age were used as inoculum donors. Half of the calves were given increasing amounts of extruded linseed from birth (22 g/d) until 4 mo of age (578 g/d) first mixed with milk and then included in their concentrate. Linseed oil (LSO) was supplemented in vitro at 5 different doses (0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 mg/mL). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1558
      Published: September 14, 2017



    • W. P. Santos, C. L. S. Ávila, M. N. Pereira, R. F. Schwan, N. M. Lopes and J. C. Pinto
      Effect of the inoculation of sugarcane silage with Lactobacillus hilgardii and Lactobacillus buchneri on feeding behavior and milk yield of dairy cows

      Despite its low NDF digestibility, sugarcane is an option for feeding dairy cattle in tropical regions. We evaluated the effect of sugarcane silages inoculated with Lactobacillus hilgardii CCMA 0170 (LH; an epiphytic bacteria isolated from sugarcane) or with L. buchneri NCIMB 40788 (LB; a commercial strain isolated from temperate grasses) on dairy cow performance and feeding behavior. The microbial inoculums were previously grown in the laboratory to obtain 5 log cfu/g of fresh forage. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1526
      Published: September 7, 2017



    • V. M. Artegoitia, A. P. Foote, R. G. Tait Jr., L. A. Kuehn, R. M. Lewis, T. L. Wheeler and H. C. Freetly
      Endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma during the finishing period are associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef cattle

      We previously have shown that plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids (EC) are positively correlated with feed efficiency and leaner carcasses in finishing steers. However, whether the animal growth during the finishing period affects the concentration of EC is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) in plasma during different stages of the finishing period and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in beef calves. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 236 calves (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers) for 84 d on a finishing ration. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1629
      Published: September 7, 2017