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Journal of Animal Science : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Keele, J. W., L. A. Kuehn, T. G. McDaneld, R. G. Tait, S. A. Jones, B. N. Keel and W. M. Snelling. 2015. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9887

Current issue: J. Anim. Sci. 79(E-Suppl_1)



  • ANIMAL GENETICS AND GENOMICS

    • J. M. Coyne, D. P. Berry, K. Matilainen, M.-L. Sevon-Aimonen, E. A. Mantysaari, J. Juga, T. Serenius and N. McHugh
      Genetic co-variance functions for live weight, feed intake, and efficiency measures in growing pigs

      The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic co-variance parameters pertaining to live weight, feed intake, and 2 efficiency traits (i.e., residual feed intake and residual daily gain) in a population of pigs over a defined growing phase using Legendre polynomial equations. The data set used consisted of 51,893 live weight records and 903,436 feed intake, residual feed intake (defined as the difference between an animal’s actual feed intake and its expected feed intake), and residual daily gain (defined as the difference between an animal’s actual growth rate and its expected growth rate) records from 10,201 growing pigs. Genetic co-variance parameters for all traits were estimated using random regression Legendre polynomials. Daily heritability estimates for live weight ranged from 0.25 ± 0.04 (d 73) to 0.50 ± 0.03 (d 122). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1408
      Published: August 10, 2017



  • ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL BEING

    • M. Vitali, S. Conte, M. Lessard, K. Deschêne, M.O. Benoit-Biancamano, C. Celeste, G. Martelli, L. Sardi, F. Guay and L. Faucitano
      Use of the spectrophotometric color method for the determination of the age of skin lesions on the pig carcass and its relationship with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters

      The presence of lesions on the pig carcass is an indicator of poor animal welfare and has economic impact as it downgrades the carcass value. The assessment of the age of lesions on the carcass may help identify risk factors and ultimately prevent their occurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the age of lesions on pig carcasses through spectrophotometric color evaluation and to relate the results with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters. A total of 96 barrows were mixed 4 times over 3 d before slaughter and 80 lesions were selected after skin lesion observations to define 4 age categories: < 7 h (T1), 7–25 h (T2), 25–30 h (T3), and 49–54 h (T4). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1813
      Published: August 10, 2017



  • ANIMAL NUTRITION

    • M. Wang, R. Wang, P. H. Janssen, X. M. Zhang, X. Z. Sun, D. Pacheco and Z. L. Tan
      Sampling procedure for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen and volatile fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows

      Dissolved hydrogen (dH2) influences the pathways of VFA production and is a precursor of methane formation in the rumen. Measurements of dH2 in rumen fluid taken at the same time as measuring other rumen fermentation end products would improve our quantitative understanding of the role of dH2 as a controller of rumen fermentation. Sample collections though a rumen cannula and using oral stomach tubing were compared for measurements of dissolved gases and fermentation end products in the rumen fluid of 4 ruminally cannulated dairy cows fed a total mixed ration of corn silage and concentrate. Rumen fluid was collected at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after morning feeding through the cannula from cranial dorsal rumen, cranial ventral rumen, central rumen, caudal dorsal rumen, and caudal ventral rumen and in parallel by oral stomach tubing at 2 insertion depths of 180 cm (sampling the central rumen) and 200 cm (sampling the caudal dorsal rumen). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9658
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • A. V. Strathe, T. S. Bruun, J.-E. Zerrahn, A.-H. Tauson and C. F. Hansen
      The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth

      A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9267
      Published: December 3, 2015



    • U. Agarwal, Q. Hu and B. J. Bequette
      Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep

      Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep (n = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9226
      Published: September 15, 2015



    • G. A. Casas and H. H. Stein
      Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs

      The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-8877
      Published: July 24, 2015



    • J. R. Segers, T. L. Felix, A. R. Green, G. N. Maia, B. C. Ramirez and D. W. Shike
      Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers’ solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers’ solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.3766/jas.2015-8917
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • W. A. D. Nayananjalie, T. R. Wiles, D. E. Gerrard, M. A. McCann and M. D. Hanigan
      Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers

      The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage–based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8374
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    • J. C. Matthews, J. Huang and G. Rentfrow
      High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages

      Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9901
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • W. Kayser, J. B. Glaze, C. M. Welch, M. Kerley and R. A. Hill
      Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8337
      Published: August 3, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    • B. Bartz, M. Collins, G. Stoddard, A. Appleton, R. Livingood, H. Sobcynski and K. D. Vogel
      Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the “head-only” method—application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun (n = 45). The second group (n = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the “head/heart” method—initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). (continued)


      doi:10.5326/jas.2015-9332
      Published: August 21, 2015



  • CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

    • Y. Q. Koh, H. N. Peiris, K. Vaswani, S. Meier, C. R. Burke, K. A. Macdonald, J. R. Roche, Fatema Almughlliq, Buddhika J. Arachchige, Sarah Reed and Murray D. Mitchell
      Characterization of exosomes from body fluids of dairy cows

      Exosomes are a specific subpopulation of extracellular vesicles that are widely released by cells of different origins with divergent functions that make their way into body fluids that can be conveniently sampled. In the current study, we isolated and evaluated exosomes from concurrently collected samples of milk, plasma, saliva, and urine from a group of 6 pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (aged 7 mo, 174 to 203 d of gestation). The cows had BCS of 3.5 to 5.25 (on a scale of 1 to 10), and the milk production for the season to the time of sampling ranged between 5,118 and 6,959 kg. The low levels of extracellular vesicles in saliva and urine (more than 86% fewer compared to the extracellular vesicles in milk and plasma) precluded further detailed evaluation since utility for diagnostics was deemed unlikely. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1727
      Published: August 10, 2017



  • FORAGE BASED LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS

    • S. R. Sechler, M. K. Mullenix, C. M. Holland and R.B. Muntifering
      Fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass

      A 2-yr study was conducted to determine effects of N fertilization level on fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass (T85). Six 0.76-ha pastures of stockpiled T85 were cut to a 10-cm stubble height on August 1 of each yr and fertilized with 56 (56N), 112 (112N), or 168 (168N) kg N/ha (2 pastures/treatment). Fiber digestion kinetics included the 72-hr potential extent of NDF digestion (PED), rate of NDF digestion, and lag time. In yr 1 and 2, PED decreased over the stockpile season. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1600
      Published: August 10, 2017



  • MEAT SCIENCE

    • S. Z. Song, J. P. Wu, S. G. Zhao, D. P. Casper, B. He, T. Liu, X. Lang, X. Y. Gong and L. S. Liu
      The effect of energy restriction on fatty acid profiles of longissimus dorsi and tissue adipose depots in sheep

      Sheep production systems in northwest China depend mostly on natural grasslands. Seasonal growth and maturity fluctuations can cause periodical restrictions in food quality and quantity. These fluctuations, in turn, result in variability in fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in different fat depots. Consequently, the study objective was to compare fat deposition, intramuscular fat (IMF) percentage and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus dorsi (LD), kidney fat (KF), tail fat (TF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) in lambs under ME restrictions similar to seasonal changes observed in the natural grasslands of northwest China. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1235
      Published: August 3, 2017



  • MICROBIOME

    • S.-I. Nakamura, Y. H. Kim, K. Takashima, A. Kimura, K. Nagai, T. Ichijo and S. Sato
      Composition of the microbiota in forestomach fluids and feces of Japanese Black calves with white scours

      The objective of this study was to characterize the composition of the forestomach and fecal microbiota in Japanese Black calves with white scours. Forestomach fluid, feces, and peripheral blood were collected from healthy calves (n = 5; age 10 ± 2 d) and scouring calves (n = 5; age 10 ± 1 d) on the day on which white scours occurred. The pH and concentrations of VFA, lactic acid, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N) of the forestomach fluids were determined. Microbiota composition and gene copy numbers in the forestomach fluid and feces were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1431
      Published: August 10, 2017



  • MUSCLE BIOLOGY

    • Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. P. Chen, Z. X. Ying, W. P. Su, L. L. Zhang and T. Wang
      Effects of dietary l -methionine supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight pigs

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary l-Met supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight (LBW) pigs. Thirty normal birth weight (NBW) and 60 LBW female piglets were selected at birth. In each litter, after weaning, 1 of the LBW piglets (LBW-CON group) and 1 of the NBW piglets (NBW-CON group) were fed the basal diets and 1 LBW littermate was fed the basal diet supplemented with l-Met (LBW-MET group). Thus, all pigs were distributed into groups of 3 treatments × 6 replicates (pens) × 5 piglets per replicate up to 180 d of age. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1652
      Published: August 3, 2017



  • NONRUMINANT NUTRITION

    • B. J. Kerr, S. L. Trabue and D. S. Andersen
      Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

      Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of narasin on growth performance and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with either 0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet. In Exp. 1 (64 gilts, initial BW = 9.0 kg, SD = 1.0 kg) and Exp. 2 (60 gilts. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1732
      Published: August 10, 2017



    • C. Shi, Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, C. Wang, Z. Lu, F. Wang, J. Feng and Y. Wang
      Amino acid and phosphorus digestibility of fermented corn-soybean meal mixed feed with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium fed to pigs

      In the present study, a 2-stage solid-state fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis followed by Enterococcus faecium was performed with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of corn and soybean meal (SBM) mixed feed (MF). The matrix of native MF and fermented MF (FMF) was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to determine external structures after solid-state fermentation. Results of the present study indicated that the FMF had a greater concentration of CP and total P compared with the unfermented feed, whereas the contents of β-conglycinin, glycinin, phytate P, raffinose, stachyose, and NDF in FMF declined by 77.6, 86.7, 41.2, 47.2, 36.6, and 38.9%, respectively. The content of trichloroacetic acid-soluble protein, particularly those of small peptides and free AA, increased more than 3 times after fermentation. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1516
      Published: August 10, 2017



    • N. Horn, G. Miller, K. M. Ajuwon and O. Adeola
      Garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide mitigates effects of pro-oxidant induced cellular stress and has immune modulatory function in LPS-stimulated porcine epithelial cells

      The objective of the current study was to determine if garlic-derived diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) could mitigate oxidative and endotoxin stress, using an intestinal porcine epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial of DADS + DATS (0 or 18 µM), pro-oxidant stressor (hydrogen peroxide at 0 or 100 µM), and endotoxin stressor (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] at 0 or 10 µg/mL) with 8 replicates per treatment. Cells were incubated with DADS + DATS for 18 h, LPS for 6 h, then with hydrogen peroxide for 3 h. Gene expression was measured by RT-PCR for cytokines, interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and tight junction proteins, claudin 1 (CL-1), occludin (OC), and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1546
      Published: August 10, 2017



    • J. W. Kim, B. Koo and C. M. Nyachoti
      Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy of camelina cake fed to growing pigs and additivity of energy in mixed diets ,

      This experiment was conducted to determine the DE, ME, and NE contents of camelina cake (CC) and to test the hypothesis that dietary glucosinolates originating from CC will affect the additivity of energy in mixed diets containing different inclusion levels of corn, soybean meal (SBM), and CC. A total of 30 growing barrows ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) with a mean BW of 16.8 kg (SD 1.4) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine. The 5 experimental diets consisted of 3 corn-based diets to determine the DE, ME, and NE of the 3 ingredients (corn, SBM, and CC) and 2 mixed diets to test the additivity of DE, ME, and NE. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1759
      Published: August 3, 2017



    • K. F. Coble, J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth and J. L. Usry
      The effects of copper source and concentration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pen cleanliness in finishing pigs

      A total of 1,143 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050, initially 25.1 ± 0.03 kg BW) were used in a 111-d study to determine the effects of copper sulfate (CuSO4; Prince Agri-Products, Quincy, IL) or tribasic copper chloride (TBCC; IntelliBond C; Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pen cleanliness. Pens of pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, balanced on average pen weight in a randomized complete block design with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 7 replications per treatment. Treatments included a corn–soybean meal–based diet (corn-soy), a high-by-product diet with 30% distillers dried grains with solubles and 15% bakery meal (by-product diet), and the by-product diet with 75 or 150 mg/kg added Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC. All diets contained 20 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 in the trace mineral premix. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1624
      Published: August 3, 2017



    • Y. D. Jang, P. Wilcock, R. D. Boyd and M. D. Lindemann
      Effect of combined xylanase and phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics in growing pigs fed corn-based diets containing high-fiber coproducts

      Phytate has been shown to be an antinutrient, and the feeding of high levels of phytase can break down phytate to improve nutrient utilization and pig performance. Dietary xylanase targets arabinoxylan breakdown, thereby improving energy utilization in pigs. However, the effects of simultaneous supplementation have not been clearly determined. Crossbred pigs (n = 45; mean initial weight, 26.4 ± 0.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 9 treatments to evaluate the effects of both xylanase (endo-1,4-β xylanase [EC 3.2.1.8]) and phytase (6-phytase [EC 3.1.3.26]) supplementation as follows: 1) positive control (PC), a corn-soybean meal-based diet with 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 15% wheat middlings, and 13% corn germ meal; 2) negative control (NC), ME was reduced by 103 kcal/kg from the PC diet by replacement of fat with corn starch; 3) NC + phytase (500 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet); 4) NC + phytase (1,000 FTU/kg diet); 5) NC + phytase (2,000 FTU/kg diet); 6) NC + xylanase (24,000 xylanase units [BXU]/kg diet); 7) NC + phytase (500 FTU/kg diet) + xylanase (24,000 BXU/kg diet); 8) NC + phytase (1,000 FTU/kg diet) + xylanase (24,000 BXU/kg diet); and 9) NC + phytase (2,000 FTU/kg diet) + xylanase (24,000 BXU/kg diet). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1781
      Published: August 3, 2017



    • B. Koo, J. W. Kim, C. F. M. de Lange, M. M. Hossain and C. M. Nyachoti
      Effects of diet complexity and multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, intestinal morphology, and fecal score in newly weaned pigs

      To study the effects of diet complexity and multicarbohydrase (MC) supplementation, 144 piglets (6.70 ± 0.81 kg of BW) weaned at 21 ± 2 d of age (1:1 male to female ratio) were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement based on diet complexity (complex1, complex2, and simple) and MC addition (0 vs. 0.1% of MC). Diets were provided in a 2-phase feeding program with phase I (d 1 to 14) and phase II diets (d 15 to 28). Complex1 was formulated to mimic a conventional weaner diet with blood plasma, fish meal, dried whey, and skim milk powder, whereas complex2 partially or totally replaced these ingredients with various plant-based ingredients. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1760
      Published: August 3, 2017



  • RAPID COMMUNICATION

    • A. Romero-Pérez, E. K. Okine, L. L. Guan, S. M. Duval, M. Kindermann and K. A. Beauchemin
      Rapid Communication: Evaluation of methane inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol and monensin in a high-grain diet using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec)

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP), a known methane (CH4) inhibitor; the ionophore monensin (MON); and their combination on in vitro CH4 production in a high-grain diet (85% barley grain, 10% barley silage, and 5% vitamin-mineral supplement; DM basis) using a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). Sixteen fermentation vessels in 2 Rusitec apparatuses (blocks) were used in a completely randomized block design with 4 treatments: Control, NOP (200 µg/g DM), MON (200 µg/g DM), and the combination of 200 µg NOP/g DM and 200 µg MON/g DM (NOP + MON). Two fermenters within each apparatus were randomly assigned to a treatment. Treatments were mixed with 10 g of substrate and supplied on a daily basis. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1896
      Published: August 10, 2017



  • REPRODUCTION

    • R. Zupa, C. Fauvel, C. C. Mylonas, C. Pousis, N. Santamaria, Μ. Papadaki, I. Fakriadis, V. Cicirelli, S. Mangano, L. Passantino, G. M. Lacalandra and Aldo Corriero
      Rearing in captivity affects spermatogenesis and sperm quality in greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810)

      The greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810), is a promising candidate for the diversification of European aquaculture production, but inconsistent reproduction in captivity prevents commercial production. Recent studies showed that greater amberjack confined in sea cages exhibited scarce gonad development and early interruption of gametogenic activity during the reproductive season. The aim of the present study was to improve our understanding of the observed impairment of spermatogenesis. Adult wild and captive-reared males were sampled during 3 different phases of the reproductive cycle: early gametogenesis (EARLY; late April to early May), advanced gametogenesis (ADVANCED; late May to early June), and spawning (SPAWNING; late June to July). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1708
      Published: August 10, 2017



    • K. Kirsz, M. Szczesna, E. Molik and D. A. Zieba
      Effects of ghrelin on nocturnal melatonin secretion in sheep: An in vitro and in vivo approach

      Recent studies confirmed that pineal melatonin (MEL) secretion is regulated by ghrelin (GHRL) in seasonally reproductive sheep. The first in vivo experiment investigated whether the effect of GHRL on nocturnal secretion of MEL in sheep is mediated by type 2 serotonin receptors. Sheep (n = 16) were intravenously injected with GHRL (2.5 μg/kg of BW) and meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; a mixed agonist of 5-HT2B/5-HT2C receptors; 1 mg/kg BW), either combined or individually, during the short-day (SDS) and long-day (LDS) seasons. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 h. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1737
      Published: August 3, 2017



  • RUMINANT NUTRITION

    • A. Gallo, G. Giuberti, S. Bruschi, P. Fortunati and F. Masoero
      Technical note: Relationship between in situ NDF degradability and enzymatic NDF hydrolysis in forages, nonforage fibrous feeds, and crop residues

      The study was performed on forages (n = 8), nonforage fibrous feeds (n = 10), and crop residues (n = 2). Samples were characterized for in situ NDF degradability (NDFD) at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 240 h of ruminal incubation. Then, samples were characterized for enzymatic NDFD by adopting a multistep enzymatic method consisting of a preincubation (PreInc) phase followed by enzymatic incubation (EnzInc) steps. In the PreInc phase, samples were incubated in a NaOH solution for 0, 30, 60, or 90 min. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1630
      Published: August 10, 2017



    • C. J. Härter, L. D. Lima, H. G. O. Silva, D. S. Castagnino, A. R. Rivera, K. T. Resende and I. A. M. A. Teixeira
      Energy and protein requirements for maintenance of dairy goats during pregnancy and their efficiencies of use

      It has been suggested that maintenance requirements are similar among animals of different physiological stages; however, important physiological changes occur in the maternal body during pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for the maintenance of pregnant dairy goats and to estimate their efficiency of energy and protein utilization for maintenance and pregnancy. We used 66 multiparous pregnant goats having 49.0 ± 1.59 kg initial BW (around the third or fourth parturition) arranged in a randomized block design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme including slaughter at different days of pregnancy (DOP; 80, 110, and 140 d) and feed restriction (0, 20, and 40% feed restriction). The comparative slaughter technique was used to estimate energy and protein maintenance requirements. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1490
      Published: August 10, 2017



    • S. J. Hartman, O. N. Genther-Schroeder and S. L. Hansen
      Effect of trace mineral source on mineral status and performance of beef steers fed low- or high-sulfur diets

      A 2 × 2 factorial assessed the effect of trace mineral (TM) sources fed within low- or high-S diets on the mineral status and performance of cattle. Angus crossbred steers (n = 48; 6/pen) were blocked by BW (316 ± 16.6 kg), assigned to low-S (0.27%; LS) or high-S (0.54%; HS; added as CaSO4) diets, and supplemented TM at 10 mg Cu, 30 mg Zn, and 20 mg Mn/kg DM from hydroxy (HYD; IntelliBond; Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN) or inorganic (sulfates; ING) sources (n = 12 steers/treatment). Steers were fed corn silage and corn-based diets via GrowSafe bunks in the growing period (GP; 84 d) and finishing period (FP; 77 d), respectively. Plasma and liver were collected at trial initiation and end of GP and FP for mineral concentrations. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1722
      Published: August 3, 2017



    • A. C. B. Menezes, S. C. Valadares Filho, P. P. Rotta, S. A. Santos, M. V. C. Pacheco, B. C. Silva, P. Pucetti, H. M. Alhadas, E. Detmann and J. S. Caton
      Does microbial nitrogen contamination affect the estimation of crude protein degradability of concentrate feeds?

      The effects of microbial contamination (MC) on CP degradability of concentrate feeds are still controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use 15N to estimate the impact of MC on estimations of CP fractions (the soluble fraction of CP [a], the insoluble but potentially degradable fraction of CP [b], and the rate of digestion of fraction b [kd]) of concentrate feeds. Twelve types of feed were evaluated: 6 energy concentrates—wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L.), rice meal (Oryza sativa L.), ground corn (Zea mays L.), ground sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), ground corn cob (Zea mays L.), and soybean hulls [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]—and 6 protein concentrates—cottonseed meal (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean meal [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], ground bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peanut meal (Arachis hypogaea L.), sunflower meal (Helianthus annuus L.), and corn gluten meal (Zea mays L.). The feeds were divided into 4 groups and were incubated in the rumen of 4 crossbred bulls. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1699
      Published: August 3, 2017



  • SPECIAL TOPICS

    • K. E. Holcomb
      Is shade for horses a comfort resource or a minimum requirement?

      Shade or shelter as protection from extremes of weather is required for horses at agricultural research and teaching facilities and is recommended or required by many states, professional organizations, and industry groups. The focus of this paper is the recent research on the responses of horses to hot, sunny weather, which has begun to provide scientific evidence that characterizes how and when shade is used and any benefits shade confers on horses. These behavioral and physiological findings support provision of shade as a resource for thermal comfort and the expression of normal behavior that should be included as a standard of best care practices for healthy adult horses living in the environmental conditions reviewed, rather than an absolute minimum care requirement. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1641
      Published: August 10, 2017



  • SYMPOSIUM

    • H. R. Wijesena, C. A. Lents, J.-J. Riethoven, M. D. Trenhaile-Grannemann, J. F. Thorson, B. N. Keel, P. S. Miller, M. L. Spangler, S. D. Kachman and D. C. Ciobanu
      GENOMICS SYMPOSIUM: Using genomic approaches to uncover sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows ,

      Genetic variants associated with traits such as age at puberty and litter size could provide insight into the underlying genetic sources of variation impacting sow reproductive longevity and productivity. Genomewide characterization and gene expression profiling were used using gilts from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln swine resource population (n = 1,644) to identify genetic variants associated with age at puberty and litter size traits. From all reproductive traits studied, the largest fraction of phenotypic variation explained by the Porcine SNP60 BeadArray was for age at puberty (27.3%). In an evaluation data set, the predictive ability of all SNP from high-ranked 1-Mb windows (1 to 50%), based on genetic variance explained in training, was greater (12.3 to 36.8%) compared with the most informative SNP from these windows (6.5 to 23.7%). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1334
      Published: August 10, 2017



    • M. A. Mirando
      GENOMICS SYMPOSIUM: Translational genomics to improve fertility of animals

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1902
      Published: August 10, 2017
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