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Journal of Animal Science : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Keele, J. W., L. A. Kuehn, T. G. McDaneld, R. G. Tait, S. A. Jones, B. N. Keel and W. M. Snelling. 2015. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9887

Current issue: J. Anim. Sci. 95(2)



  • ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND COGNITION

    • J. Rusakovica, T. Plötz, V. D. Kremer, P. Rohlf and I. Kyriazakis
      Satiety splits drinking behavior into bouts: Organization of drinking in turkeys

      The regulation of the drinking behavior of animals is usually overlooked, and the traits associated with it are not well defined. We used a unique data set of measurements of individual drinking behavior in turkeys 1) to validate the system of data generation, 2) to develop a methodology to allow clustering of drinking events and splitting behavior into bouts, and 3) to develop traits related to drinking behavior and its regulation and investigate how these traits may be affected by bird genotype. Visits to drinkers were generated by an electronic, custom-made equipment that automatically measures the individual drinking behavior of a large number of turkeys from 3 different genetic lines. The overall reliability of the electronic system was estimated from video observations and resulted in a predictability of 98.8% and sensitivity of 98.6%. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0433
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • I. Stěhulová, B. Valníčková, R. Šárová and M. Špinka
      Weaning reactions in beef cattle are adaptively adjusted to the state of the cow and the calf

      Abrupt weaning as practiced in beef cattle husbandry is stressful for both the cow and her offspring. However, the reaction to weaning varies among individuals. Based on the theory of maternal care allocation, we derived and tested the following hypotheses: 1) cow reaction to weaning will be stronger if the calf is young, if the calf is a female, and if the calf had higher daily weight gain; 2) cows in a higher parity and cows that are not concurrently pregnant will react more on weaning; and 3) young and female calves, and also calves with higher daily weight gain will respond more to weaning. We recorded frequency of vocalization and time spent moving in 50 cow–calf pairs (27 males and 23 females) immediately after weaning at 151 to 274 d of age. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1207
      Published: March 2, 2017



  • ANIMAL GENETICS AND GENOMICS

    • M. M Judge, D. C. Purfield, R. D. Sleator and D. P. Berry
      The impact of multi-generational genotype imputation strategies on imputation accuracy and subsequent genomic predictions

      The objective of the present study was to quantify, using simulations, the impact of successive generations of genotype imputation on genomic predictions. The impact of using a small reference population of true genotypes versus a larger reference population of imputed genotypes on the accuracy of genomic predictions was also investigated. After construction of a founder population, high-density (HD) genotypes (n = 43,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNP) were simulated across 25 generations (n = 46,800 per generation); a low-density genotype panel (n = 3,000 SNP) was developed from these HD genotypes, which was then used to impute genotypes using 7 alternative imputation strategies. Both low (0.03) and moderately (0.35) heritable phenotypes were simulated. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1212
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • A. Fangmann, R. A. Sharifi, J. Heinkel, K. Danowski, H. Schrade, M. Erbe and H. Simianer
      Empirical comparison between different methods for genomic prediction of number of piglets born alive in moderate sized breeding populations

      Currently used multi-step methods to incorporate genomic information in the prediction of breeding values (BV) implicitly involve many assumptions which, if violated, may result in loss of information, inaccuracies and bias. To overcome this, single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) was proposed combining pedigree, phenotype and genotype of all individuals for genetic evaluation. Our objective was to implement ssGBLUP for genomic predictions in pigs and to compare the accuracy of ssGBLUP with that of multi-step methods with empirical data of moderately sized pig breeding populations. Different predictions were performed: conventional parent average (PA), direct genomic value (DGV) calculated with genomic BLUP (GBLUP), a GEBV obtained by blending the DGV with PA, and ssGBLUP. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0991
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • K. J. Retallick, J. M. Bormann, R. L. Weaber, M. D. MacNeil, H. L. Bradford, H. C. Freetly, K. E. Hales, D. W. Moser, W. M. Snelling, R. M. Thallman and L. A. Kuehn
      Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle

      Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1260
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • K. Y. Li, K. T. Li, C. H. Yang, M. H. Hwang, S. W. Chang, S. M. Lin, H. J. Wu, E. B. Basilio, R. S. A. Vega, R. P. Laude and Y. T. Ju
      Insular East Asia pig dispersal and vicariance inferred from Asian wild boar genetic evidence

      The Formosan wild boar (Sus scrofa taivanus) is an endemic subspecies in Taiwan. Understanding the origins and spread of the Formosan wild boar could help clarify East Asian wild boar dispersion. Although in situ domestication of the wild boar occurred at a number of domestication centers across East Asia, corroborating archaeological and genetic evidence of pig domestication on Taiwan is lacking, leading to domestication being described as cryptic. This characterization applies to the Lanyu pig—a domestic pig breed found on Taiwan. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1117
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • E. Hamidi Hay and A. Roberts
      Genomic prediction and genome-wide association analysis of female longevity in a composite beef cattle breed

      Longevity is a highly important trait to the efficiency of beef cattle production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genomic prediction of longevity and identify genomic regions associated with this trait. The data used in this study consisted of 547 Composite Gene Combination cows (1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, 1/4 Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2011 genotyped with Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Three models were used to assess genomic prediction: Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP using a genomic relationship matrix. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1355
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • L. Wang, A. Nguluma, M. L. Leite-Browning and R. Browning
      Differences among four meat goat breeds for doe fitness indicator traits in the southeastern United States

      Sustainable meat goat production begins with the identification and use of maternal breeds that demonstrate relatively enhanced levels of fitness under less-than-optimal conditions. The Myotonic goat is a heritage breed that is lacking in comparative assessment for female fitness. In this study, Boer (n = 73), Kiko (n = 115), Myotonic (n = 80), and Spanish (n = 114) meat goat does were compared for traits associated with health and reproduction. The herd was semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture for 6 yr. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1283
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • K. P. Ochsner, M. D. MacNeil, R. M. Lewis and M. L. Spangler
      Economic selection index development for Beefmaster cattle I: Terminal breeding objective

      The objective of this study was to develop an economic selection index for Beefmaster cattle in a terminal production system where bulls are mated to mature cows with all resulting progeny harvested. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Phenotypic and genetic parameter values among the selection criteria and goal traits were obtained from literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits one at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1231
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • M. Shirali, A. B. Strathe, T. Mark, B. Nielsen and J. Jensen
      Joint analysis of longitudinal feed intake and single recorded production traits in pigs using a novel Horizontal model

      A novel Horizontal model is presented for multitrait analysis of longitudinal traits through random regression analysis combined with single recorded traits. Weekly ADFI on test for Danish Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire boars were available from the national test station and were collected from 30 to 100 kg BW. Single recorded production traits of ADG from birth to 30 kg BW (ADG30), ADG from 30 to 100 kg BW (ADG100), and lean meat percentage (LMP) were available from breeding herds or the national test station. The Horizontal model combined random regression analysis of feed intake (FI) with single recorded traits of ADG100, LMP, and ADG30. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0606
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • J. Sun, M. Xie, Z. Huang, H. Li, T. chen, R. Sun, J. Wang, Qianyun Xi, T. Wu and Y. Zhang
      Integrated analysis of non-coding RNA and mRNA expression profiles of 2 pig breeds differing in muscle traits

      Production of high-quality meat is important to satisfy the consumer and allow the pork industry to be competitive. It is evident that different muscle fiber types in different breeds greatly influence the pork quality, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We used Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq to examine global expressions of protein-coding transcripts and non-coding RNAs including miRNA, lncRNA, and circRNA in the longissimus dorsi of Landrace and Lantang pigs. Of the 22,469 identified coding transcripts, only 547 candidates were differentially expressed, including 461 upregulated and 86 downregulated transcripts in the Lantang pigs compared with Landrace. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0867
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • D. P. Berry, A. Wolfe, J. O’Donovan, N. Byrne, R. G. Sayers, K. G. Dodds, J. C. McEwan, R. E. O’Connor, M. McClure and D. C. Purfield
      Characterization of an X-chromosomal non-mosaic monosomy (59, X0) dairy heifer detected using routinely available single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data

      Evidence exists from a range of species on the impact of karyotype abnormalities on reproductive performance. Despite this, cytogenetic analyses of cattle, especially females, are not routinely undertaken. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data are now, however, routinely being generated in many species globally at a relatively low cost. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of routinely available SNP genotype data to identify sex-chromosome aberrations using X chromosome monosomy 59,X0 as a case study for illustration. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1279
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • D.J. Cottle and J.H.J. van der Werf
      Optimising the proportion of selection candidates measured for feed intake for a beef cattle breeding objective that includes methane emissions

      Reducing daily methane production (DMP) via selection for lower estimated daily (pasture) feed intake (DFI) has the potential to be more cost effective than direct selection for DMP. Daily feed intake has a high heritability and high genetic correlation to DMP and has a potential lower cost of measurement. This study’s main aim was to determine for a breeding nucleus the optimal proportion of randomly selected young male and female cattle in which to estimate DFI. This optimum proportion was determined by modeling the measurement costs and response to selection of Angus cattle on a (standard industry) Angus breeding index (ABI) augmented with DFI and DMP in a combined breeding objective (BO), but without DMP being measured. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1177
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • S. L. Lewis, H. M. Holl, C. Streeter, C. Posbergh, B. J. Schanbacher, N. J. Place, M. F. Mallicote, M. T. Long and S. A. Brooks
      Genomewide association study reveals a risk locus for equine metabolic syndrome in the Arabian horse

      Equine obesity can cause life-threatening secondary chronic conditions, similar to those in humans and other animal species. Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), primarily characterized by hyperinsulinemia, is often present in obese horses and ponies. Due to clinical similarities to conditions such as pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (formerly equine Cushing’s disease), conclusive diagnosis of EMS often proves challenging. Aside from changes in diet and exercise, few targeted treatments are available for EMS, emphasizing the need for early identification of at-risk individuals to enable implementation of preventative measures. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1221
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • J. N. Kiser, S. N. White, K. A. Johnson, J. L. Hoff, J. F. Taylor and H. L. Neibergs
      Identification of loci associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis ( Map ) tissue infection in cattle

      Johne’s disease is a contagious bacterial infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). A previous genome-wide association analysis (GWAA) in Holstein cattle identified QTL on BTA3 and BTA9 that were highly associated (P < 5 × 10-7) and on BTA1, BTA16, and BTA21 that were moderately associated (P < 5 × 10-5) with Map tissue infection. The objectives of this study were to validate previous GWAA results in Jersey cattle (n = 57), Holstein cattle from the Pacific Northwest (PNW, n = 205) and a combined Holstein population from the PNW and the Northeast (PNW + NE, n = 423), and also identify new loci associated with Map tissue infection. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1152
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL BEING

    • H. D. Hughes, J. A. Carroll, N. C. Burdick Sanchez, S. L. Roberts, P. R. Broadway, N. D. May, M. A. Ballou and J. T. Richeson
      Effects of dexamethasone treatment and respiratory vaccination on rectal temperature, complete blood count, and functional capacities of neutrophils in beef steers ,

      The objective of this research was to examine the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on various aspects of immunity following administration of a multivalent respiratory vaccine, using a model intended to mimic acute versus chronic stress. Angus × Hereford steers (n = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) acute stress (ACU), in which 0.5 mg/kg BW DEX was intravenously administered at 1000 h only on d 0; 2) chronic stress (CHR), in which 0.5 mg/kg BW DEX was intravenously administered at 1000 h on d −3 to 0; or 3) control (CON), in which no DEX was administered. Steers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices on d −4 relative to vaccination and placed in individual stanchions in an environmentally controlled facility. Blood samples were collected and serum was isolated at −74, −50, and −26 h; at 0.5-h intervals from −4 to 6 h; and at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h relative to multivalent respiratory vaccination at 1200 h on d 0. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1374
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • E. Tullo, I. Fontana, A. Peña Fernandez, E. Vranken, T. Norton, D. Berckmans and M. Guarino
      Association between environmental predisposing risk factors and leg disorders in broiler chickens

      Footpad dermatitis and lameness are a major welfare concern in broiler chicken farming. In general, footpad lesions are linked to poor environmental conditions. Ulcers that arise from advanced lesions can negatively affect the gait of the birds, with effects on the animal welfare, including, in the worst cases, inability to reach the feed or water. In this study, the degree of footpad dermatitis and lameness was manually scored on 4 broiler farms across Europe, as part of an EU-wide welfare assessment program. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1257
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • T. D. Avra, K. M. Abell, D. D. Shane, M. E. Theurer, R. L. Larson and B. J. White
      A retrospective analysis of risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease treatment failure in feedlot cattle

      The objective of this project was to identify risk factors associated with the probability of failing to resolve clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) after initial antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective data analysis was performed with 194,062 animals treated for BRD with an antimicrobial from 10 U.S. feedlots from 2005 to 2009. A binary variable classified cattle as a treatment failure if they were retreated for BRD or died following an initial BRD treatment. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1254
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • N. van Staaveren, B. Doyle, E. G. Manzanilla, J. A. Calderón Díaz, A. Hanlon and L. A. Boyle
      Validation of carcass lesions as indicators for on-farm health and welfare of pigs

      Incorporating indicators for pig health and welfare at meat inspection could reduce the need for on-farm assessments. Skin and tail lesions are important welfare indicators in pigs with good potential to record during meat inspection and could possibly function as iceberg indicators of on farm welfare. The aim of this study was to validate the use of these carcass lesions at meat inspection for the assessment of pig health and welfare on farm. Thirty-one farrow-to-finish pig farms (∼12% of Irish herds) were assessed using an adapted version of the Welfare Quality protocol by inspecting 6 randomly selected pens of pigs in the first weaner (4 to 8 wk), second weaner (8 to 13 wk) and finisher stage (13 to 23 wk). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1180
      Published: March 9, 2017



    • E. Snyder, B. Credille, R. Berghaus and S. Giguère
      Prevalence of multi drug antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from high-risk stocker cattle at arrival and two weeks after processing

      Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in North American beef cattle. Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh) is the bacterial pathogen most frequently isolated from cattle with BRD and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in this pathogen has been increasing. Administration of antimicrobials to prevent BRD is commonplace in stocker cattle, but the impact of this practice on emergence of resistance in Mh is unknown. High risk, sale barn origin bull and steer calves (n = 169) were transported to a stocker facility in central Georgia and sampled via deep nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at arrival processing. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1110
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • D. R. Notter, J. M. Burke, J. E. Miller and J. L. M. Morgan
      Association between FAMACHA scores and fecal egg counts in Katahdin lambs

      The FAMACHA system was introduced to the U.S. just over 10 yr ago to allow selective deworming of lambs with anemia associated with Haemonchus contortus and retard the development of anthelmintic resistance. The FAMACHA system was initially developed as a predictor of packed cell volume (PCV), but correlations between FAMACHA and fecal egg counts (FEC) have also been reported. It is important to understand factors that influence FAMACHA scores among farms to improve management of gastrointestinal nematodes. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1248
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • E. Hartmann, K. E. Bøe, G. H. M. Jørgensen, C. M. Mejdell and K. Dahlborn
      Management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community

      Limited information is available on the extent to which blankets are used on horses and the owners’ reasoning behind clipping the horse’s coat. Research on the effects of those practices on horse welfare is scarce but results indicate that blanketing and clipping may not be necessary from the horse’s perspective and can interfere with the horse’s thermoregulatory capacities. Therefore, this survey collected robust, quantitative data on the housing routines and management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices as reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community. Horse owners were approached via an online survey, which was distributed to equestrian organizations and social media. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1146
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • ANIMAL NUTRITION

    • M. Wang, R. Wang, P. H. Janssen, X. M. Zhang, X. Z. Sun, D. Pacheco and Z. L. Tan
      Sampling procedure for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen and volatile fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows

      Dissolved hydrogen (dH2) influences the pathways of VFA production and is a precursor of methane formation in the rumen. Measurements of dH2 in rumen fluid taken at the same time as measuring other rumen fermentation end products would improve our quantitative understanding of the role of dH2 as a controller of rumen fermentation. Sample collections though a rumen cannula and using oral stomach tubing were compared for measurements of dissolved gases and fermentation end products in the rumen fluid of 4 ruminally cannulated dairy cows fed a total mixed ration of corn silage and concentrate. Rumen fluid was collected at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after morning feeding through the cannula from cranial dorsal rumen, cranial ventral rumen, central rumen, caudal dorsal rumen, and caudal ventral rumen and in parallel by oral stomach tubing at 2 insertion depths of 180 cm (sampling the central rumen) and 200 cm (sampling the caudal dorsal rumen). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9658
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • A. V. Strathe, T. S. Bruun, J.-E. Zerrahn, A.-H. Tauson and C. F. Hansen
      The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth

      A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9267
      Published: December 3, 2015



    • U. Agarwal, Q. Hu and B. J. Bequette
      Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep

      Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep (n = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9226
      Published: September 15, 2015



    • G. A. Casas and H. H. Stein
      Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs

      The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-8877
      Published: July 24, 2015



    • J. R. Segers, T. L. Felix, A. R. Green, G. N. Maia, B. C. Ramirez and D. W. Shike
      Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers’ solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers’ solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.3766/jas.2015-8917
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • W. A. D. Nayananjalie, T. R. Wiles, D. E. Gerrard, M. A. McCann and M. D. Hanigan
      Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers

      The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage–based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8374
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    • J. C. Matthews, J. Huang and G. Rentfrow
      High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages

      Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9901
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • W. Kayser, J. B. Glaze, C. M. Welch, M. Kerley and R. A. Hill
      Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8337
      Published: August 3, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    • B. Bartz, M. Collins, G. Stoddard, A. Appleton, R. Livingood, H. Sobcynski and K. D. Vogel
      Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the “head-only” method—application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun (n = 45). The second group (n = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the “head/heart” method—initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). (continued)


      doi:10.5326/jas.2015-9332
      Published: August 21, 2015



  • CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

    • H. Rajaei-Sharifabadi, E. Greene, A. Piekarski, D. Falcon, L. Ellestad, A. Donoghue, W. Bottje, T. Porter, Y. Liang and S. Dridi
      Surface wetting strategy prevents acute heat exposure–induced alterations of hypothalamic stress– and metabolic-related genes in broiler chickens

      Heat stress (HS) is devastating to poultry production worldwide, yet its biology and molecular responses are not well defined. Although advances in management strategy have partially alleviated the negative impact of HS, productivity still continues to decline when the ambient temperature rises. Therefore, identifying mechanism-based approaches to decrease HS susceptibility while improving production traits is critical. Recently, we made a breakthrough by applying a surface wetting strategy and showing that it improves growth performance compared with the current conventional cooling system. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1290
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • K. E. Quinn, S. Z. Prosser, K. K. Kane and R. L. Ashley
      Inhibition of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor four (CXCR4) at the fetal-maternal interface during early gestation in sheep: alterations in expression of chemokines, angiogenic factors and their receptors

      Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), are involved in significant biological processes associated with early pregnancy including increasing trophoblast invasion and stimulating placental vascularization. To further elucidate functions of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling during early gestation, our objective was to inhibit CXCR4 in vivo using a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. We hypothesized that inhibition of CXCR4 would negatively affect chemokine and angiogenic factor regulation imperative for placental development in sheep. Osmotic pumps containing PBS (control) or AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) were surgically installed ipsilateral to the corpus luteum on d 12 of gestation and administered treatments directly into the uterine lumen. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1271
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • R. F. Cooke, L. R. Mehrkam, R. S. Marques, K. D. Lippolis and D. W. Bohnert
      Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves

      This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; n = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; n = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1250
      Published: March 2, 2017



  • ENVIRONMENTAL ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • S. Dikmen, G. E. Dahl, J. B. Cole, D. J. Null and P. J. Hansen
      The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate

      Here we report a previously undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker regions of the body vary in color from gray to taupe. The Larson Blue phenotype was readily apparent in young calves. The phenotype is not due to inheritance of known mutations causing coat color variation in cattle, including dominant red, Telstar, silver color dilutor, or Dun color. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1148
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • FEEDS

    • R. A. Cochrane, L. L. Schumacher, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, A. R. Huss, C. R. Stark, J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. Bia, Q. Chen, J. Zhang, P. C. Gauger, R. J. Derscheid, D. R. Magstadt, R. G. Main and C. K. Jones
      Effect of pelleting on survival of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus–contaminated feed

      Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a heat-sensitive virus that has devastated the U.S. swine industry. Because of its heat sensitivity, we hypothesized that a steam conditioner and pellet mill mimicking traditional commercial thermal processing may mitigate PEDV infectivity. Pelleting, a common feed processing method, includes the use of steam and shear forces, resulting in increased temperature of the processed feed. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0961
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • FORAGE BASED LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS

    • J. D. Hobbs, S. R. Edwards, E. R. Cope, Z. D. McFarlane, K. G. Pohler and J. T. Mulliniks
      Circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration may be a predictive measurement for young cows that have a greater probability to conceive at a fixed-time artificial insemination

      Timing of conception, which has been indicated to be negatively influenced by metabolic dysfunctions, can influence lifetime productivity within the cow herd. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the association of milk production, serum metabolites as an indicator of nutrient status, cow BW and BW change, and calf BW with timing of pregnancy in 183 spring-calving beef cows. Cows were retrospectively classified by timing of pregnancy as cows that were diagnosed pregnant by timed AI (TAI; n = 118) or natural breeding (NAT; n = 65). In addition, cows were grouped by age to represent young (3 to 4 yr old), mature (5 to 6 yr old), and old (7 to 9 yr old) cows. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1247
      Published: March 16, 2017



  • GASTROINTESTINAL BIOLOGY

    • A. P. Foote, C. M. Zarek, L.A. Kuehn, H. C. Cunningham, K. M. Cammack, H. C. Freetly and A. K. Lindholm-Perry
      Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on gene expression in the duodenum of lambs

      A previous study infusing butyrate into the abomasum of sheep produced increased oxygen, glucose, glutamate, and glutamine uptake by the portal-drained viscera. These changes were thought to be partially due to increases in glycolysis and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duodenum transcriptome of control and butyrate-treated lambs to determine whether genes involved in these pathways were altered. Polled Dorset lambs (n = 9) received a pulse dose of either butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or an equal volume of a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) daily at the time of feeding. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1022
      Published: March 9, 2017



    • M. Saqui-Salces, Z. Huang, M. Ferrandis Vila, J. Li, J. A. Mielke, P. E. Urriola and G. C. Shurson
      Modulation of intestinal cell differentiation in growing pigs is dependent on the fiber source in the diet

      Feeding high-fiber diets decreases cost, but also caloric and nutritional efficiency by modifying intestinal morphology and function. We analyzed the changes in intestinal cell composition, nutrient transporters and receptors, and cell differentiation induced by fibers from different sources. Forty-six finishing pigs (BW 84 ± 7 kg) were fed 1 of 4 diets: corn-soybean (Control; n = 12), 23% wheat straw (WS; n = 11), 55% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; n = 11), and 30% soybean hulls (SBH; n = 12). Pigs were fed 2 meals daily to an amount equivalent to 2.5% of initial BW for 14 d in metabolism cages. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0947
      Published: March 2, 2017



  • GROWTH BIOLOGY

    • Z. K. Smith, K. Y. Chung, S. L. Parr and B. J. Johnson
      Anabolic payout of terminal implant alters adipogenic gene expression of the longissimus muscle in beef steers

      This experiment evaluated the dose and payout pattern of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E2) on LM mRNA expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-ɑ (AMPK-ɑ), C/EBPβ, G protein-coupled receptor 41(GPR41), G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), PPARγ, and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) in finishing feedlot steers as indicators of adipogenesis and marbling development. British × Continental steers (n = 168; 14 pens/treatment; initial BW = 362 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included: no implant (NI), Revalor-S (REV-S; 120 mg TBA + 24 mg E2), or Revalor-XS (REV-X; delayed release implant: 80 mg TBA + 16 mg E2 [uncoated], 120 mg TBA + 24 mg E2 [coated], 200 mg TBA + 40 mg E2 [total]). Steers were fed 1 time daily for an average of 164 d. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0630
      Published: March 9, 2017



    • J. A. Reed, M. D. Garrison, T. J. McEvers, N. D. May, L. J. Walter, J. P. Hutcheson and T. E. Lawrence
      Objective biometric measurements of calf-fed Holstein steers fed in confinement

      Understanding the maximum slaughter size for calf-fed Holstein steers based on hip-height has become a contemporary issue in the beef processing industry. Increased carcass size, in terms of both weight and length, has outpaced the ability of some abattoirs to handle the larger animals. Moreover, some abattoirs have begun rejecting animals that exceed 147.3 cm (58 inches) at the hip, creating a challenge for Holstein cattle feeders. The objective of this study was to quantify the skeletal growth rate of calf-fed Holstein steers fed in confinement. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0836
      Published: March 2, 2017



  • MEAT SCIENCE

    • T. Xing, X. Zhao, P. Wang, H. Chen, X. Xu and G. Zhou
      Different oxidative status and expression of calcium channel components in stress-induced dysfunctional chicken muscle

      The objective of this study was to assess the effects of transport stress at high ambient temperatures on the oxidation status and the expression of essential elements responsible for the Ca2+ transport (sarco- (endo-) plasmic reticulum Ca2+–ATPase (SERCA1) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in pectoralis major (PM) muscles of broilers. Briefly, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n = 112) were randomly categorized into 2 treatments: unstressed control (C) and 0.5 h transport (T). Each treatment consisted of 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were transported according to a designed protocol. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0868
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • A. Chail, J. F. Legako, L. R. Pitcher, R. E. Ward, S. Martini and J. W. MacAdam
      Consumer sensory evaluation and chemical composition of beef gluteus medius and triceps brachii steaks from cattle finished on forage or concentrate diets

      The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cattle finishing diet and muscle type on meat quality. Consumer sensory response, proximate composition, Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF), fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were assessed from the gluteus medius (GM) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of cattle (n = 6 per diet) which were grain-finished (USUGrain) on conventional feedlot or 2 forage diets, a perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil-finished (USUBFT; Lotus corniculatus), and grass-finished (USUGrass; Bromus riparius). Diet had an interacting effect with muscle for all sensory attributes (P ≤ 0.002), except aroma and flavor (P ≥ 0.078). In forage-finished beef, tenderness, fattiness, overall liking, and WBSF tenderness of GM was greater (P < 0.05) than TB, whereas for USUGrain, the tenderness, fattiness, overall liking, and WBSF tenderness of both muscles were similar (P > 0.05) but the juiciness of TB was more liked than USUGrain GM (P < 0.05). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1150
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • K. B. Carlson, K. J. Prusa, C. A. Fedler, E. M. Steadham, A. C. Outhouse, D. A. King, E. Huff-Lonergan and S. M. Lonergan
      Postmortem protein degradation is a key contributor to fresh pork loin tenderness

      The objective of this study was to determine factors that influence tenderness independent of variation in pH, color, or marbling. To achieve the objective, 2 sample groups were chosen from a population of 159 pork loins aged 11 to 16 d. Predetermined ranges (ultimate pH, 5.54 to 5.86; marbling score, 1.0 to 3.0; percent total lipid, 1.61 to 3.37%) were defined for inclusion of individual loins in the study. The pork loins with the greatest (n = 12) and least (n = 12) Instron star probe values were assigned to 2 classification groups. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1032
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • S. M. Ebarb, K. J. Phelps, J. S. Drouillard, K. R. Maddock-Carlin, M. A. Vaughn, D. D. Burnett, J. A. Noel, C. L. Van Bibber- Krueger, C. B. Paulk, D. M. Grieger and J. M. Gonzalez
      Effects of anabolic implants and ractopamine-HCl on muscle fiber morphometrics, collagen solubility, and tenderness of beef longissimus lumborum steaks

      The objective of this study was to examine the effects of growth-promoting technologies (GP) and postmortem aging on longissimus lumborum muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), collagen solubility, and their relationship to meat tenderness. Two groups of black-hided crossbred feedlot heifers (group 1: n = 33, initial BW 430 ± 7 kg; group 2: n = 32, initial BW 466 ± 7 kg) were blocked by BW and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments consisting of: no implant and no ractopamine hydrochloride (CON; n = 21); implant, no ractopamine hydrochloride (IMP; n = 22); implant and ractopamine hydrochloride (COMBO; n = 22). Heifers that received an implant were administered an implant containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg estradiol on d 0 of the study, and heifers in the COMBO group received 400 mg∙head-1∙d-1 of ractopamine hydrochloride for 28 (Group 1) or 29 d (Group 2) at the end of 90- (Group 1) or 106-d (Group 2) feeding period. Following harvest, strip loins were collected and further fabricated into 5 roasts for postmortem aging (DOA) periods of 2, 7, 14, 21, or 35 d. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1263
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • N. D. May, T. J. McEvers, L. J. Walter, J. A. Reed, J. P. Hutcheson and T. E. Lawrence
      Fabrication yields of serially harvested calf-fed Holstein steers fed zilpaterol hydrochloride

      Holstein steers (n = 110) were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 0 or 20 d before slaughter during a 280-d serial harvest study. Cattle were harvested every 28 d beginning at 254 d on feed (DOF) and concluding at 534 DOF. After slaughter, carcasses were chilled for 48 h and then fabricated into boneless closely trimmed or denuded subprimals, lean trim, trimmable fat, and bone. Inclusion of ZH increased cold side weight (CSW) by 10.3 kg (P < 0.01; 212.7 vs. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1246
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • NONRUMINANT NUTRITION

    • L. V. Lagos and H. H. Stein
      Chemical composition and amino acid digestibility of soybean meal produced in the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, or India

      An experiment was conducted to compare nutritional composition of soybean meal (SBM) produced in China, Argentina, Brazil, the U.S., or India and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in these SBM when fed to growing pigs. Five sources of SBM from China, Argentina, Brazil, and the U.S., and 4 sources from India were collected for a total of 24 sources of SBM. All samples were analyzed for energy, DM, and nutrients, and each source was included in a cornstarch based diet in which SBM was the only AA contributing ingredient. An N-free diet was also formulated. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1440
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • N. Le Floc’h, A. Simongiovanni, E. Corrent and J. J. Matte
      Comparison of plasma tryptophan-related metabolites in crossbred Piétrain and Duroc pigs

      Besides being incorporated into proteins, Trp, an indispensable AA, is involved in numerous metabolic pathways. Previous data showed that Trp conversion into kynurenine (Kyn) and nicotinamide (Nam) differs among studies, and such differences cannot be explained by different dietary niacin supplies. We hypothesized that pig genotype influences Trp metabolism and thus the conversion of Trp into its metabolites. The objective of this study was to compare plasma appearance of Trp and related metabolites in 12 Duroc and 12 Piétrain crossbred postweaning pigs fed 2 contrasting dietary Trp levels. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1179
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • P. Bikker, C. M. C. van der Peet-Schwering, W. J. J. Gerrits, V. Sips, C. Walvoort and H. van Laar
      Endogenous phosphorus losses in growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows

      An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet composition, feeding level (FL), and BW on endogenous phosphorous losses (EPL) using growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 48 GF pigs (initial BW 90.5 kg) and 48 just-weaned sows (initial BW 195 kg), both individually housed, were allotted to 12 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were animal type (GF pigs or sows), diet composition (a semipurified starch (STA), inulin (INU), or lignocellulose (CEL) based low-P diet), and FL (2.0 or 3.0 kg/d). Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, crude fat, and carbohydrates (COH), and fecal P excretion (in g/d, mg/kg DMI, and g/(kg BW·d)) were determined using TiO2 as indigestible marker. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1041
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • L. Y. Zhang, X. F. Li, X. D. Liao, L. Y. Zhang, L. Lu and X. G. Luo
      Effect of iron source on iron absorption and gene expression of iron transporters in the ligated duodenal loops of broilers

      This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of iron source on Fe absorption and the gene expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) in the ligated duodenal loops of broilers. The in situ ligated duodenal loops from Fe-deficient broiler chicks (28-d-old) were perfused with Fe solutions containing 0 to 14.33 mmol Fe/L from 1 of the following: Fe sulfate (FeSO4∙7H2O), Fe methionine with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; chelation strength is expressed as quotient of formation [Qf] value, Qf = 1.37), Fe proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Qf = 43.6), and Fe proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Qf = 8,590) for up to 30 min. The gene expression of DMT1 and FPN1 in the duodenal loops from the control group and the groups treated with 3.58 mmol Fe/L from 1 of 4 Fe sources was analyzed. The absorption kinetics of Fe from different Fe sources in the duodenum followed a saturated carrier-dependent transport process. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1147
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • E. J. P. Strang, M. Eklund, P. Rosenfelder, J. K. Htoo and R. Mosenthin
      Variations in the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs,

      The study was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 currently available genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs. The genotypes included Grenado, Cando, Agostino, Massimo, Tarzan, HYT Prime, SW Talentro, and Cultivo. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 31 ± 2 kg were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 7 d each and 8 assay diets. The N-free method was used to determine basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1238
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • P. Ren, X. J. Yang, S. Q. Cui, J. S. Kim, D. Menon and S. K. Baidoo
      Effects of different feeding levels during three short periods of gestation on gilt and litter performance, nutrient digestibility, and energy homeostasis in gilts

      The present study investigated the effects of different feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation on gilt and litter performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, and energy homeostasis in gilts. A total of 18 gilts were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. All gilts were fed 1 common corn-soybean meal-based diet with the amount of 1.0 × maintenance energy intake (100 × BW (BW)0.75 kcal ME/d) throughout gestation except 3 periods of 7 d when dietary treatments were imposed on d 27, d 55, and d 83 of gestation. During the 3 short periods, gilts were fed 1 of 3 different feeding levels: 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 × maintenance energy level (0.5M, 1.0M, and 2.0M, respectively). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1208
      Published: March 9, 2017



    • J. A. Acosta, R. D. Boyd and J. F. Patience
      Digestion and nitrogen balance using swine diets containing increasing proportions of coproduct ingredients and formulated using the net energy system

      Rising feed expenditures demand that our industry pursues strategies to lower the cost of production. One option is the adoption of the NE system, although many producers are hesitant to proceed without proof that NE estimates are reliable. The objective of this experiment was to compare the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients and the N retention (NR) of diets formulated using the NE system with increasing quantities of coproduct ingredients. The 5 dietary treatments included a control corn–soybean meal diet (CTL); the CTL plus 6% each of corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, and wheat middlings and NE equal to the CTL by adding soybean oil (CONS-18); the CONS-18 diet, without oil added, with NE content lower than the CTL (DECL-18); the CTL plus 12% each of corn DDGS, corn germ meal, and wheat middlings and NE equal to the CTL by adding soybean oil (CONS-36); and the CONS-36 diet, without oil added, with NE content lower than the CTL (DECL-36). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1161
      Published: March 9, 2017



    • L. Q. Che, X. Peng, L. Hu, C. Wu, Q. Xu, Z. F. Fang, Y. Lin, S. Y. Xu, J. Li, B. Feng, G. Tian, R. N. Zhang, H. Sun, D. Wu and D. W. Chen
      The addition of protein-bound amino acids in low-protein diets improves the metabolic and immunological characteristics in fifteen- to thirty-five-kg pigs

      This study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of AA form (crystalline vs. protein bound) in low-protein diets on growth, metabolic, and immunological characteristics of pigs. A total of 80 barrows (PIC 327 × 1050; 15.57 ± 0.13 kg BW and 48 ± 2 d of age), housed in 4 pigs per pen with 5 pens per treatment, were assigned to 4 dietary treatments of 17, 15, and 13% CP and 13% CP plus casein for 28 d. The crystalline AA were supplemented to meet the requirement of indispensable AA in pigs. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0990
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • T. Gidenne, L. Fortun-Lamothe, C. Bannelier, C. Molette, H. Gilbert, M. L. Chemit, M. Segura, F. Benitez, F. Richard, H. Garreau and L. Drouilhet
      Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: III. Digestion and excretion of nitrogen and minerals

      Two rabbit lines have been created to result in better feed efficiency: the ConsoResidual line was selected for a lower residual feed intake under ad libitum feeding, and the ADGrestrict line was selected for higher ADG under restricted feeding (−20% of ad libitum). The present study aimed to analyze the digestion and excretion of N and minerals from 29 to 63 d of age of these 2 lines compared with an unselected control line (G0) under 2 feeding levels (ad libitum or restricted). The ADGrestrict line had greater digestibility compared with G0 (+1.3% for OM and N; P < 0.05), and the ConsoResidual line had intermediate values. There was no genetic line effect on the digestibility of N and P and on minerals concentrations (P, Zn, and Cu) in the feces and in the urine. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1192
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • M. M. Li, K. M. Seelenbinder, M. A. Ponder, L. Deng, R. P. Rhoads, K. D. Pelzer, J. S. Radcliffe, C. V. Maxwell, J. A. Ogejo, R. R. White and M. D. Hanigan
      Effects of dirty housing and a Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 challenge on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions from stored manure

      The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of a dirty environment and a Salmonella challenge plus associated environmental contamination on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions (CO2, NH3, CH4, N2O, and H2S) from stored manure. Twenty-four weaned barrows, aged 31 d at initiation of the trial, were randomly allotted to 3 different treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were: pigs housed in cages with manure removed and cages washed daily (Clean); pigs housed in cages sprayed daily with manure slurry mixtures (Dirty); or pigs challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and housed in cages that were not washed, but manure was removed daily (Salmonella challenge). Rectal temperature, body weight, daily feed intake, manure output, manure composition, and gas emissions from stored manure were measured throughout the 24-d animal phase. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0863
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • T. L. Veum, X. Serrano and F. H. Hsieh
      Twin- or single-screw extrusion of raw soybeans and preconditioned soybean meal and corn as individual ingredients or as corn-soybean product blends in diets for weanling swine

      Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1081
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • A. J. Elsbernd, C. F. M. de Lange, K. J. Stalder, L. A. Karriker and J. F. Patience
      SID lysine requirement of immunologically and physically castrated male pigs during the grower, early and late finisher periods

      The main objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys requirement of immunologically castrated (IC) and physically castrated (PC) male pigs during 3 growth phases. An additional objective was to compare the ADFI of PC and IC after the second anti-gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) injection. Three hundred male pigs (PIC 359 × C29), 150 each of IC and PC, were allotted to 1 of 5 treatments: 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120% of the estimated Lys requirement using the NRC (2012) modeling program. Pigs remained on the same treatment throughout each of the 3 phases. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0544
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • REPRODUCTION

    • D. D. Shane, R. L. Larson, M. W. Sanderson, M. Miesner and B. J. White
      A deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow-calf production: The effects of the duration of postpartum anestrus on production parameters over a 10-year horizon

      The duration of postpartum anestrus (dPPA) is important to consider for reproductive performance and efficiency in cow-calf operations. We developed a deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow-calf production over a 10-yr horizon to model the effects that dPPA had on measures of herd productivity, including the percentage of cows cycling before the end of the first 21 d of the breeding season (%C21), the percentage of cows pregnant at pregnancy diagnosis (%PPD), the distribution of pregnancy by 21-d breeding intervals, the kilograms of calf weaned (KW), the kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed (KPC), and the replacement percentage. A 1,000-animal herd was modeled, with the beginning and ending dates for a 63-d natural service breeding season being the same for eligible replacement heifers (nulliparous cows) and cows (primiparous and multiparous cows). Herds were simulated to have a multiparous cow dPPA of 50, 60, 70, or 80 d, with the dPPA for primiparous cows being set to 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, or 110 d. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0972
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • I. Barranco, A. Casao, C. Perez-Patiño, I. Parrilla, T. Muiño-Blanco, E. A. Martinez, J. A. Cebrian-Perez and J. Roca
      Profile and reproductive roles of seminal plasma melatonin of boar ejaculates used in artificial insemination programs

      Melatonin (MLT) is present in seminal plasma (SP) of mammalian species, including pigs, and it is credited with antioxidant properties. This study aims to identify the sources of variation and the role of boar SP MLT on sperm quality and functionality and in vivo fertilizing ability of liquid-stored semen doses used in AI programs. The SP MLT was measured using an ELISA kit in a total of 219 ejaculates collected from 76 boars, and reproductive records of 5,318 AI sows were recorded. Sperm quality was assessed according to motility (computer-aided sperm analysis) and viability (cytometry evaluation). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1286
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • L. Zhang, L. F. Schütz, C. L. Robinson, M. L. Totty and L. J. Spicer
      Evidence that gene expression of ovarian follicular tight junction proteins is regulated in vivo and in vitro in cattle

      Tight junctions (TJ) are common paracellular sealing structures that control the transport of water, ions, and macromolecules across cell layers. Because the role of TJ in bovine follicular development is unknown, we investigated the developmental and hormonal regulation of the transmembrane TJ protein, occludin (OCLN), and the cytoplasmic TJ proteins, TJ protein 1 (TJP1) and cingulin (CGN) in bovine granulosa cells (GC) and theca cells (TC). For this purpose, bovine GC and TC were isolated from large (>8 mm) and/or small (1 to 5 mm) follicles and either extracted for real-time PCR (qPCR) or cultured in vitro. The abundances of both OCLN and TJP1 mRNA were greater (P < 0.05) in TC than GC, whereas the CGN mRNA abundance was greater (P < 0.05) in GC than TC. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0892
      Published: March 2, 2017



  • RUMINANT NUTRITION

    • Z. Tadayon, Y. Rouzbehan and J. Rezaei
      Effects of feeding different levels of dried orange pulp and recycled poultry bedding on the performance of fattening lambs

      The effects of dietary feeding different levels of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) and dried orange pulp (DOP) on the performance of fattening Shal lambs (initial BW of 28 ± 2.2 kg) were assessed using a factorial experiment (2 × 3) with a completely randomized design. Six diets, containing different levels of RPB (0 or 160 g/kg of DM) and DOP (0, 110, or 220 g/kg of DM), were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 6 lambs each for a 74-d period (14 d for adaptation and 60 d for data collection). Diets were offered as total mixed ration to ensure 10% of orts. Feed intake, growth, diet digestibility, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS), N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites were determined. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0889
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • C. P. Weiss, W. W. Gentry, C. M. Meredith, B. E. Meyer, N. A. Cole, L. O. Tedeschi, F. T. McCollum and J. S. Jennings
      Effects of roughage inclusion and particle size on digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics of beef steers

      Roughage is fed in finishing diets to promote ruminal health and decrease digestive upset, but the inclusion rate is limited because of the cost per unit of energy and feed management issues. Rumination behavior of cattle may be a means to standardize roughage in beef cattle finishing diets, and increasing the particle size of roughage could modulate the ruminal environment and aid in maintaining ruminal pH. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn stalk (CS) inclusion rate and particle size in finishing diets on digestibility, rumination, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of beef steers. Four ruminally cannulated steers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1330
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • L. S. Caramalac, A. Saran Netto, P. G. M. A. Martins, P. Moriel, J. Ranches, H. J. Fernandes and J. D. Arthington
      Effects of hydroxychloride sources of copper, zinc, and manganese on measures of supplement intake, mineral status, and pre- and postweaning performance of beef calves

      Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Cu, Zn, and Mn source on measures of 1) preferential intake of mineral-concentrated supplements and 2) mineral status and pre- and postweaning performance of beef calves. In Exp. 1, 4 trials were conducted to assess the effect of source of Cu (750 mg/kg; Trial 1), Zn (2,000 mg/kg; Trial 2), Mn (3,000 mg/kg; Trial 3), and all 3 elements (Trial 4) on preferential intake of mineral-concentrated supplements. Supplements differed only by source of Cu, Zn, and Mn, which included hydroxychloride (hydroxy), sulfate, and organic options. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0934
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • Y. S. Liang, G. Z. Li, X. Y. Li, J. Y. Lü, F. D. Li, D. F. Tang, F. Li, Y. Deng, H. Zhang, Z. L. Wang and X. X. Weng
      Growth performance, rumen fermentation, bacteria composition, and gene expressions involved in intracellular pH regulation of rumen epithelium in finishing Hu lambs differing in residual feed intake phenotype

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of residual feed intake (RFI) on rumen function in finishing lambs. A total of 60 male Hu lambs (average initial BW = 25.2 ± 2.5kg) were used and were offered a pelleted high-concentrate diet, of which the forage to concentrate ratio was 25:75. Individual feed intake was recorded over a period of 42 d, then 10 lambs with the lowest RFI and the highest RFI were selected, respectively. The rumen fluid used for fermentation variables and relative abundance of bacteria measurement was obtained on d 10 and 20 after RFI measurement. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1134
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • L. F. Prados, D. F. T. Sathler, B. C. Silva, D. Zanetti, S. C. Valadares Filho, H. M. Alhadas, E. Detmann, S. A. Santos, L. D. S. Mariz and M. L. Chizzotti
      Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status

      Weaned Nellore bulls (n = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE (Valadares Filho et al., 2010) [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP−]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn−]). The factor CaP− was formulated without the addition of limestone and dicalcium phosphate, and the factor CuMnZn− was formulated without inorganic supplementation of microminerals (premix). The diets were isonitrogenous (13.3% CP). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1085
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • D. F. T. Sathler, L. F. Prados, D. Zanetti, B. C. Silva, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. V. C. Pacheco, P. M. Amaral, L. N. Rennó and M. F. Paulino
      Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: I. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on microbial efficiency and ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibility of dietary constituents

      This study evaluated intake, microbial efficiency, and ruminal, small and large intestinal, and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF, as well as availability of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Mn, and Zn in Zebu cattle fed with or without supplemental sources of Ca and P or a micromineral premix. Five rumen- and ileum-cannulated Nellore bulls (BW = 200 ± 10.5 kg; 9 mo) were used in the experiment, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The experiment was developed in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial design to measure the effects of mineral supplementation on intake, digestibility, and site of nutrient absorption. The factors consisted of 2 Ca and P levels (macromineral factor; CaP+ or CaP−) and 2 microminerals levels (micromineral factor; CuMnZn+ or CuMnZn−). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1084
      Published: March 16, 2017



    • D. Zanetti, L. A. Godoi, M. M. Estrada, T. E. Engle, B. C. Silva, H. M. Alhadas, M. L. Chizzotti, L. F. Prados, L. N. Rennó and S. C. Valadares Filho
      Estimating mineral requirements of Nellore beef bulls fed with or without inorganic mineral supplementation and the influence on mineral balance

      The objectives of this study were to quantify the mineral balance of Nellore cattle fed with and without Ca, P, and micromineral (MM) supplementation and to estimate the net and dietary mineral requirement for Bos indicus cattle. Nellore cattle (n = 51; 270.4 ± 36.6 kg initial BW and 8 mo age) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: reference (n = 5), maintenance (n = 4), and performance (n = 42). The reference group was slaughtered prior to the experiment to estimate initial body composition. The maintenance group was used to collect values of animals at low gain and reduced mineral intake. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1190
      Published: March 9, 2017



    • K. C. Swanson, Z. E. Carlson, M. C. Ruch, T. C. Gilbery, S. R. Underdahl, F. E. Keomanivong, M. L. Bauer and A. Islas
      Influence of forage source and forage inclusion level on growth performance, feeding behavior, and carcass characteristics in finishing steers

      Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage source (Exp. 1) and forage inclusion level (Exp. 2) in finishing diets on growth performance and feeding behavior. In Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1157
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • L. G. Silva, P. D. B. Benedeti, E. M. Paula, F. Malekjahani, P. M. Amaral, L. D. S. Mariz, T. Shenkoru and A. P. Faciola
      Effects of carbohydrate and nitrogen supplementation on fermentation of cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ) in a dual-flow continuous culture system

      Cheatgrass (CG; Bromus tectorum), an introduced winter annual grass, is an aggressive invader of the sagebrush community in the Western United States. Because of its greater flammability, mature CG constitutes a fire hazard leading to repeated wildfires. One fuel-reduction strategy is livestock grazing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of urea, molasses, or a combination of urea and molasses supplementation of a CG-based diet on digestibility, microbial fermentation, bacterial protein synthesis, and nutrient flow using a dual-flow continuous culture system. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0950
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • P. J. Ebert, E. A. Bailey, A. L. Shreck, J. S. Jennings and N. A. Cole
      Effect of condensed tannin extract supplementation on growth performance, nitrogen balance, gas emissions, and energetic losses of beef steers

      Condensed tannins (CT) may decrease greenhouse gas emissions and alter the site of N excreted by ruminants. We evaluated the effect of top-dressing a steam-flaked corn–based finishing diet (14.4% CP and NEg 1.47 Mcal/kg) for beef cattle with a commercially available CT extract at 3 levels (0, 0.5, and 1.0% of diet, DM basis). Angus-crossbred steers (n = 27; 350 ± 32 kg initial BW) were individually fed via Calan gates for 126 d. Diet digestibility and N balance were estimated after 34 and 95 d on feed (Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively) using titanium dioxide as a marker of fecal output and the creatinine:BW ratio as a marker for urine output. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0341
      Published: March 2, 2017



    • C. R. Muegge, K. M. Brennan and J. P. Schoonmaker
      Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on progeny feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

      Angus × Simmental cows (n = 48, BW = 594 kg, BCS = 5.26, age = 2.7) pregnant with male fetuses were used to determine the effect of selenium source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on progeny feedlot performance. At 203 d of gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, and calf sire and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: no supplemental Se, 3 mg/d inorganic Se (sodium selenite), and 3 mg/d organic Se (Sel-plex). Maternal diets were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Basal diets contained 0.07 and 0.11 mg/kg Se for gestation and lactation diets, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0960
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • SPECIAL TOPICS

    • M. A. Moggy, E. A. Pajor, W. E. Thurston, S. Parker, A. M. Greter, K. S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein, J. R. Campbell and M. C. Windeyer
      Management practices associated with stress in cattle on western Canadian cow–calf operations: A mixed methods study

      Handling, weaning, and euthanasia are some of the most stressful practices performed on cow–calf operations. Although strategies to minimize stress exist, their use on western Canadian cow–calf operations is unknown. The objectives were to describe current stress-associated practices on western Canadian cow–calf operations, describe producer and operation demographics associated with the use of nonabrupt weaning methods, and explore producer perceptions toward these practices. A questionnaire focusing on stressful management practices was delivered to 109 cow–calf producers in western Canada. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1310
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • M. L. Galyean and S. L Ivey
      Dennis Murray Hallford (1948-2016): A brief biography

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1368
      Published: March 16, 2017
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  • SYMPOSIUM

    • P. Sae-Lim, A. Kause, H. A. Mulder and I. Olesen
      BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Climate change and selective breeding in aquaculture

      Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector and it contributes significantly to global food security. Based on Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture production must increase significantly to meet the future global demand for aquatic foods in 2050. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and FAO, climate change may result in global warming, sea level rise, changes of ocean productivity, freshwater shortage, and more frequent extreme climate events. Consequently, climate change may affect aquaculture to various extents depending on climatic zones, geographical areas, rearing systems, and species farmed. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1066
      Published: March 9, 2017



    • J.B. Cole, J.M. Bormann, C.A. Gill, H. Khatib, J.E. Koltes, C. Maltecca and F. Miglior
      BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Resilience of livestock to changing environments

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1402
      Published: March 2, 2017
      [ Preview (PDF) ]  [ Full Text ]  [ PDF ] 



    • T. J. DeVries
      ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Metrics for on-farm animal welfare assessment–Current state and future needs

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1399
      Published: February 23, 2017
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    • E. Vasseur
      ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Optimizing outcome measures of welfare in dairy cattle assessment

      In most countries producing milk, industry- or other stakeholder-driven initiatives are in place to improve welfare and overall dairy farming sustainability. Those initiatives typically include a system of verification of reaching targets and progress over time. Reliable indicators are a fundamental requirement to provide public assurance and allow improvement on farms. Assessing dairy cattle welfare through outcome measures of welfare is done today through visual evaluations, including those of lameness, injuries, hygiene, and body condition. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0880
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • I. Misztal
      BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Resilience and lessons from studies in genetics of heat stress

      Production environments are expected to change, mostly to a hotter climate but also possibly more extreme and drier. Can the current generation of farm animals cope with the changes or should it be specifically selected for changing conditions? In general, genetic selection produces animals with a smaller environmental footprint but also with smaller environmental flexibility. Some answers are coming from heat-stress research across species, with heat tolerance partly understood as a greater environmental flexibility. Specific studies in various species show the complexities of defining and selecting for heat tolerance. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0953
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • R. A. Blatchford
      ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Poultry welfare assessments: Current use and limitations

      Recent attention has been given to developing welfare assessment tools for research purposes and for use directly on poultry farms. Historically, most of these tools have relied on resource- and management-based measures, but it is unclear how well they correlate with outcomes indicative of positive animal welfare. The subjective nature of many of these tools also makes it difficult to generalize across studies and farms without extensive training. More recently, the European Union Welfare Quality project set out to design assessment tools that were scientifically based and combined resource- and management-based measures with animal-based measures. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0957
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • S. R. Davis, R. J. Spelman and M. D. Littlejohn
      BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM:Breeding heat tolerant dairy cattle: the case for introgression of the “slick” prolactin receptor variant into Bos taurus dairy breeds

      Increasing environmental temperatures are a threat to the sustainability of livestock production and, because of the high metabolic demands of lactation, to dairy production in particular. Summer heat waves in temperate climates reduce feed intake, milk production, and cow comfort. In extreme heat events, there is an increase in cow mortality. In tropical climates, dairy cattle are mostly Bos indicus (zebu) type or zebu crossbred with temperate dairy breeds. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0956
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • TECHNOLOGY IN ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • M. J. McPhee, B. J. Walmsley, B. Skinner, B. Littler, J. P. Siddell, L. M. Cafe, J. F. Wilkins, V. H. Oddy and A. Alempijevic
      Live animal assessments of rump fat and muscle score in Angus cows and steers using 3-dimensional imaging

      The objective of this study was to develop a proof of concept for using off-the-shelf Red Green Blue-Depth (RGB-D) Microsoft Kinect cameras to objectively assess P8 rump fat (P8 fat; mm) and muscle score (MS) traits in Angus cows and steers. Data from low and high muscled cattle (156 cows and 79 steers) were collected at multiple locations and time points. The following steps were required for the 3-dimensional (3D) image data and subsequent machine learning techniques to learn the traits: 1) reduce the high dimensionality of the point cloud data by extracting features from the input signals to produce a compact and representative feature vector, 2) perform global optimization of the signatures using machine learning algorithms and a parallel genetic algorithm, and 3) train a sensor model using regression-supervised learning techniques on the ultrasound P8 fat and the classified learning techniques for the assessed MS for each animal in the data set. The correlation of estimating hip height (cm) between visually measured and assessed 3D data from RGB-D cameras on cows and steers was 0.75 and 0.90, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1292
      Published: March 23, 2017



    • L. Jin, Q. Guo, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-X. Xing, G.-L. Zhang, M.-F. Xuan, Q.-R. Luo, Z.-B. Luo, J.-X. Wang, H.-M. Choe, H.-J. Paek, X.-J. Yin and J.-D. Kang
      Histone deacetylase inhibitor M344 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming, blastocyst quality, and in vitro developmental capacity of cloned pig embryos

      M344 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor. There is no report on the effect of M344 treatment on the development of pig embryos after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In the present study, we investigated the effect of M344 on the blastocyst formation rate in cloned embryos, acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 12 (AcH4K12), and the expression of pluripotency-related genes Oct4, NANOG, and SOX2. Our results indicated that treatment with 5 µM M344 for 6 h improved the development of porcine embryos, in comparison with the untreated group (25.1% ± 5.0 vs. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1240
      Published: March 9, 2017



  • ZOO AND EXOTIC ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

    • A. J. Ardente, R. S. Wells, C. R. Smith, M. T. Walsh, E. D. Jensen, T. L. Schmitt, J. Colee, B. J. Vagt and R. C. Hill
      Dietary cation–anion difference may explain why ammonium urate nephrolithiasis occurs more frequently in common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) under human care than in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins

      Ammonium urate nephrolithiasis frequently develops in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) managed under human care but is rare in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins. In other species, the dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD) can affect ammonium urate urolith formation by increasing proton excretion as ammonium ions. Therefore, differences in diet between the 2 dolphin populations could affect urolith formation, but the DCAD of most species consumed by free-ranging and managed dolphins is unknown. To compare the nutrient composition of diets consumed by free-ranging and managed bottlenose dolphins, samples (n = 5) of the 8 species of fish commonly consumed by free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, and the 7 species of fish and squid commonly fed to managed bottlenose dolphins were analyzed for nutrient content. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1113
      Published: March 2, 2017