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Journal of Animal Science : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Keele, J. W., L. A. Kuehn, T. G. McDaneld, R. G. Tait, S. A. Jones, B. N. Keel and W. M. Snelling. 2015. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9887

Current issue: J. Anim. Sci. 95(4)



  • ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND COGNITION

    • A. Madruga, E. Mainau, L. A. González, M. Rodríguez-Prado, J. L. Ruíz de la Torre, X. Manteca and A. Ferret
      Technical note: Recording rules for behavioral studies in growing heifers fed high-concentrate diets

      Continuous recording over 24 h is an accurate method for behavioral measurements in ruminants but is very time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare different recording rules, in particular continuous recording (CR) with different time samplings (TS) methods, when the behavior of growing heifers housed individually and fed a high-concentrate diet is recorded. Behavior of 8 growing heifers was recorded on 6 non-consecutive days. Continuous recording over 24 h, considered the control treatment, was used to evaluate TS methods by recording all the behaviors that occurred for 60 s at intervals of 2 (S2), 5 (S5), 10 (S10), 15 (S15), 20 (S20) and 30 (S30) min. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1037
      Published: April 27, 2017



  • ANIMAL GENETICS AND GENOMICS

    • K. T. Gebre, M. Wurzinger, S. Gizaw, A. Haile, B. Rischkowsky, T. Getachew and J. Sölkner
      System dynamics modeling in designing breeding schemes: The case of Menz sheep in Ethiopian highlands

      A comprehensive dynamic simulation model was developed to describe a community-based breeding program for the Menz sheep population of Ethiopia. Selection of male and female animals based on their own and maternal performance was simulated. The breeding goal traits were 6-mo weight, preweaning survival, and fertility rate. The model input data were obtained from the flock book, questionnaires, and references. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1193
      Published: April 27, 2017



    • L. Zetouni, M. Henryon, M. Kargo and J. Lassen
      Direct multitrait selection realizes the highest genetic response for ratio traits

      For a number of traits the phenotype considered to be the goal trait is a combination of 2 or more traits, like methane (CH4) emission (CH4/kg of milk). Direct selection on CH4 emission defined as a ratio is problematic, because it is uncertain whether the improvement comes from an improvement in milk yield, a decrease in CH4 emission or both. The goal was to test different strategies on selecting for 2 antagonistic traits– improving milk yield while decreasing methane emissions. The hypothesis was that to maximize genetic gain for a ratio trait, the best approach is to select directly for the component traits rather than using a ratio trait or a trait where 1 trait is corrected for the other as the selection criteria. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1324
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • K. P. Ochsner, M. D. MacNeil, R. M. Lewis and M. L. Spangler
      Economic selection index development for Beefmaster cattle II: General-purpose breeding objective

      An economic selection index was developed for Beefmaster cattle in a general-purpose production system in which bulls are mated to a combination of heifers and mature cows, with resulting progeny retained as replacements or sold at weaning. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits 1 at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1232
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • N. McHugh, T. Pabiou, E. Wall, K. McDermott and D. P. Berry
      Impact of alternative definitions of contemporary groups on genetic evaluations of traits recorded at lambing

      The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of alternative contemporary group definitions for lambing traits on genetic evaluations in the Irish multibreed sheep population. Three lambing traits were considered for analysis: lambing difficulty, birth weight, and survival. Eight alternative contemporary group definitions were investigated for each lambing trait; all contemporary groups were formed within flock of lambing and included (flock by) week of lambing, week of lambing by litter size (i.e., singles vs. multiples), 2-wk interval (i.e., fortnight) of lambing, fortnight of lambing by litter size, month of lambing, and month of lambing by litter size or were based on an optimized algorithm that creates contemporary groups based on animals from the same flock that are born in close proximity of date. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1344
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • T. W. Murphy, Y. M. Berger, P. W. Holman, M. Baldin, R. L. Burgett and D. L. Thomas
      Factors affecting ewe performance in a crossbred dairy sheep research flock in the United States

      The Spooner Agricultural Research Station operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America through 2016. The original nondairy ewe flock was “bred up” to a crossbred dairy flock through the use of rams and semen of the East Friesian (EF) and Lacaune (LA) dairy breeds. The objective of this study was to determine the environmental and nonadditive genetic effects that influence performance of dairy ewes. The traits analyzed were 180 d adjusted milk (180d MY), fat (180d FY), and protein (180d PY) yields, percentage fat (%F) and protein (%P) in milk, lactation average somatic cell score (LSCS), and number of lambs born per ewe lambing (NLB). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1175
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • Y. Atagi, A. Onogi, M. Kinukawa, A. Ogino, K. Kurogi, K. Uchiyama, T. Yasumori, K. Adachi, K. Togashi and H. Iwata
      Genetic analysis of semen production traits of Japanese Black and Holstein bulls: genome-wide marker-based estimation of genetic parameters and environmental effect trends

      The semen production traits of bulls from 2 major cattle breeds in Japan, Holstein and Japanese Black, were analyzed comprehensively using genome-wide markers. Weaker genetic correlations were observed between the 2 age groups (1 to 3 yr old and 4 to 6 yr old) regarding semen volume and sperm motility compared with those observed for sperm number and motility after freeze-thawing. The preselection of collected semen for freezing had a limited effect. Given the increasing importance of bull proofs at a young age because of genomic selection and the results from preliminary studies, we used a multiple-trait model that included motility after freeze-thawing with records collected at young ages. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1186
      Published: April 13, 2017



    • S. I. Mortimer, S. Hatcher, N. M. Fogarty, J. H. J. van der Werf, D. J. Brown, A. A. Swan, J. C. Greeff, G. Refshauge, J. E. Hocking Edwards and G. M. Gaunt
      Genetic parameters for wool traits, live weight, and ultrasound carcass traits in Merino sheep

      Genetic correlations between 29 wool production and quality traits and live weight and ultrasound fat depth (FAT) and eye muscle depth (EMD) traits were estimated from the Information Nucleus (IN). The IN comprised 8 genetically linked flocks managed across a range of Australian sheep production environments. The data were from a maximum of 9,135 progeny born over 5 yr from 184 Merino sires and 4,614 Merino dams. The wool traits included records for yearling and adult fleece weight, fiber diameter (FD), staple length (SL), fiber diameter CV (FDCV), scoured color, and visual scores for breech and body wrinkle. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1234
      Published: April 13, 2017



    • L. M. Castro, G. J. M. Rosa, F. B. Lopes, L. C. A. Regitano, A. J. M. Rosa and C. U. Magnabosco
      Genomewide association mapping and pathway analysis of meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle

      Brazil is one of the world’s largest beef exporters, although the product has a low price due to quality issues. The meat exported by Brazil is considered medium and low quality by international buyers, mainly due to lack of tenderness. The predominant Zebu breeds (80% Nellore) are known for producing tougher beef than taurine breeds. Nonetheless, some studies have shown that there is substantial genetic variability for tenderness within the Nellore breed, although it is a difficult trait to improve by conventional selection methods. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1348
      Published: April 13, 2017



    • C. J. Posbergh, R. J. Murphy and M. L. Thonney
      Further testing of Melatonin Receptor 1a for out-of-season reproduction in the Cornell flock and allelic frequencies compared with Romney sheep

      Sheep are seasonally polyestrous breeders, meaning they breed when day length shortens in the autumn. Ewes respond to changing day length through chemical pathways involving melatonin receptors. Some breeds, such as Dorset, are known to be less seasonal with many ewes able to breed and lamb year-round. The Melatonin Receptor 1a (MTNR1A) gene was identified as a candidate gene controlling out-of-season lambing. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1345
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • H.-B. Park, S.-H. Han, J.-B. Lee and I.-C. Cho
      Rapid Communication: High-resolution quantitative trait loci analysis identifies LTBP2 encoding latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2 associated with thoracic vertebrae number in a large F 2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs

      Number of vertebrae is associated with body size and meat productivity in pigs. The aim of this study was to identify QTL and associated positional candidate genes affecting the number of thoracic vertebrae (THO). A genomewide association study was conducted in a large resource population derived from an F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs using the Porcine SNP 60K BeadChip and the genomewide complex trait analysis (GCTA) program based on a linear mixed-effects model. A total of 38,385 SNP markers from 1,105 F2 progeny were analyzed for the THO trait after filtering for quality control. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1390
      Published: April 7, 2017



  • ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL BEING

    • J. A. Hagenmaier, C. D. Reinhardt, M. J. Ritter, M. S. Calvo-Lorenzo, G. J. Vogel, C. A. Guthrie, M. G. Siemens, K. F. Lechtenberg, D. J. Rezac and D. U. Thomson
      Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and physiological response to different handling techniques ,

      Feedlot cattle (n = 128; BW = 549 ± 60 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on growth performance, physiological response to handling, and mobility during shipment for slaughter in a study utilizing a split-plot design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) diet (CON [no β-adrenergic agonist] vs. RAC [400 mg·animal−1·d−1 ractopamine hydrochloride for 28 d]) and 2) handling intensity (HI; low-stress handling [LSH; cattle moved at a walking pace with no electric prod use] vs. high-stress handling [HSH; cattle moved at a minimum of a trot and an electric prod applied while in the alley for posthandling restraint and during loading for shipment to the abattoir]). Cattle fed RAC tended to have greater ADG and G:F (P = 0.06), and had greater HCW and LM area (P = 0.04). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0936
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • M. D. Kleinhenz, N. K. Van Engen, P. J. Gorden, J. Ji, P. Walsh and J. F. Coetzee
      Effects of transdermal flunixin meglumine on pain biomarkers at dehorning in calves

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic properties of transdermal flunixin meglumine when given at the time of dehorning on pain biomarkers. Twenty-four weaned male Holstein calves, 6 to 8 wk of age were enrolled into the study. The calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 1) transdermal flunixin and dehorn (DH-FLU); 2) transdermal flunixin and sham dehorn (SHAM-FLU); and 3) placebo and dehorn (DH-PLBO). Transdermal flunixin at a label dose of 3.33 mg/kg (or placebo at an equivalent volume) was administered as a pour-on along the top-line of the calves in each treatment group concurrently with electrocautery dehorning or sham dehorning. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1138
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • J. A. Hagenmaier, C. D. Reinhardt, S. J. Bartle, J. N. Henningson, M. J. Ritter, M. S. Calvo-Lorenzo, G. J. Vogel, C. A. Guthrie, M. G. Siemens and D. U. Thomson
      Effect of handling intensity at the time of transport for slaughter on physiological response and carcass characteristics in beef cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride

      The effects of handling intensity on the physiological response and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride were evaluated at the time of transport to slaughter. Eighty steers (BW = 668 ± 36 kg) representing 10 lots of similar breed, frame size, and degree of finish were blocked by lot, stratified by weight, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 handling intensities (HI) over a 1,600 m dirt alley course: 1) low-stress handling (LSH) or 2) high-stress handling (HSH). For the LSH treatment, 4 penmates were kept at a walk with the use of a lead rider. For the HSH treatment, 4 penmates were kept at a minimum of a trot and received 2 applications of an electric prod (approximately 1 s per impulse) at 2 separate instances: first in the alley before post-handling sampling, and again during loading for transportation to the abattoir. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0821
      Published: March 30, 2017



  • ANIMAL NUTRITION

    • M. Wang, R. Wang, P. H. Janssen, X. M. Zhang, X. Z. Sun, D. Pacheco and Z. L. Tan
      Sampling procedure for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen and volatile fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows

      Dissolved hydrogen (dH2) influences the pathways of VFA production and is a precursor of methane formation in the rumen. Measurements of dH2 in rumen fluid taken at the same time as measuring other rumen fermentation end products would improve our quantitative understanding of the role of dH2 as a controller of rumen fermentation. Sample collections though a rumen cannula and using oral stomach tubing were compared for measurements of dissolved gases and fermentation end products in the rumen fluid of 4 ruminally cannulated dairy cows fed a total mixed ration of corn silage and concentrate. Rumen fluid was collected at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after morning feeding through the cannula from cranial dorsal rumen, cranial ventral rumen, central rumen, caudal dorsal rumen, and caudal ventral rumen and in parallel by oral stomach tubing at 2 insertion depths of 180 cm (sampling the central rumen) and 200 cm (sampling the caudal dorsal rumen). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9658
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • A. V. Strathe, T. S. Bruun, J.-E. Zerrahn, A.-H. Tauson and C. F. Hansen
      The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth

      A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9267
      Published: December 3, 2015



    • U. Agarwal, Q. Hu and B. J. Bequette
      Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep

      Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep (n = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9226
      Published: September 15, 2015



    • G. A. Casas and H. H. Stein
      Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs

      The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-8877
      Published: July 24, 2015



    • J. R. Segers, T. L. Felix, A. R. Green, G. N. Maia, B. C. Ramirez and D. W. Shike
      Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers’ solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers’ solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.3766/jas.2015-8917
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • W. A. D. Nayananjalie, T. R. Wiles, D. E. Gerrard, M. A. McCann and M. D. Hanigan
      Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers

      The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage–based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8374
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    • J. C. Matthews, J. Huang and G. Rentfrow
      High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages

      Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9901
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • W. Kayser, J. B. Glaze, C. M. Welch, M. Kerley and R. A. Hill
      Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8337
      Published: August 3, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    • B. Bartz, M. Collins, G. Stoddard, A. Appleton, R. Livingood, H. Sobcynski and K. D. Vogel
      Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the “head-only” method—application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun (n = 45). The second group (n = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the “head/heart” method—initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). (continued)


      doi:10.5326/jas.2015-9332
      Published: August 21, 2015



  • BOARD INVITED REVIEW

    • G. Legesse, K. H. Ominski, K. A. Beauchemin, S. Pfister, M. Martel, E. J. McGeough, A. Y. Hoekstra, R. Kroebel, M. R. C. Cordeiro and T. A. McAllister
      BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Quantifying water use in ruminant production

      The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of livestock production is a relatively new field of research for which methods are still evolving. This review describes the approaches used to quantify water use in ruminant production systems as well as the methodological and conceptual issues associated with each approach. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1439
      Published: April 13, 2017



  • CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

    • R. Hu, Z. Y. Fan, B. Y. Wang, S. L. Deng, X. S. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, H. B. Han and Z. X. Lian
      RAPID COMMUNICATION: Generation of FGF5 knockout sheep via the CRISPR/Cas9 system

      Sheep are an important source of fiber production. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a dominant inhibitor of length of the anagen phase of the hair cycle. Knockout or silencing of the FGF5 gene results in a wooly coat in mice, donkeys, dogs, and rabbits. In sheep breeding, wool length is one of the most important wool quality traits. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1503
      Published: April 20, 2017



  • FEEDS

    • D. Song, X. Li, Y. Cheng, G. Wu, X. Xiao, F. Wang, Y. Wang and Z. Lu
      Effects of supplementing sow diets with Saccharomyces cerevisiae refermented sorghum dried distiller’s grains with solubles from late gestation to weaning on the performance of sows and progeny

      We performed 2 experiments to study the effects of supplementing sow diets with Saccharomyces cerevisiae refermented sorghum dried distiller’s grains with solubles (SSDDGS) from late gestation to weaning on the performance of sows and their progeny. In Exp. 1, 24 sows at 85 d of gestation were allocated to the following 3 dietary treatments: 1) sows fed a basal diet from late gestation to weaning (n = 8), 2) sows fed a diet with 2% SSDDGS (n = 8), and 3) sows fed a diet with 4% SSDDGS (n = 8). The 4% SSDDGS treatment significantly improved the sows’ ADFI, the litter weaning alive rate, and the individual piglet weaning weights and significantly reduced the litter stillbirth rate and the levels of urea N and somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1438
      Published: April 13, 2017



  • HOUSING AND MANAGEMENT

    • S. G. Vik, O. Øyrehagen and K. E. Bøe
      Effect of space allowance and flooring on the behavior of pregnant ewes

      Space allowance recommendations for pregnant ewes vary considerably. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on activity, lying position, displacements, and aggressive interactions in pregnant ewes. A 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with space allowance (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 m2/ewe) and type of flooring (straw bedding and expanded metal flooring) as the main factors. A total of 48 pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 8 ewes in each group. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1341
      Published: April 7, 2017



  • LACTATION AND MAMMARY GLAND BIOLOGY

    • C. T. Schäff, U. Pliquett, A. Tuchscherer, R. Pfuhl, S. Görs, C. C. Metges, H. M. Hammon and C. Kröger-Koch
      Evaluation of electrical broad bandwidth impedance spectroscopy as a tool for body composition measurement in cows in comparison with body measurements and the deuterium oxide dilution method

      Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution method and from body conformation measurements. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1414
      Published: April 20, 2017



  • MEAT SCIENCE

    • K. B. Wilson, M. F. Overholt, C. M. Shull, C. Schwab, A. C. Dilger and D. D. Boler
      The effects of instrumental color and extractable lipid content on sensory characteristics of pork loin chops cooked to a medium-rare degree of doneness

      Boneless loins (n = 286) were selected from a population of pigs of a common genetic line and management strategy to be used in an experiment to determine the effects of instrumental color and extractable lipid content on sensory traits of boneless pork chops cooked to an end point internal temperature of 63°C. Loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick chops and aged until 14 d postmortem. Chop L* values ranged from 57.60 (light) to 43.11 (dark) and extractable lipid ranged from 0.80 to 5.52%. Using these values, chops were assigned to 5 color and 6 marbling categories using National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) standards, resulting in a 5 × 6 factorial arrangement of treatments. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1313
      Published: April 7, 2017



  • METABOLISM AND METABOLOMICS

    • M. Martínez-Álvaro, S. Agha, A. Blasco and P. Hernández
      Muscle lipid metabolism in two rabbit lines divergently selected for intramuscular fat

      A divergent selection experiment for intramuscular fat (IMF) of LM at 9 wk of age was performed in rabbits. The objective of this work was to compare the lipid metabolism in muscles and fat tissues of the high-IMF and low-IMF lines. Lipogenic, catabolic, and lipolytic activities were studied in 2 muscles with different oxidative patterns (LM and semimembranosus proprius) and in the perirenal fat depot at 2 ages, 9 and 13 wk. In addition, adipocytes were characterized in perirenal fat. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1371
      Published: April 27, 2017



  • NONRUMINANT NUTRITION

    • L. Pan, P. F. Zhao, X. K. Ma, Q. H. Shang, Y. T. Xu, S. F. Long, Y. Wu, F. M. Yuan and X. S. Piao
      Probiotic supplementation protects weaned pigs against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 challenge and improves performance similar to antibiotics

      These studies evaluated the effects of probiotics (PB) as a potential substitute for antibiotics (AB) on diarrhea in relation to immune responses and intestinal health in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 (Exp. 1) and the effects of PB on performance and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs (Exp. 2). In Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1243
      Published: April 27, 2017



    • E. G. Miller, C. L. Levesque, N. L. Trottier and C. F. M. de Lange
      Dynamics of nitrogen retention at two feeding levels in gestating parity 2 and 3 sows

      Parity-2 (n = 39) and -3 (n = 28; same sows from parity-2 sows) Yorkshire sows were used to measure whole body protein deposition (Pd) during gestation (maternal and pregnancy-associated) at 2 feeding levels to test the hypothesis that the pattern of whole body and maternal Pd during gestation does not differ when feeding either 15% above or 15% below estimated ME requirements, both exceeding AA requirements. Initial BW and backfat (BF) at d 26 ± 0.3 of gestation were 195.4 ± 5.2 kg and 15.1 ± 0.5 mm, and 223.1 ± 5.3 kg and 16.0 ± 0.6 mm for parity-2 and -3, respectively. Sows were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels (high and low; 15% above and 15% below estimated ME requirements, respectively) of the same diet (3.30 Mcal ME/kg, 17.8% CP, 0.82% SID Lys) from d 31 to 110 of each gestation cycle. Five N balances were conducted throughout each gestation starting at d 36, 51, 65, 85, and 106 ± 0.5 during 4-d periods. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1444
      Published: April 27, 2017



    • Y. She, Y. Liu and H. H. Stein
      Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

      One hundred twenty pigs were used to determine effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 4 sources of canola meal and in 1 source of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The 4 sources of canola meal were produced from 1 source of high-protein canola seeds and 2 sources of conventional canola seeds with 1 of the conventional canola seeds being divided into 2 separate batches before crushing. Pigs (16.2 ± 5.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and were randomly allotted to 1 of 20 diets in a 5 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 5 ingredients and 4 levels of phytase. There were 6 replicate pigs per diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1357
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • P. C. Xue, D. Ragland and O. Adeola
      Influence of dietary crude protein and phosphorus on ileal digestion of phosphorus and amino acids in growing pigs

      A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CP levels on ileal P digestion in growing pigs. A total of 18 ileal-cannulated pigs (44.2 ± 3.2 kg initial BW) were used in a duplicated 9 × 3 incomplete Latin square design, with 9 treatments and three 7-d experimental periods giving 6 replicates per treatment. The 9 treatments consisted of 1 N-free diet to estimate basal endogenous loss of AA and 8 corn–soybean meal–based diets in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, which included 2 CP levels (6.9 or 13.4%) and 4 apparent total tract digestible P (ATTDP) levels (0.09, 0.16, 0.24, or 0.32%). Soybean meal and monocalcium phosphate were used to adjust the CP level and ATTDP level, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1293
      Published: April 7, 2017



  • REPRODUCTION

    • C. C. Allen, L. O. Tedeschi, D. H. Keisler, R. C. Cardoso, B. R. C. Alves, M. Amstalden and G. L. Williams
      Interaction of dietary energy source and body weight gain during the juvenile period on metabolic endocrine status and age at puberty in beef heifers

      Using a previously established model for nutritional acceleration of puberty, beef heifers (n = 48; 1/2 Angus × 1/4 Hereford × 1/4 Brahman) were used in a replicated 2 × 2 factorial design to examine the effects of diet type (high forage [HF] vs. high concentrate [HC]) and rate of BW gain (low gain [LG], 0.45 kg/d, vs. high gain [HG], 0.91 kg/d) on key metabolic hormones and age at puberty. After weaning at 14 ± 1 wk of age, heifers were assigned randomly to be fed HC-HG, HC-LG, HF-HG, or HF-LG (n = 12/group) beginning at 4 mo of age for 14 wk. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1002
      Published: April 7, 2017



  • RUMINANT NUTRITION

    • N. L. Bell, T. R. Callaway, R. C. Anderson, M. O. Franco, J. E. Sawyer and T. A. Wickersham
      Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

      Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover design. Treatments consisted of either 0 mg·steer−1·d−1 monensin with no previous monensin feeding (CON) or withdrawal from 200 mg·steer−1·d−1 monensin (MON) fed individually in 0.91 kg dried distillers’ grains with solubles for 42 d. Withdrawal was evaluated for a 28-d period. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1013
      Published: April 27, 2017



    • N. L. Bell, R. C. Anderson, T. R. Callaway, M. O. Franco, J. E. Sawyer and T. A. Wickersham
      Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

      Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover design. Treatments were 0 (CON) or 200 mg·steer−1·d−1 monensin (MON) in 0.91 kg dried distillers’ grains with solubles. Periods were 70 d in length: 20 d of adaptation, 22 d of sample collection, and 28 d for withdrawal of treatment. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1011
      Published: April 27, 2017



    • A. López, J. I. Arroquy, A. V. Juárez Sequeira, N. DiLorenzo, M. C. Barrionuevo and R. A. Distel
      High-sulfate water consumption determines intake and metabolic responses to protein supplementation in lambs consuming low-quality forage

      Twenty Hampshire lambs (31 ± 4 kg BW) in individual metabolism cages were used in a 10-treatment by 2-period (n = 4) trial to evaluate the interaction between protein supplementation and sulfate water on intake and metabolic responses when lambs were fed low-quality grass hay (Megathyrsus maximus; 6.4% CP, 79.5% NDF). The treatment structure was a 2 × 5 factorial: 2 water qualities (WQ; low-sulfate [LS] and high-sulfate [HS]; 442 and 8,358 mg/kg total dissolved solids, respectively) and 5 soybean meal levels (SBM; 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% BW/d). After 15 d of adaptation, periods consisted of 5 d for determination of forage and water intake, nitrogen balance, and digestion measurements (d 16 to 20) and 1 d for blood sampling and determination of ruminal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration (d 21). Supplemental SBM × WQ interactions were significant for forage OM intake (P = 0.04) and total OM intake (P = 0.04), whereas a tendency was observed for total tract digestible OM intake (P = 0.07). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1264
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • P. Górka, B. Śliwiński, J. Flaga, J. Wieczorek, M. M. Godlewski, E. Wierzchoś, R. Zabielski and Z. M. Kowalski
      Effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, selected gene expression in the duodenum epithelium, and nutrient digestion in sheep

      The aim of the study was to determine the effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, expression of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporters (monocarboxylate transporter-1, -2, and −4) and receptors (G protein coupled receptor-41 and −43) in the duodenal epithelium and nutrient digestion in sheep. Eight wethers (39.0 ± 3.00 kg; mean ± SD) with ruminal and T-shape duodenal cannulas were allocated to 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design with each experimental period lasting for 21 d (12 d of adaptation and 9 d for data and sample collection). Experimental treatments were: 1) distilled water infusion into the rumen (CONT); 2) 15 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT15); 3) 30 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT30); and 4) 45 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT45). The daily dose of butyrate was infused into the rumen via the rumen cannula, with 200 mL of solution of butyric acid and distilled water, at a constant rate (0.1389 mL/min) throughout the day using a peristaltic pump. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1218
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • M. Larsen, C. M. Røntved, P. K. Theil, M. Khatun, C. Lauridsen and N. B. Kristensen
      Effect of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis

      The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at –14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [13C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[13C]Phe infusion. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1055
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • C. Griffith, G. O. Ribeiro, M. Oba, T. A. McAllister and K. A. Beauchemin
      Potential for improving fiber digestion in the rumen of cattle ( Bos taurus ) through microbial inoculation from bison ( Bison bison ): In situ fiber degradation

      The objective of this experiment was to determine if partial replacement of cattle rumen contents with those from bison would increase in situ ruminal fiber degradation of various forages. The second objective was to examine individual variation among cattle in their ability to degrade forage and their responses to inoculation. In situ degradation of barley straw, canola straw, alfalfa hay, and timothy hay was measured in 16 ruminally cannulated heifers fed a barley straw–based diet before and after inoculation with combined rumen contents from 32 bison (performed twice, 14 d apart). Each feed was incubated in the rumen of each heifer for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 120 h, and the degradation parameters were determined as washout fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction (b), rate of digestion of b fraction (kd), and total potentially degradable fraction (a + b). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1403
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • I. A. M. A. Teixeira, M. H. M. R. Fernandes, J. M. Pereira Filho, R. C. Canesin, R. A. Gomes and K. T. Resende
      Body composition, protein and energy efficiencies, and requirements for growth of F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids

      We conducted a study in which body composition, energy and protein requirements, and efficiency of MP and ME were determined in F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids of 5 to 25 kg BW by using the comparative slaughter technique. Two experiments were performed: Exp. 1 estimated the maintenance requirements of kids from 15 to 25 kg BW, and Exp. 2 estimated the gain requirements of kids from 5 to 25 kg BW. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1252
      Published: April 20, 2017



    • A. L. Shreck, P. J. Ebert, E. A. Bailey, J. S. Jennings, K. D. Casey, B. E. Meyer and N. A. Cole
      Effects of energy supplementation on energy losses and nitrogen balance of steers fed green-chopped wheat pasture I: Calorimetry

      Cattle grazing wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains are sometimes fed an energy supplement; however, the benefits of supplementation on nutrient balance, energy metabolism, and greenhouse gas emissions have not been elucidated. Therefore, we used 10 British crossbred steers (206 ± 10.7 kg initial BW) in a respiration calorimetry study to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation on energy losses, N balance, and nutrient digestibility of steers fed green-chopped wheat forage. The study design was an incomplete replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Steers (n = 8) were assigned to 1 of 2 BW blocks (4 steers per block) with dietary factors consisting of 1) no supplementation (CON) or supplemented with a steam-flaked corn–based energy supplement (that also contained monensin sodium) at 0.5% of BW daily (SUP) and 2) NEm intakes of 1 times (1x) or 1.5 times (1.5x) maintenance. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1417
      Published: April 13, 2017



    • K. E. Hales and N. A. Cole
      Hourly methane production in finishing steers fed at different levels of dry matter intake

      Methane (CH4) loss from finishing cattle is important as it represents an energy loss that could be used for maintenance and growth, and CH4 is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 21 to 25 times that of CO2. Our objectives were to determine hourly CH4 production from growing cattle fed diets differing in corn processing method (dry rolling or steam flaking) and wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) inclusion rate. Eight steers (195 kg ± 2.3 in Exp. 1 and 322 kg ± 3.7 in Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1023
      Published: March 30, 2017



  • SYMPOSIUM

    • K.A. Vonnahme
      PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Pre- and post-natal impacts on offspring performance

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1547
      Published: April 20, 2017
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    • S. B. Smith
      CELL BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Practical application of the basic aspects of GLUT4 membrane trafficking and insulin signaling on issues related to animal agriculture

      Because of the relatively short lifespans of beef cattle, membrane trafficking in relation to inflammation is not considered important unless it overtly affects productivity. However, glucose uptake and utilization is important for adipose tissue development in beef cattle, and increasing glucose utilization in intramuscular adipose tissue can increase carcass quality. Research from the 1980s demonstrated a lack of insulin sensitivity in isolated bovine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants incubated in vitro. Insulin did not stimulate glucose or acetate incorporation into fatty acids, nor did it increase concentrations of glycolytic intermediates in bovine adipose tissue incubated with exogenous glucose. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0984
      Published: April 13, 2017



    • B. P. Dalrymple and B. Guo
      TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Intramuscular fat deposition in ruminants and pigs: A transcriptomics perspective

      The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies. However, the genes encoding the synthesis enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase; the fatty acid binding protein 4; the potential signaling protein thyroid hormone responsive; and the regulators C/EBPα, PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 are supported by 5 or more of the 90 studies. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1112
      Published: April 13, 2017



    • J. L. Klotz
      CELL BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Membrane trafficking and signal transduction

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1556
      Published: April 13, 2017
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    • M. Baik, H. J. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Na, M. Piao, S. Y. Kim, D. M. Fassah and Y. S. Moon
      TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Molecular mechanisms related to bovine intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle

      The intramuscular fat (IMF) content of the LM, also known as marbling, is particularly important in determining the price of beef in Korea, Japan, and the United States. Deposition of IMF is influenced by both genetic (e.g., breed, gender, and genotype) and nongenetic factors (e.g., castration, nutrition, stressors, animal weight, and age). Castration of bulls markedly increases deposition of IMF, resulting in improved beef quality. Here, we present a comparative gene expression approach between bulls and steers. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1160
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • M. L. Hoffman, S. A. Reed, S. M. Pillai, A. K. Jones, K. K. McFadden, S. A. Zinn and K. E. Govoni
      PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM:The effects of poor maternal nutrition during gestation on offspring postnatal growth and metabolism

      Poor maternal nutrition during gestation has been linked to poor growth and development, metabolic dysfunction, impaired health, and reduced productivity of offspring in many species. Poor maternal nutrition can be defined as an excess or restriction of overall nutrients or specific macro- or micronutrients in the diet of the mother during gestation. Interestingly, there are several reports that both restricted- and over-feeding during gestation negatively affect offspring postnatal growth with reduced muscle and bone deposition, increased adipose accumulation, and metabolic dysregulation through reduced leptin and insulin sensitivity. Our laboratory and others have used experimental models of restricted- and over-feeding during gestation to evaluate effects on early postnatal growth of offspring. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1229
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • G. J. Hausman and A. Canovas
      2016 TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: New perspectives and insight on intramuscular adipose tissue

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1480
      Published: April 7, 2017
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    • J. Estany, R. Ros-Freixedes, M. Tor and R. N. Pena
      TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Genetics and breeding for intramuscular fat and oleic acid content in pigs

      The intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (OL) content have been favorably related to pork quality and human health. This influences the purchasing behavior of consumers and, therefore, also shifts the attention of breeding companies toward whether these traits are included into the breeding goal of the lines producing for high-valued markets. Because IMF and OL are unfavorably associated with lean content, a key economic trait, the real challenge for the industry is not simply to increase IMF and OL, but rather to come up with the right trade-off between them and lean content. In this paper we review the efforts performed to genetically improve IMF and OL, with particular reference to the research we conducted in a Duroc line aimed at producing high quality fresh and dry-cured pork products. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1108
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • A. B. Leytem
      PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Impacts of livestock production on environmental reactive nitrogen

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1498
      Published: April 7, 2017
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    • M. S. Duarte, R. Bueno, W. Silva, C. F. Campos, M. P. Gionbelli, S. E. F. Guimarães, F. F. Silva, P. S. Lopes, G. J. Hausman and M. V. Dodson
      TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Dedifferentiated fat cells: Potential and perspectives for their use in clinical and animal science purpose

      An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. Additionally, recent studies showed the ability of isolated mature adipocytes to dedifferentiate in vivo and the capacity of the progeny cells to redifferentiate into mature adipocytes, contributing to the increase of body fatness. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1094
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • F. F. Bartol, A. A. Wiley, A. F. George, D.J. Miller and C.A. Bagnell
      PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Postnatal reproductive development and the lactocrine hypothesis

      Maternal effects on development can program cell fate and dictate offspring phenotype. Such effects do not end at birth, but extend into postnatal life through signals communicated from mother to offspring in first milk (colostrum). Transmission of bioactive factors from mother to offspring as a specific consequence of nursing defines a lactocrine mechanism. The female reproductive tract is not fully formed at birth (postnatal day = PND 0). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1144
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • E. Albrecht, L. Schering, Y. Liu, K. Komolka, C. Kühn, K. Wimmers, T. Gotoh and S. Maak
      TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Factors influencing bovine intramuscular adipose tissue development and cellularity

      Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production. In an attempt to unravel the cellular development of marbling, we investigated the abundance of markers for adipogenic differentiation during fattening of cattle and the transcriptome of muscle and dissected IMF. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1036
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • W. Powers and M. Capelari
      PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Measurement and mitigation of reactive nitrogen species from swine and poultry production

      Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (N2O)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH3), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH3 followed by N2O. Excreta emissions are NH3, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH3 production. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1187
      Published: April 7, 2017



    • C. O. Lemley and K. A. Vonnahme
      PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Alterations in uteroplacental hemodynamics during melatonin supplementation in sheep and cattle

      Compromised placental function can result in fetal growth restriction which is associated with greater risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Large increases in transplacental nutrient and waste exchange, which support the exponential increase in fetal growth during the last half of gestation, are dependent primarily on the rapid growth and vascularization of the uteroplacenta. The amplitude of melatonin secretion has been associated with improved oxidative status and altered cardiovascular function in several mammalian species; however, melatonin mediated alterations of uteroplacental capacity in sheep and cattle are lacking. Therefore, our laboratories are examining uteroplacental blood flow and fetal development during maternal melatonin supplementation. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1151
      Published: March 30, 2017



    • B. K. Wilson, C. J. Richards, D. L. Step and C. R. Krehbiel
      Best management practices for newly weaned calves for improved health and well-being

      Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1006
      Published: March 30, 2017



    • J. T. Vasconcelos
      BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Improving Welfare of Beef Cattle

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1487
      Published: March 30, 2017
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  • TECHNOLOGY IN ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • A. Saiz, A. I. García-Ruiz, J. Fuentes-Pila and N. Nicodemus
      Application of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess rabbit’s body composition from 25 to 77 days of age

      The aim of the study was to develop prediction equations for assessing, in vivo, the whole body composition of growing rabbits. The accuracy of the models obtained was externally validated with independent data sets. One hundred fifty rabbits grouped at 5 different ages (25, 35, 49, 63, and 77 d) were used. A body composition analyzer with 4 terminals was used to obtain resistance (Rs; Ω) and reactance (Xc; Ω) values. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1196
      Published: April 27, 2017



    • G. Z. Wang, S. S. Chen, T. L. Chao, Z. B. Ji, L. Hou, Z. J. Qin and J. M. Wang
      Analysis of genetic diversity of Chinese dairy goats via microsatellite markers

      In this study, 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of 6 dairy goat breeds in China, including 4 native developed breeds and 2 introduced breeds. The results showed that a total of 172 alleles were detected in 347 samples of the dairy goat breeds included in this study. The mean number of effective alleles per locus was 4.92. Except for BMS0812, all of the remaining microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (polymorphism information content [PIC] > 0.5). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1029
      Published: April 13, 2017



  • TOXICOLOGY

    • K. D. Welch, C. A. Stonecipher, D. R. Gardner, D. Cook and J. A. Pfister
      Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles

      Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1228
      Published: April 7, 2017