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Journal of Animal Science : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Keele, J. W., L. A. Kuehn, T. G. McDaneld, R. G. Tait, S. A. Jones, B. N. Keel and W. M. Snelling. 2015. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9887

Current issue: J. Anim. Sci. 95(6)



  • ANIMAL GENETICS AND GENOMICS

    • R. F. Costa, B. B. M. Teixeira, M. J. Yokoo and F. F. Cardoso
      Economic selection indexes for Hereford and Braford cattle raised in southern Brazil

      Economic selection indexes (EI) are considered the best way to select the most profitable animals for specific production systems. Nevertheless, in Brazil, few genetic evaluation programs deliver such indexes to their breeders. The aims of this study were to determine the breeding goals (BG) and economic values (EV, in US$) for typical beef cattle production systems in southern Brazil, to propose EI aimed to maximize profitability, and to compare the proposed EI with the currently used empirical index. Bioeconomic models were developed to characterize 3 typical production systems, identifying traits of economic impact and their respective EV. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1314
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • J. R. Dunkelberger, P. K. Mathur, M. S. Lopes, E. F. Knol and J. C. M. Dekkers
      A major gene for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is not unfavorably associated with overall performance under nonchallenging conditions in commercial pig lines

      A QTL for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) was identified in a previous study. The SNP WUR10000125 (WUR) is used as a tag SNP for this QTL. The favorable (B) allele at this SNP is in low frequency in commercial populations, possibly because this allele is unfavorably associated with an important trait under nonchallenging conditions and, therefore, may have been selected against. Therefore, objectives of this study were to estimate the effect of WUR on traits under selection in commercial lines under nonchallenging conditions and to estimate the effect of WUR genotype of parents on performance of crossbred progeny in a commercial-like environment. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1524
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • F. Zhang, C. Ekine-Dzivenu, M. Vinsky, J. A. Basarab, J. L. Aalhus, M. E. R. Dugan and C. Li
      Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake measures and their component traits with fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose of beef cattle

      Feed efficiency is of particular interest to the beef industry because feed is the largest variable cost in production and fatty acid composition is emerging as an important trait, both economically and socially, due to the potential implications of dietary fatty acids on human health. Quantifying correlations between feed efficiency and fatty acid composition will contribute to construction of optimal multiple-trait selection indexes to maximize beef production profitability. In the present study, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations of feed efficiency measures including residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for final ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf); their component traits ADG, DMI, and metabolic BW; and final ultrasound backfat thickness measured at the end of feedlot test with 25 major fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 1,366 finishing steers and heifers using bivariate animal models. The phenotypic correlations of RFI and RFIf with the 25 individual and grouped fatty acid traits were generally low (<0.25 in magnitude). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1451
      Published: June 8, 2017



  • ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL BEING

    • S. D. Eicher, M. H. Rostagno and D. C. Lay Jr
      Feed withdrawal and transportation effects on Salmonella enterica levels in market-weight pigs ,

      Feed withdrawal and transport commonly occur together in pigs. Objectives of this study were to determine if these preslaughter stressors, feed withdrawal and transportation, affect the levels of Salmonella, stress hormone concentrations, and immune functions in infected market pigs. A 2 × 2 factorial analysis of a randomized complete block design with feed withdrawal and transport as fixed effects was used. Sixty market-weight pigs were individually inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1454
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • K. D. Lippolis, R. F. Cooke, K. M. Schubach, R. S. Marques and D. W. Bohnert
      Effects of intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration on feed intake, ruminal forage degradability, and liquid parameters and physiological responses in beef cattle

      This experiment compared DMI, ruminal forage degradability, and liquid parameters as well as physiological responses in beef cattle receiving a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge or not. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford steers (485 ± 16 kg BW) were housed in individual pens on d −7, ranked by BW, and allocated to 1 of 2 treatments administered on d 0: 1) an intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose (0.5 μg/kg of BW, diluted in 5 mL of 0.9% sterile saline) of bacterial LPS (Escherichia coli 0111:B4) or 2) a 5-mL i.v. injection of 0.9% sterile saline (CON). Steers had free-choice access to mixed alfalfa–grass hay, water, and a commercial vitamin + mineral mix during the experiment (d −7 to 6). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1502
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • J. Ge, H. Li, F. Sun, X.-N. Li, J. Lin, J. Xia, C. Zhang and J.-L. Li
      Transport stress–induced cerebrum oxidative stress is not mitigated by activating the Nrf2 antioxidant defense response in newly hatched chicks

      Transportation of newly hatched chicks from the hatchery to the farm is inevitable, especially for parent stock and grandsire parent stock chicks. However, the possible effects of transport stress in the newly hatched chicks are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the adaptive responses to transport stress by activing the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)–induced antioxidant defense. One hundred twenty newly hatched chicks were divided into 3 groups (control group, transport group, and simulation transport group) for 2, 4, and 8 h of real or simulated transportation. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1559
      Published: June 15, 2017



  • ANIMAL MODELS

    • P. J. van der Wolf, J. G. M. Wientjes, A. E. Heuvelink, A. M. B. Veldhuis, H. M. J. van Hees and P. J. Roubos-van den Hil
      Development of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge model in weaned pigs to evaluate effects of water and feed interventions on fecal shedding and growth performance

      The aim of this study was to develop a Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) challenge model in weaned pigs suitable to evaluate effects of water and feed interventions on fecal shedding and growth performance. Two studies were performed. In Exp. 1 weaned pigs were fed either a standard diet (CON) or a diet with a high buffer capacity (HB) and challenged for either 3 or 7 consecutive days in a Latin square design with 4 × 8 individually housed pigs. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1136
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • R. Litjens, A.-K. Oudshoorn and P. J. Roubos-van den Hil
      Technical note: Development of a feed matrix as inoculum in Salmonella infection studies in piglets

      Current methods used for oral administration of pathogens to piglets are stressful for the animals because of fixation and use of inoculation methods such as oral gavage. In the present study an alternative way to challenge piglets with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) is investigated. The strategy was to incorporate the Salmonella in a feed matrix, which is fed to the piglets and eaten voluntary. Different types of feed matrices were tested for their absorption capacity, handling properties, and palatability to piglets. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0696
      Published: May 25, 2017



  • ANIMAL NUTRITION

    • M. Wang, R. Wang, P. H. Janssen, X. M. Zhang, X. Z. Sun, D. Pacheco and Z. L. Tan
      Sampling procedure for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen and volatile fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows

      Dissolved hydrogen (dH2) influences the pathways of VFA production and is a precursor of methane formation in the rumen. Measurements of dH2 in rumen fluid taken at the same time as measuring other rumen fermentation end products would improve our quantitative understanding of the role of dH2 as a controller of rumen fermentation. Sample collections though a rumen cannula and using oral stomach tubing were compared for measurements of dissolved gases and fermentation end products in the rumen fluid of 4 ruminally cannulated dairy cows fed a total mixed ration of corn silage and concentrate. Rumen fluid was collected at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after morning feeding through the cannula from cranial dorsal rumen, cranial ventral rumen, central rumen, caudal dorsal rumen, and caudal ventral rumen and in parallel by oral stomach tubing at 2 insertion depths of 180 cm (sampling the central rumen) and 200 cm (sampling the caudal dorsal rumen). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9658
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • A. V. Strathe, T. S. Bruun, J.-E. Zerrahn, A.-H. Tauson and C. F. Hansen
      The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth

      A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9267
      Published: December 3, 2015



    • U. Agarwal, Q. Hu and B. J. Bequette
      Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep

      Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep (n = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9226
      Published: September 15, 2015



    • G. A. Casas and H. H. Stein
      Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs

      The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-8877
      Published: July 24, 2015



    • J. R. Segers, T. L. Felix, A. R. Green, G. N. Maia, B. C. Ramirez and D. W. Shike
      Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers’ solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers’ solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.3766/jas.2015-8917
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • W. A. D. Nayananjalie, T. R. Wiles, D. E. Gerrard, M. A. McCann and M. D. Hanigan
      Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers

      The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage–based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8374
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    • J. C. Matthews, J. Huang and G. Rentfrow
      High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages

      Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9901
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • W. Kayser, J. B. Glaze, C. M. Welch, M. Kerley and R. A. Hill
      Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8337
      Published: August 3, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    • B. Bartz, M. Collins, G. Stoddard, A. Appleton, R. Livingood, H. Sobcynski and K. D. Vogel
      Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the “head-only” method—application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun (n = 45). The second group (n = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the “head/heart” method—initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). (continued)


      doi:10.5326/jas.2015-9332
      Published: August 21, 2015



  • CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

    • W. C. Yang, W. L. Guo, L. S. Zan, Y. N. Wang and K. Q. Tang
      Bta-miR-130a regulates the biosynthesis of bovine milk fat by targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ,

      Milk fat determines the quality of milk and is also a main targeted trait in dairy cow breeding. Recent studies have revealed important regulatory roles of microRNAs (miRNA) in milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland. However, the role of miRNA in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the overexpression of miR-130a significantly decreased cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and suppressed lipid droplet formation, whereas the inhibition of miR-130a resulted in greater lipid droplet formation and TAG accumulation in BMEC. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1504
      Published: June 15, 2017



  • COMPANION ANIMAL NUTRITION

    • Angela K. Price, Maria R. C. de Godoy, Tisha A. Harper, Kim E. Knap, Stephen Joslyn, Zbyszek Pietrzkowski, Brandon K. Cross, Katelyn B. Detweiler and Kelly S. Swanson
      Effects of dietary calcium fructoborate supplementation on joint comfort and flexibility and serum inflammatory markers in dogs with osteoarthritis

      Our objective was to evaluate the short-term effects of calcium fructoborate (CFB) on gait, joint range of motion, serum inflammatory markers, and owner perception of pain in client-owned dogs. We used 59 osteoarthritic dogs with impairment, with dogs being randomly assigned to 4 treatments: placebo (60 mg fructose; n = 15), low dose (69 mg CFB; n = 14), high dose (127 mg CFB; n = 14), or combination (69 mg CFB, 500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride and 200 mg chondroitin sulfate; n = 16). Dogs up to 22.9 kg received 1 capsule/d, while dogs weighing 23 to 50 kg received 2 capsules/d. A physical examination, radiographs, goniometry measurements, gait analysis, blood sample collection, and a canine brief pain inventory questionnaire were performed on d 0 and 28. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1588
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • F. R. Marx, L. Trevizan, F. M. O. B. Saad, K. G. Lisenko, J. S. Reis and A. M. Kessler
      Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs

      Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1393
      Published: June 15, 2017



  • ENVIRONMENTAL ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • R. W. Godfrey, W. D. Preston, S. R. Joseph, L. LaPlace, P. E. Hillman, K. G. Gebremedhin, C. N. Lee and R. J. Collier
      Evaluating the impact of breed, pregnancy, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate of hair sheep ewes in the tropics

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregnancy, breed, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate (SR) of hair sheep. St. Croix White (STX; n = 9) and Dorper × STX (DRPX; n = 9) ewes (3.6 yr of age) were evaluated over 4 d at 126 d of gestation (PREG) and over 4 d at 46 d postpartum (OPEN) in the shade and sun and in the morning (AM; 0900 to 1200 h) and afternoon (PM; 1300 to 1600 h) after a 20 min acclimation to each condition on each day. Data loggers recorded vaginal temperature (VT) at 10-min intervals for 96 h. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1125
      Published: June 22, 2017



  • FEEDS

    • H. Y. Zhao, X. B. Mao, B. Yu, J. He, P. Zheng, J. Yu, J. Q. Luo, Q. Y. Wang and D. W. Chen
      Excess of dietary montmorillonite impairs growth performance, liver function, and antioxidant capacity in starter pigs

      Montmorillonite (MMT) is widely used as a mycotoxin adsorbent in animal feeds, but its safety remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of MMT supplementation in diets fed to starter pigs. A total of 120 32-d-old piglets (initial weight, 8.0 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted into dietary treatments with graded MMT levels (0 [FS 0], 0.5% [FS 0.5], 1.0% [FS 1.0], 2.5% [FS 2.5], and 5.0% [FS 5.0]) with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. All diets were fed for 28 d. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1277
      Published: June 15, 2017



  • HOUSING AND MANAGEMENT

    • C. Amdi, L. L. Jensen, N. Oksbjerg and C. F. Hansen
      Supplementing newborn intrauterine growth restricted piglets with a bolus of porcine colostrum raises rectal temperatures one degree Celsius

      Hyperprolific sows have increased litter sizes but also result in more piglets that have been exposed to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). These IUGR piglets are likely to have a low rectal temperature and lower blood glucose levels compared with normal piglets at birth. Therefore, we hypothesized that a colostrum bolus at birth and/or heat from an external source would have a positive effect on blood glucose levels, rectal temperatures, and growth up to 8 h postpartum. In addition, liver glycogen and blood values at 8 h were investigated. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1482
      Published: June 1, 2017



  • INTEGRATED ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • E. K. Cook, M. E. Garcia-Ascolani, R. E. Ricks, S. K. Duckett, G. C. Lamb, N. DiLorenzo and N. M. Long
      The effect of frequency of supplementing rumen-protected unsaturated fatty acids on blood serum fatty acid profiles in beef heifers and lactating cows

      The objective of this study was to determine if supplementation frequency of rumen-protected fat (RPF) influences circulating serum concentrations of fatty acids (FA), NEFA, and urea nitrogen in beef heifers and lactating cows. In Exp. 1, 12 early gestation beef heifers were supplemented 0.5 kg of corn gluten feed (CGF) daily during a 2-wk adaptation period. During the last 3 d of adaptation, blood samples were collected immediately before supplementation and then 8 and 16 h postsupplementation daily. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1275
      Published: June 8, 2017



  • LACTATION AND MAMMARY GLAND BIOLOGY

    • J. Rischewski, A. Bielak, G. Nürnberg, M. Derno and B. Kuhla
      Rapid Communication: Ranking dairy cows for methane emissions measured using respiration chamber or GreenFeed techniques during early, peak, and late lactation

      Our objective was to compare the ranking of dairy cows according to their methane (CH4) emissions as measured by a respiration chamber (RC) technique and the GreenFeed (GF) technique during 3 periods in second lactation. Two-day CH4 measurements in a RC performed in wk 3, 14, and 42 of lactation were flanked by GF measurements for 20 (period 1 [P1]), 35 (period 2 [P2]), and 35 (period 3 [P3]) days, respectively, before and after RC measurement. This gave the total duration of CH4 measurements using the GF system of 40, 70, and 70 d for P1, P2, and P3, respectively. Mean daily CH4 production (g/d) of the 8 dairy cows was 346, 439, and 430 using the RC technique and 338, 378, and 416 using the GF system during P1, P2, and P3, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1530
      Published: June 15, 2017



  • MEAT SCIENCE

    • C. A. Boykin, L. C. Eastwood, M. K. Harris, D. S. Hale, C. R. Kerth, D. B. Griffin, A. N. Arnold, J. D. Hasty, K. E. Belk, D. R. Woerner, R. J. Delmore Jr., J. N. Martin, D. L. VanOverbeke, G. G. Mafi, M. M. Pfeiffer, T. E. Lawrence, T. J. McEvers, T. B. Schmidt, R. J. Maddock, D. D. Johnson, C. C. Carr, J. M. Scheffler, T. D. Pringle, A. M. Stelzleni, J. Gottlieb and J. W. Savell
      National Beef Quality Audit–2016: In-plant survey of carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers

      The National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA)–2016 used in-plant cooler assessments to benchmark the current status of the fed steer and heifer beef industry in the United States. In-plant cooler assessments (n = 9,106 carcasses) were conducted at 30 facilities, where approximately 10% of a single day’s production were evaluated for USDA quality grade (QG) and yield grade (YG) factors. Frequencies of evaluated traits were 66.5% steer and 33.4% heifer sex classes and 82.9% native, 15.9% dairy-type, and 1.2% Bos indicus estimated breed types. Mean USDA YG factors were 1.42 cm for adjusted fat thickness, 89.5 cm2 for LM area, 390.3 kg for HCW, and 1.9% for KPH. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1543
      Published: June 15, 2017



    • C. P. Blank, J. Russell, S. M. Lonergan and S. L. Hansen
      Influence of feed efficiency classification and growing and finishing diet type on meat tenderness attributes of beef steers

      Enhancing feed efficiency (FE) in cattle continues to be an important goal in the beef industry. Previous research suggests improving FE may alter calpain system activity, potentially having negative effects on meat tenderness. The objective of this study was to assess the potential influence of beef cattle FE on postmortem meat tenderness. During the growing phase, 181 crossbred steers were fed for 76 d at the University of Missouri on a whole shell corn–based diet (MU-Corn; n = 90) or a roughage-based diet (MU-Rough; n = 91). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1312
      Published: May 25, 2017



  • METABOLISM AND METABOLOMICS

    • E. N. Ponnampalam, D. L. Hopkins, K. Giri, J. L. Jacobs, T. Plozza, P. Lewendoski and A. El-Din Bekhit
      The use of oxidative stress biomarkers in live animals (in vivo) to predict meat quality deterioration postmortem (in vitro) caused by changes in muscle biochemical components

      This study was conducted to determine whether circulating concentrations of blood isoprostanes can be used as an effective biomarker in lambs to predict degradation of color and/or lipid stability in meat. Lambs (n = 84) were fed diets of either lucerne pasture, annual ryegrass pasture, a commercial feedlot pellet, or a combination of annual ryegrass and feedlot pellet for 8 wk, including a 2-wk adaptation period. Blood isoprostane concentration at wk 0, 4, 6 or 8 of feeding was determined. Blood isoprostane concentration for each animal was then correlated with muscle biochemical components that impact color and/or lipid oxidative status during retail display. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0887
      Published: June 22, 2017



  • NONRUMINANT NUTRITION

    • J. A. Calderón Díaz, D. P. Berry, N. Rebeiz, B. U. Metzler-Zebeli, E. Magowan, G. E. Gardiner and P. G. Lawlor
      Feed efficiency metrics in growing pigs

      The objective of the present study was to quantify the interrelationships between different feed efficiency measures in growing pigs and characterize pigs divergent for a selection of these measures. The data set included data from 311 growing pigs between 42 and 91 d of age from 3 separate batches. Growth-related metrics available included midtest metabolic BW (BW0.75), energy intake (EI), and ADG. Ratio efficiency traits included energy conversion ratio (ECR), Kleiber ratio (ADG/BW0.75), relative growth rate (RGR), residual EI (REI), and residual daily gain (RDG). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1554
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • P. Palma-Granados, A. Haro, I. Seiquer, L. Lara, J. F. Aguilera and R. Nieto
      Similar effects of lysine deficiency in muscle biochemical characteristics of fatty and lean piglets

      The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of feeding Lys-deficient diets on muscle biochemical characteristics, particularly intramuscular fat concentration and fatty acid profile, in a fatty (Iberian) and a conventional pig genotype (Landrace × Large White [LDW]) maintained in identical experimental conditions. Performance and plasma metabolite changes were also monitored. Twenty-eight barrows of 10 kg initial BW, 14 of Iberian and 14 of LDW breed, were randomly assigned to each of 2 experimental diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 breeds × 2 diets). Seven pigs were allocated to each treatment combination. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1364
      Published: June 15, 2017



    • G. A. Casas and H. H. Stein
      Gestating sows have greater digestibility of energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran than growing gilts regardless of level of feed intake

      The first objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and nutrients in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) determined in gestating sows is greater if feed is provided at 1.5 × the ME required for maintenance than at 3.5 × the ME requirement. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and nutrients and the concentrations of DE and ME in FFRB and DFRB is not different between growing gilts and gestating sows if both groups of animals are fed 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. Forty eight gestating sows (parity 2 to 6) were allotted to 3 diets and 2 levels of feed intake (i.e., 1.5 or 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME) in a randomized complete block design, with 4 blocks of 12 sows and 2 replicate sows per block for a total of 8 replicate sows per diet. Twenty four growing gilts (51.53 ± 3.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to the same 3 diets, but all gilts were fed at 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1585
      Published: June 15, 2017



    • C. S. Park, A. Helmbrecht, J. K. Htoo and O. Adeola
      Comparison of amino acid digestibility in full-fat soybean, two soybean meals, and peanut flour between broiler chickens and growing pigs

      The aim of this study was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in full-fat soybean (FFSB), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 430 g/kg CP (SBM-43), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 470 g/kg CP (SBM-47), and peanut flour (PNF) fed to broiler chickens and pigs and to compare the digestibility of CP and AA between broiler chickens and pigs. Four diets were prepared to contain FFSB, SBM-43, SBM-47, and PNF as the sole source of N. A N-free diet was formulated to estimate the basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA for broiler chickens and pigs. In Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1404
      Published: June 8, 2017



    • K. M. Cottingim, L. J. Johnston, A. M. Hilbrands, G. C. Shurson and P. E. Urriola
      Ultraviolet irradiation of spray-dried porcine plasma does not affect the growth performance of nursery pigs when compared with nonirradiated bovine plasma

      Ultraviolet light irradiation of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) decreases the risk of disease transmission, but it may decrease the activity of bioactive components in SDPP. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine growth performance, morbidity, and mortality responses of nursery pigs fed UV-irradiated SDPP (UV-SDPP) compared with nonirradiated spray-dried bovine plasma (SDBP). Pigs (n = 480; 6.09 ± 2.4 kg initial BW) were blocked by initial BW, and blocks were assigned to pens. the sex ratio was equalized within blocks and pens. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1486
      Published: June 8, 2017



    • S. P. Ndou, E. Kiarie, S. J. Thandapilly, M. C. Walsh, N. Ames and C. M. Nyachoti
      Flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation modulates growth performance, blood lipids, intestinal fermentation, bile acids, and neutral sterols in growing pigs fed corn–soybean meal–based diets

      The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire–Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn–soybean meal–based diets—a basal corn–soybean meal–containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal–containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls–containing diet (OH)—in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and to contain similar standardized ileal digestible AA contents and meet other nutrient requirements for growing pigs. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1328
      Published: June 8, 2017



    • W. D. Mansilla, J. K. Htoo and C. F. M. de Lange
      Nitrogen from ammonia is as efficient as that from free amino acids or protein for improving growth performance of pigs fed diets deficient in nonessential amino acid nitrogen

      Inclusion of NPN in diets may compensate the deficient supply of nonessential AA (NEAA) in very low CP levels. To assess this, 2 studies were conducted to determine the effect of supplementing NPN and specific NEAA to diets severely deficient in NEAA nitrogen (NEAA-N) on growth performance of pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 gilts (initial BW 15.2 ± 1.3 kg; 2 pigs per pen; 6 pens per treatment) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments: 1) positive control (Pos Ctrl), not deficient in essential AA (EAA) and total N, with all N supplied from intact protein (casein and soybean meal) or crystalline EAA, (2) negative control (Neg Ctrl), supplying the same amount of potentially limiting EAA as Pos Ctrl but deficient in NEAA-N, 3) Neg Ctrl plus 1.45% CP from ammonia-N (low NPN), and 4) Neg Ctrl plus 2.90% CP from ammonia-N (high NPN), supplying the same amount of digestible N as the Pos Ctrl diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0959
      Published: June 8, 2017



    • C. C. E. J. Villela, R. B. Cox, G. C. Shurson, K. M. Compart, P. E. Urriola and L. J. Johnston
      Effects of adding minimally refined cottonseed oil or crude glycerol to diets containing 40% corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat firmness of growing–finishing pigs

      Diets containing more than 20% distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) reduce fat firmness in pork, but supplementation of cottonseed oil or crude glycerol may improve fat firmness. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of feeding minimally refined cottonseed oil or crude glycerol on growth performance, carcass composition, and fat quality of growing–finishing pigs. Mixed sex pigs (n = 216; 24 ± 4 kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) a basal corn–soybean meal diet with 40% DDGS (CON), 2) CON diet plus 5% minimally refined cottonseed oil added throughout the experiment (COT), or 3) CON fed during the first 8 wk and CON + 8% crude glycerol fed during the last 6 wk of the experiment (GLY). Although diets were not isocaloric, total AA-to-ME ratios were calculated to be equal among diets. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1383
      Published: June 8, 2017



    • S. M. Mendoza, R. D. Boyd, C. E. Zier-Rush, P. R. Ferket, K. D. Haydon and E. van Heugten
      Effect of natural betaine and ractopamine HCl on whole-body and carcass growth in pigs housed under high ambient temperatures

      Betaine is an osmolyte that helps to maintain water homeostasis and cell integrity, which is essential during heat stress. We hypothesized that supplemental betaine can improve growth during heat stress and may further improve the response to ractopamine. Two studies were conducted to determine: 1) the effects of betaine in combination with ractopamine; and 2) the optimum betaine level for late finishing pigs during heat stress. Heat stress was imposed by gradually increasing temperatures over 10 d to the target high temperature of 32°C. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1622
      Published: June 1, 2017



    • D. E. Velayudhan and C. M. Nyachoti
      Effect of increasing dietary canola meal inclusion on lactation performance, milk composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating sows

      The aim was to determine the effects of increasing dietary canola meal in substitution for soybean meal in lactation sow diets. Forty-five sows with an average parity of 1.8 (SD = 0.83) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (n = 15) consisting of a corn-based control diet and 2 diets with 15% and 30% canola meal formulated by replacing soybean meal with canola meal. Diets were formulated to be similar in standardized ileal digestible AA content and NE value and to meet or exceed NRC (2012) nutrient recommendations for lactating sows. Sows were moved to farrowing on d 111 of gestation and fed the experimental diets until weaning on d 21. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1191
      Published: June 1, 2017



    • T. Gao, M. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Li, L. Yu, P. Lv, F. Gao and G. Zhou
      Effect of in ovo feeding of l -arginine on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, and jejunal digestive and absorptive capacity of posthatch broilers

      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0.75% NaCl solution) group, and Arg solution–injected groups with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% Arg, all dissolved in diluent. At 17.5 d of incubation, 0.6 mL of IOF solution was injected into the amniotic fluid of each egg of the injected groups. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0465
      Published: May 25, 2017



  • REPRODUCTION

    • C. L. A. Da Silva, M. L. W. J. Broekhuijse, B. F. A. Laurenssen, H. A. Mulder, E.F. Knol, B. Kemp and N. M. Soede
      Relationship between ovulation rate and embryonic characteristics in gilts at 35 d of pregnancy

      This study investigated the relationship between ovulation rate (OR) and embryonic characteristics in gilts. Landrace (n = 86) and Yorkshire x Landrace (n = 212) gilts were inseminated with semen stored for 3 to 5 d (SS1, n = 59), 6 to7 d (SS2, n = 133), or 8 to 10 d (SS3, n = 106), and slaughtered at 35 d of pregnancy. Ovulation rate was assessed by dissection of the corpora lutea on both ovaries. Embryos were classified as vital (VE) by visual appearance and individually weighed (VEg) and the SD of the weight calculated (SDVEg). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1577
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • J. Nynca, M. Adamek and A. Ciereszko
      Identification of differentially expressed proteins in testicular semen of sex-reversed female (XX) and normal male (XY) rainbow trout

      Masculinized females, named sex-reversed females (SRF), have a male phenotype but retain the female genotype (XX) and all spermatozoa produced in their testes carry the X chromosome. Masculinization of females leads to incomplete testicular development and the production of lower-quality semen. The mechanism of masculinization is unknown at present. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify differentially abundant proteins in testicular semen of normal males and SRF using a difference in-gel electrophoresis approach. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1517
      Published: June 22, 2017



  • RUMINANT NUTRITION

    • A. K. Watson, T. J. Klopfenstein, G. E. Erickson, J. C. MacDonald and V. A. Wilkerson
      Impact of microbial efficiency to predict MP supply when estimating protein requirements of growing beef cattle from performance

      Data from 16 trials were compiled to calculate microbial CP (MCP) production and MP requirements of growing cattle on high-forage diets. All cattle were individually fed diets with 28% to 72% corn cobs in addition to either alfalfa, corn silage, or sorghum silage at 18% to 60% of the diet (DM basis). The remainder of the diet consisted of protein supplement. Source of protein within the supplement varied and included urea, blood meal, corn gluten meal, dry distillers grains, feather meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and wet distillers grains. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1124
      Published: June 15, 2017



    • K. E. Hales, A. P. Foote, D. W. Brake, T. M. Brown-Brandl, V. M. Artegoitia and H. C. Freetly
      Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on methane production, total body oxygen consumption, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers

      An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments (P = 0.89), but was greater on d 0 than any other day (P < 0.01). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1527
      Published: June 15, 2017



    • A. R. Crane, R. R. Redden, K. C. Swanson, B. M. Howard, T. J. Frick, K. R. Maddock-Carlin and C. S. Schauer
      Effects of dried distiller’s grains and lasalocid inclusion on feedlot lamb growth, carcass traits, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fluid volatile fatty acid concentrations, and ruminal hydrogen sulfide concentration

      Our hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion level of dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) to feedlot lambs would increase growth and the inclusion of lasalocid (LAS; Bovatec, Alpharma, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ) would increase ADG and G:F, while not affecting digestibility, ruminal VFA concentration, and ruminal pH. Furthermore, we hypothesized that rations containing LAS and higher levels of DDGS would cause increased ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) concentrations. Two hundred forty crossbred (Suffolk × Rambouillet) lambs (31.9 ± 5.87 kg BW; approximately 90 d of age) were allocated to 6 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Lambs were placed into 24 feedlot pens (4 pens/treatment; 10 lambs/pen) for a 111 d finishing study. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1369
      Published: June 1, 2017



  • SPECIAL TOPICS

    • A. L. Van Eenennaam and A. E. Young
      Detection of dietary DNA, protein, and glyphosate in meat, milk, and eggs

      Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary “non-genetically modified organism” labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed. Because glyphosate is used on some GE crops, the available studies on glyphosate residues in animal products are also reviewed. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1346
      Published: June 1, 2017



  • SYMPOSIUM

    • A. P. Foote
      Comparative Gut Physiology Symposium: The Microbe-Gut-Brain Axis ,

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1671
      Published: June 22, 2017
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    • P. R. Myer, H. C. Freetly, J. E. Wells, T. P. L. Smith and L. A. Kuehn
      Analysis of the gut bacterial communities in beef cattle and their association with feed intake, growth, and efficiency

      The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1059
      Published: June 22, 2017



    • N. C. Wiley, T. G. Dinan, R. P. Ross, C. Stanton, G. Clarke and J. F. Cryan
      The microbiota-gut-brain axis as a key regulator of neural function and the stress response: Implications for human and animal health

      The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1256
      Published: June 22, 2017



  • TECHNOLOGY IN ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • A. Petry, W. McGilvray, A. R. Rakhshandeh and A. Rakhshandeh
      Technical note: Assessment of an alternative technique for measuring body temperature in pigs

      Core body temperature (CBT) is one of the main vital signs that is used to evaluate the health status of pigs. The most common and feasible method for assessing CBT in pigs is rectal temperature (RT). Obtaining RT is stressful for animals, may generate inaccurate results, and has the risk of spreading disease. Infrared imaging (IR) thermography of the body of pigs may be a safer and less stressful alternative to RT. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1566
      Published: June 22, 2017