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Journal of Animal Science : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at https://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Keele, J. W., L. A. Kuehn, T. G. McDaneld, R. G. Tait, S. A. Jones, B. N. Keel and W. M. Snelling. 2015. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9887

Current issue: J. Anim. Sci. 95(1)



  • ANIMAL GENETICS AND GENOMICS

    • J. N. Kiser, S. N. White, K. A. Johnson, J. L. Hoff, J. F. Taylor and H. L. Neibergs
      Identification of loci associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis ( Map ) tissue infection in cattle

      Johne’s disease is a contagious bacterial infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). A previous genome-wide association analysis (GWAA) in Holstein cattle identified QTL on BTA3 and BTA9 that were highly associated (P < 5 × 10-7) and on BTA1, BTA16, and BTA21 that were moderately associated (P < 5 × 10-5) with Map tissue infection. The objectives of this study were to validate previous GWAA results in Jersey cattle (n = 57), Holstein cattle from the Pacific Northwest (PNW, n = 205) and a combined Holstein population from the PNW and the Northeast (PNW + NE, n = 423), and also identify new loci associated with Map tissue infection. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1152
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • N. Formoso-Rafferty, I. Cervantes, N. Ibáñez-Escriche and J.P. Gutiérrez
      Modulating birth weight heritability in mice

      Expected genetic response is proportional to the heritability of the trait, and this parameter is considered inherent of a specific trait in a particular population. However, models assuming heterogeneity in residual variance lead to different estimates of heritability across combinations of systematic (environmental) effects. Modifying the residual variance of the birth weight by artificial selection was shown to be feasible in a divergent selection experiment in mice. The objectives of this work were to 1) estimate the evolution of the heritability of birth weight in mice in the mentioned experiment, and 2) estimate different heritability regarding systematic effects. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1169
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • J. R. Dunkelberger, N. V. L. Serão, M. C. Niederwerder, M. A. Kerrigan, J. K. Lunney, R. R. R. Rowland and J. C. M. Dekkers
      Effect of a major quantitative trait locus for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) resistance on response to coinfection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b) in commercial pigs, with or without prior vaccination for PRRS

      A major QTL for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) infection was identified in a previous study. Single nucleotide polymorphism WUR10000125 (WUR), which is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the putative causative mutation, can be used as a tag SNP for the QTL. However, the effect of WUR following PRRS vaccination and/or coinfection with other pathogens is not known. Therefore, objectives of this study were to estimate the effect of WUR on host response following PRRS vaccination and coinfection of PRRSV with porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b), to estimate genetic parameters for host response to vaccination and coinfection, and to estimate the effect of previously identified candidate SNP under PRRSV-only or PCV2b-only infection on host response to coinfection. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1071
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Â. P. Reis, A. A. Boligon, M. J. Yokoo and F. F. Cardoso
      Design of selection schemes to include tick resistance in the breeding goal for Hereford and Braford cattle

      Ticks are one of the main causes of losses in cattle, causing economic impact by reducing productivity and fertility and by transmission of diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic gains obtained through different strategies to include traditional (EBV) or genomic EBV (GEBV) for tick count (TC) in selection indexes for Hereford and Braford cattle. Besides TC, we also considered traits currently included in the Delta G Breeding Program Index (DGI): preweaning gain, weaning conformation, weaning precocity, weaning muscling, postweaning gain, yearling conformation, yearling precocity, yearling muscling, and scrotal circumference. Genetic gain per generation (ΔG) was evaluated using the current DGI and including TC in 8 alternative scenarios with TC relative weightings of 10, 50, or 100% and using phenotype or GEBV. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0913
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • L. T. Nguyen, A. Reverter, A. Cánovas, B. Venus, A. Islas-Trejo, L. R. Porto-Neto, S. A. Lehnert, J. F. Medrano, S. S. Moore and M. R. S. Fortes
      Global differential gene expression in the pituitary gland and the ovaries of pre- and postpubertal Brahman heifers

      To understand genes, pathways, and networks related to puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of two tissues: the pituitary gland and ovaries. Samples were harvested from pre- and postpubertal Brahman heifers (same age group). Brahman heifers (Bos indicus) are older at puberty compared with Bos taurus, a productivity issue. With RNA sequencing, we identified differentially expressed (DEx) genes and important transcription factors (TF) and predicted coexpression networks. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0921
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • S. Casiró, D. Velez-Irizarry, C. W. Ernst, N. E. Raney, R. O. Bates, M. G. Charles and J. P. Steibel
      Genome-wide association study in an F2 Duroc x Pietrain resource population for economically important meat quality and carcass traits

      Meat quality is essential for consumer acceptance, it ultimately impacts pork production profitability and it is subject to genetic control. The objective of this study was to map genomic regions associated with economically important meat quality and carcass traits. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis to map regions associated with 38 meat quality and carcass traits recorded for 948 F2 pigs from the Michigan State University Duroc × Pietrain resource population. The F0, F1, and 336 F2 pigs were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip, while the remaining F2 pigs were genotyped with the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler for Porcine Low Desnisty (LD) chip, and imputed with high accuracy (r2 = 0.97). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1003
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • D. J. Fennewald, R. L. Weaber and W. R. Lamberson
      Genotype by environment interactions for growth in Red Angus

      Accuracy of sire selection is limited by how well animals are characterized for their environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotype × environment interactions (G×E) for birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW) for Red Angus in the United States. Adjusted weights were provided by the Red Angus Association of America. Environments were defined as 9 regions within the continental United States with similar temperature–humidity indices. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0846
      Published: February 2, 2017



  • ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL BEING

    • E. Hartmann, K. E. Bøe, G. H. M. Jørgensen, C. M. Mejdell and K. Dahlborn
      Management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community

      Limited information is available on the extent to which blankets are used on horses and the owners’ reasoning behind clipping the horse’s coat. Research on the effects of those practices on horse welfare is scarce but results indicate that blanketing and clipping may not be necessary from the horse’s perspective and can interfere with the horse’s thermoregulatory capacities. Therefore, this survey collected robust, quantitative data on the housing routines and management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices as reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community. Horse owners were approached via an online survey, which was distributed to equestrian organizations and social media. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1146
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • A. Bulens, S. Van Beirendonck, J. Van Thielen, N. Buys and B. Driessen
      A two-level pen for fattening pigs: Effects on behavior, performance, and postslaughter measurements

      Concurrent with a tendency toward higher slaughter weights of fattening pigs, minimum requirements for space allowance are increasing. Allowing pigs more space in existing standard pens, however, leads to a decrease in the number of pigs per pen, which jeopardizes the economic viability of the pig farm. A possible solution includes creating a two-level pen by constructing a second level in an existing pen, to enable an increase in space allowance per pig with the same number of pigs. We investigated the effect of such a pen on the behavior, performance, and postslaughter results of fattening pigs during the entire fattening period (30 to 110 kg). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0831
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • S. Marti, R. E. Wilde, D. Moya, C. E. M. Heuston, F. Brown and K. S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein
      Effect of rest stop duration during long-distance transport on welfare indicators in recently weaned beef calves

      Forty newly weaned beef calves (260 ± 32.6 kg) were transported 15 h in a livestock trailer (7.3 by 2.1 m) on 2 separate hauls 1 wk apart (20 calves/haul) to evaluate the effect of rest stop duration on indicators of calf welfare. Immediately following the 15-h journey, 15 calves/haul were randomly unloaded at a feedlot and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 rest stop treatments; calves without resting time (5 calves/haul) remained on the trailer and were used as the control group. Treatments included 0- (Control [CON]), 5- (RS5), 10- (RS10), or 15-h (RS15) rest periods in pens containing ad libitum access to water and long-stem hay. Following each rest period, calves were reloaded onto the same trailer and taken on another 5-h journey, before they were unloaded at the same feedlot, for a total transport event lasting 20 h. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0739
      Published: February 16, 2017



  • ANIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

    • K. M. Abell, M. E. Theurer, R. L. Larson, B. J. White and M. Apley
      A mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of metaphylaxis treatments for bovine respiratory disease in beef cattle

      The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials approved for parenteral metaphylactic use in feeder and stocker calves on morbidity and mortality for bovine respiratory disease with the use of a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. An initial literature review was conducted in April 2016 through Pubmed, Agricola, and CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau) for randomized controlled trials for metaphylaxis antimicrobial administered parentally to incoming feedlot or stocker calves within 48 h of arrival. The final list of publications included 29 studies, with a total of 37 trials. There were 8 different metaphylactic antimicrobials. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1062
      Published: February 2, 2017



  • ANIMAL NUTRITION

    • M. Wang, R. Wang, P. H. Janssen, X. M. Zhang, X. Z. Sun, D. Pacheco and Z. L. Tan
      Sampling procedure for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen and volatile fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows

      Dissolved hydrogen (dH2) influences the pathways of VFA production and is a precursor of methane formation in the rumen. Measurements of dH2 in rumen fluid taken at the same time as measuring other rumen fermentation end products would improve our quantitative understanding of the role of dH2 as a controller of rumen fermentation. Sample collections though a rumen cannula and using oral stomach tubing were compared for measurements of dissolved gases and fermentation end products in the rumen fluid of 4 ruminally cannulated dairy cows fed a total mixed ration of corn silage and concentrate. Rumen fluid was collected at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after morning feeding through the cannula from cranial dorsal rumen, cranial ventral rumen, central rumen, caudal dorsal rumen, and caudal ventral rumen and in parallel by oral stomach tubing at 2 insertion depths of 180 cm (sampling the central rumen) and 200 cm (sampling the caudal dorsal rumen). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9658
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • A. V. Strathe, T. S. Bruun, J.-E. Zerrahn, A.-H. Tauson and C. F. Hansen
      The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth

      A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9267
      Published: December 3, 2015



    • U. Agarwal, Q. Hu and B. J. Bequette
      Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep

      Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep (n = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9226
      Published: September 15, 2015



    • G. A. Casas and H. H. Stein
      Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs

      The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-8877
      Published: July 24, 2015



    • J. R. Segers, T. L. Felix, A. R. Green, G. N. Maia, B. C. Ramirez and D. W. Shike
      Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers’ solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers’ solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.3766/jas.2015-8917
      Published: July 10, 2015



    • W. A. D. Nayananjalie, T. R. Wiles, D. E. Gerrard, M. A. McCann and M. D. Hanigan
      Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers

      The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage–based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8374
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    • J. C. Matthews, J. Huang and G. Rentfrow
      High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages

      Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9901
      Published: February 19, 2016



    • W. Kayser, J. B. Glaze, C. M. Welch, M. Kerley and R. A. Hill
      Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle

      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8337
      Published: August 3, 2015



  • ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    • B. Bartz, M. Collins, G. Stoddard, A. Appleton, R. Livingood, H. Sobcynski and K. D. Vogel
      Assessment of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest in veal calves

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the “head-only” method—application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun (n = 45). The second group (n = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the “head/heart” method—initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). (continued)


      doi:10.5326/jas.2015-9332
      Published: August 21, 2015



  • ENVIRONMENTAL ANIMAL SCIENCE

    • S. Dikmen, G. E. Dahl, J. B. Cole, D. J. Null and P. J. Hansen
      The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate

      Here we report a previously undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker regions of the body vary in color from gray to taupe. The Larson Blue phenotype was readily apparent in young calves. The phenotype is not due to inheritance of known mutations causing coat color variation in cattle, including dominant red, Telstar, silver color dilutor, or Dun color. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1148
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • P. F. Arthur, I. M. Barchia, C. Weber, T. Bird-Gardiner, K. A. Donoghue, R. M. Herd and R. S. Hegarty
      Optimizing test procedures for estimating daily methane and carbon dioxide emissions in cattle using short-term breath measures

      Respiration chambers are considered the reference method for quantifying the daily CH4 production rate (MPR) and CO2 production rate (CPR) of cattle; however, they are expensive, labor intensive, cannot be used in the production environment, and can be used to assess only a limited number of animals. Alternative methods are now available, including those that provide multiple short-term measures of CH4 and CO2, such as the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring (GEM) system. This study was conducted to provide information for optimizing test procedures for estimating MPR and CPR of cattle from multiple short-term CH4 and CO2 records. Data on 495 Angus steers on a 70-d ad libitum feedlot diet with 46,657 CH4 and CO2 records and on 121 Angus heifers on a 15-d ad libitum roughage diet with 7,927 CH4 and CO2 records were used. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0700
      Published: February 2, 2017



  • EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

    • S. H. White and L. K. Warren
      Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes

      Exercise is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as metabolism is upregulated to fuel muscle activity. If antioxidant systems become overwhelmed, ROS can negatively affect health and performance. Adaptation to exercise through regular training has been shown to improve defense against oxidative insult. Given selenium’s role as an antioxidant, we hypothesized that increased Se intake would further enhance skeletal muscle adaptations to training. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1130
      Published: February 16, 2017



  • FEEDS

    • R. A. Cochrane, L. L. Schumacher, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, A. R. Huss, C. R. Stark, J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. Bia, Q. Chen, J. Zhang, P. C. Gauger, R. J. Derscheid, D. R. Magstadt, R. G. Main and C. K. Jones
      Effect of pelleting on survival of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus–contaminated feed

      Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a heat-sensitive virus that has devastated the U.S. swine industry. Because of its heat sensitivity, we hypothesized that a steam conditioner and pellet mill mimicking traditional commercial thermal processing may mitigate PEDV infectivity. Pelleting, a common feed processing method, includes the use of steam and shear forces, resulting in increased temperature of the processed feed. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0961
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • GROWTH BIOLOGY

    • M. K. Kahn, J. A. Coverdale, J. L. Leatherwood, C. E. Arnold, R. A. Dabareiner, A. N. Bradbery, A. A. Millican and T. H. Welsh
      Age-related effects on markers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism in response to an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide challenge in horses

      Eighteen Quarter Horses were used in a randomized complete design for a 28-d experiment to evaluate age-related effects on inflammation and cartilage turnover after induction of a single inflammatory insult using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Horses were grouped by age as yearlings (3 males and 3 females), 2 to 3 yr olds (2/3 yr old; 2 males and 4 females), and skeletally mature 5 to 8 yr olds (mature; 2 males and 4 females). On d 0, all horses were individually housed and fed diets that met or exceeded NRC (2007) requirements. On d 14, horses were challenged with an intra-articular injection of LPS. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1078
      Published: February 9, 2017



  • LACTATION AND MAMMARY GLAND BIOLOGY

    • C. Farmer, M. Amezcua, R. Bruckmaier, O. Wellnitz and R. Friendship
      Does duration of teat use in first parity affect milk yield and mammary gene expression in second parity?

      It was recently shown that a teat that is not used in the first lactation will have a reduced development and milk yield in the second lactation. In the current study, the impact of imposing a suckling period of 2, 7, or 21 d during the first lactation on piglet performance, milk composition, endocrine status, and mammary gene expression of sows in their second lactation was studied. Pregnant Yorkshire gilts were divided into 3 groups according to lactation length: 1) 2-d lactation (2D; n = 20), 2) 7-d lactation (7D; n = 20), and 3) 21-d lactation (21D; n = 21). After weaning, sows were bred and kept for a second parity. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1119
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • Jeffrey L. Vallet and Jeremy R. Miles
      The effect of farrowing induction on colostrum and piglet serum immunocrits is dependent on parity

      Farrowing induction is a common practice among swine producers to manage timing of farrowing and the labor associated with farrowing. In this experiment, the effect of induction of labor using cloprostenol on Day 114 of gestation (n = 88) was compared to our standard farrowing protocol at USMARC (natural farrowing with induction using cloprostenol on Day 116 if needed, n = 82) in gilts and sows up to fourth parity. In a subset of dams (n = 10 each treatment), colostrum was collected within 30 min of birth of the first piglet, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Colostrum samples were measured for immunoglobulin G (IgG) using the immunoglobulin immunocrit and porcine IgG specific ELISA, and for total protein. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0993
      Published: February 9, 2017



  • MEAT SCIENCE

    • N. D. May, T. J. McEvers, L. J. Walter, J. A. Reed, J. P. Hutcheson and T. E. Lawrence
      Fabrication yields of serially harvested calf-fed Holstein steers fed zilpaterol hydrochloride

      Holstein steers (n = 110) were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 0 or 20 d before slaughter during a 280-d serial harvest study. Cattle were harvested every 28 d beginning at 254 d on feed (DOF) and concluding at 534 DOF. After slaughter, carcasses were chilled for 48 h and then fabricated into boneless closely trimmed or denuded subprimals, lean trim, trimmable fat, and bone. Inclusion of ZH increased cold side weight (CSW) by 10.3 kg (P < 0.01; 212.7 vs. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1246
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • X. Z. Li, C. G. Yan, J. Yu, Q. S. Gao, S. H. Choi, J. S. Shin and S. B. Smith
      Dietary whole and cracked linseed increases the proportion of oleic and α-linolenic acids in adipose tissues and decreases stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase gene expression in the longissimus thoracis muscle of Yanbian Yellow cattle

      We hypothesized that supplementation of linseed in a beef cattle fattening diet would increase PUFA concentrations in intramuscular adipose tissue and depress acetyl-coenzyme A (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD) gene expression by decreasing sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) expression. Conversely, supplemental linseed would upregulate expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in muscle of Yanbian Yellow steers. Thirty steers were assigned at random to 3 groups of 10 steers fed either the basal diet (corn grain and corn silage–based commercial concentrate [CON]), the CON diet plus 8% whole linseed (WLS; DM basis), or the CON diet plus 8% cracked linseed (CLS; DM basis) for 6 mo. The WLS and CLS supplements did not affect carcass weight, backfat thickness, or marbling scores (P > 0.10) but increased rib eye area and fat color (more yellow; P < 0.05). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1050
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • E. K. Arkfeld, D. A. Mohrhauser, D. A. King, T. L. Wheeler, A. C. Dilger, S. D. Shackelford and D. D. Boler
      Characterization of variability in pork carcass composition and primal quality

      The objective was to characterize the factors and production practices that contribute to variation in pork composition and quality. It is possible the variation in pork quality traits, such as color, marbling, and tenderness, contributes to reduced customer confidence in the predictability of finished product quality and, therefore, pork products becoming less competitive for consumer dollars. Pigs raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used in this study. Pigs were marketed in 3 groups from each barn and marketing procedures followed commercial marketing procedures. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1097
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • K. I. Domenech-Pérez, C. R. Calkins, M. D. Chao, M. E. Semler, K. A. Varnold and G. E. Erickson
      Impact of feeding de-oiled wet distillers grains plus solubles on beef shelf life

      Research was conducted to determine the effect of feeding de-oiled wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) on beef fatty acid profile, retail shelf life and development of oxidation products during retail display (RD). A total of 336 crossbred yearling steers (initial BW = 351.08 ± 19.05 kg) were fed 1 of 7 dietary treatments: an all corn control (1:1 blend of dry rolled and high moisture corn), 35%, 50%, or 65% inclusion of WDGS, either full-fat or de-oiled. Within each treatment 15 Choice carcasses were randomly selected (n = 105), strip loins were obtained, aged 7 and 21 d, and representative steaks from each strip loin were placed in RD conditions for 7 d. Fatty acid profiles were determined (mg/100 g tissue basis) and differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found in the C16:1, C18:1T, C18:2 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) among dietary treatments. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0905
      Published: January 26, 2017



  • NONRUMINANT NUTRITION

    • A. J. Elsbernd, C. F. M. de Lange, K. J. Stalder, L. A. Karriker and J. F. Patience
      SID lysine requirement of immunologically and physically castrated male pigs during the grower, early and late finisher periods

      The main objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys requirement of immunologically castrated (IC) and physically castrated (PC) male pigs during 3 growth phases. An additional objective was to compare the ADFI of PC and IC after the second anti-gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) injection. Three hundred male pigs (PIC 359 × C29), 150 each of IC and PC, were allotted to 1 of 5 treatments: 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120% of the estimated Lys requirement using the NRC (2012) modeling program. Pigs remained on the same treatment throughout each of the 3 phases. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0544
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • L. Blavi, D. Sola-Oriol, J. F. Perez and H. H. Stein
      Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in maize-based diets fed to growing pigs

      An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of Zn at a pharmacological level in diets fed to pigs affects apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca and P and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD of Ca and P and the STTD of Ca regardless of the concentration of Zn in the diet. Fifty-six growing barrows (15.4 ± 1.9 kg average BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 7 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A maize-based basal diet was formulated with either 0 or 2,400 mg/kg Zn from ZnO and 0, 1,000, or 3,000 units of phytase (FTU) per kilogram. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1149
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • E. K. Harris, M. A. Mellencamp, L. J. Johnston and G. C. Shurson
      Growth performance of immunologically castrated pigs slaughtered at 5, 7, or 9 weeks after the second Improvest dose and fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

      Growth performance of immunologically castrated (IC) pigs (863 total) was determined at increasing time intervals between the second Improvest (gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis Inc., Florham Park, NJ) dose and slaughter (TD) and with 4 different dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies (FS) in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The feeding period was divided into 4 separate diet phases. Dietary treatments included 1) corn–soybean meal control diets (PCon), 2) a gradual decrease of dietary DDGS inclusion rate from 40%, 30%, 20%, and 10% in phases 1 to 4 (GD), respectively, 3) feeding 40% DDGS diets in phases 1 to 3 and removal of DDGS from the phase 4 diet (WD), and 4) feeding 40% DDGS diets in all 4 phases (NCon). Pigs received the second Improvest dose at 9 (TD9), 7 (TD7), or 5 (TD5) wk before slaughter. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0510
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • N. W. Jaworski and H. H. Stein
      Disappearance of nutrients and energy in the stomach and small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat middlings, or soybean hulls

      Disappearance of nutrients and energy in the stomach and small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), wheat middlings, or soybean hulls was determined. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that physical characteristics of dietary fiber in diets are correlated with the digestibility of nutrients and energy. Eight barrows (initial BW = 37.3 ± 1.0 kg) with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and another T-cannula in the proximal colon were allotted to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 diets and 4 periods in each square. The basal diet was a corn-soybean meal diet and 3 additional diets were formulated by substituting 30% of the basal diet with DDGS, wheat middlings, or soybean hulls. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0752
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • Xin Yang, Long Li, Yongle Duan and Xiaojun Yang
      Antioxidant activity of Lactobacillus plantarum JM113 in vitro and its protective effect on broiler chickens challenged with deoxynivalenol

      The aim of this experiment was to study the antioxidant capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum JM113 isolated from healthy intestinal contents of Tibetan chicken and its protective effect on broiler chickens challenged with deoxynivalenol (DON). Compared with L. plantarum PZ01 and Enterococcus fecalis M23, L. plantarum JM113 demonstrated maximum reducing (P < 0.05) activity and resistance in the presence of 1.2 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide, and great scavenging ability (P < 0.05) against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals in vitro. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0789
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • Magdalene Francis, Patrick C. H. Morel, Brian H. P. Wilkinson and Timothy J. Wester
      Alginate increases water stability whilst maintaining diet digestibility in farmed saltwater crocodiles ( Crocodylus porosus )

      Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) farming in Papua New Guinea is an emerging industry that supplies high-quality skins to the fashion industry. Crocodiles are semiaquatic and fed high-quality feed made from extrudated animal byproducts (i.e., forced through a die at low pressure but not heat treated); however, it disintegrates on contact with water, and this leads to low utilization. Alginate is used extensively in food and pharmaceutical processes because it quickly forms a gel at room temperature; however, its effects on nutrient availability are equivocal, and its utility in crocodile diets is unknown. Extrudated chicken byproduct-based crocodile diets were formulated (as-fed) with and without 1.7 and 3.3% Na alginate with either CaCl2 or CaCO3 to cross-link. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0908
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • B. G. Kim, Y. Liu and H. H. Stein
      Effects of ileal digesta collection time on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in corn, soybean meal, and distiller’s dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

      The objective of this experiment was to determine the minimum collection time needed to obtain representative samples of ileal digesta from pigs fed different types of diets. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 34.6 kg (SD 2.1) were individually fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 diets and 4 periods per square. Three diets contained corn, soybean meal (SBM), or distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as the sole source of CP. An N-free diet was also prepared. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1082
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • C. Hue-Beauvais, G. Miranda, E. Aujean, F. Jaffrezic, E. Devinoy, P. Martin and M. Charlier
      Diet-induced modifications to milk composition have long-term effects on offspring growth in rabbits

      It has been clearly demonstrated that the maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation has long-term effects on offspring health. In mammals, milk represents the first maternal support provided to the newborns so that its composition may play a major role in long-term programming. We therefore assessed the effects of maternal high-fat/high-sugar obesogenic (OD) or control (CD) diets on offspring growth and adiposity in the rabbit. Between 7 and 20 wk of age, the BW gain of OD milk–fed rabbits was higher than that of CD milk–fed rabbits (P < 0.05). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0847
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • G. S. Machado, J. G. Pezzali, F. R. Marx, A. M. Kessler and L. Trevizan
      Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats

      Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0851
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • J. W. Kim, S. P. Ndou, G. A. Mejicanos and C. M. Nyachoti
      Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in flaxseed meal fed to growing and finishing pigs without or with phytase supplementation

      Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in flaxseed meal (FM) and the effect of dietary microbial phytase on the digestibility of P in FM fed to growing and finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, eighteen growing barrows (26.6 ± 1.8 kg BW) were allotted to 1 of 3 experimental diets consisting of a diet containing 32% FM that was fed with or without phytase at 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg and a P-free diet in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicates per diet. The experimental period lasted 12 d including first 7 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collection of feces. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1045
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • C. Kaewtapee, M. Eklund, M. Wiltafsky, H.-P. Piepho, R. Mosenthin and P. Rosenfelder
      Influence of wet heating and autoclaving on chemical composition and standardized ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibility in full-fat soybeans for pigs

      One batch each of eight full-fat soybeans (FFSB) was used to determine the effect of different heat treatments including wet heating (WH) and autoclaving (AC) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in growing pigs. The raw FFSB (K0) were either treated by WH at 80°C for 1 min (K1), at 100°C for 6 min (K2), or at 100°C for 16 min (K3). Thereafter, these batches were expanded at 125°C for 15 s. A further heat treatment included AC at 110°C for 15 (Z1), 30 (Z2), 45 (Z3), or 60 (Z4) min of FFSB that were subjected to the same WH treatment as K3. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0932
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • M. A. Aguinaga, R. Nieto, L. Lara and J. F. Aguilera
      Effects of dietary protein-to-energy ratio on rate of growth, protein deposition and tissue composition of pure Iberian boars prior to extensive production

      Thirty entire male Iberian (IB) pigs of 12 kg initial BW were used to study the effects of dietary protein-to-energy ratio on performance, body protein accretion, and tissue composition. Two nutritional regimes were supplied at 3 stages of growth (Phase I, from 12 to 30 kg BW; Phase II, from 30 to 45 kg BW; and Phase III, from 45 to 100 kg BW): the first regime (RefP/E) was formulated to provide optimum protein-to-energy ratios for castrated IB pigs at several stages of growth from 10 to 100 kg BW; the second (IncP/E), for which an overall increase of 2.5 g digestible protein/MJ ME was provided, would allow an increased potential for lean tissue growth presumably well above that expected for the entire male of an obese pig breed. The pigs were surgically castrated at 45 kg BW and slaughtered at about 100 kg BW. In Phases I and II, in which feed was provided ad libitum, no significant differences between dietary treatments in ADG (580 ± 10 and 740 ± 11 g, on average, respectively), G:F (0.475 ± 0.004 and 0.362 ± 0.005, on average, respectively), and gain:ME intake ratio (37.8 ± 0.4 and 26.1 ± 0.4 g/MJ, on average, respectively) were found (P > 0.05). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1077
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • G. A. Casas, C. Huang and H. H. Stein
      Nutritional value of soy protein concentrate ground to different particle sizes and fed to pigs

      Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA and concentrations of DE and ME in soy protein concentrate (SPC) ground to 3 particle sizes and in soybean meal and fish meal when fed to weanling pigs. An additional experiment was conducted to determine effects on growth performance and blood characteristics of including SPC in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, a N-free diet and diets containing soybean meal, fish meal, or SPC ground to a mean particle size of 70, 180, or 700 μm as the only source of AA were fed to 6 barrows (initial BW: 12.90 ± 1.51 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1083
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • D. Wu, S. B. Wu, M. Choct and R. A. Swick
      Performance, intestinal microflora, and amino acid digestibility altered by exogenous enzymes in broilers fed wheat- or sorghum-based diets

      The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of dietary enzymes and nutrient restriction on performance and bone mineralization in birds fed wheat- or sorghum-based diets. A total of 720 d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 8 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. Birds were reared in floor pens from 0 to 35 d. The study used a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 2 grains (sorghum or wheat) and 4 diets: positive control (no enzyme and ME, digestible Lys, Ca, and P sufficient, negative control (NC; no enzyme and reduced ME [−100 kcal/kg], digestible AA [−2%], Ca [−0.12 percentage points], and available P [−0.18 percentage points in the starter phase and −0.22 percentage points in the grower phase]), NC + nonstarch polysaccharide–degrading enzymes + phytase (500 phytase units [FTU]; NCCP), and NC + phytase (1,000 FTU; NCP). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0411
      Published: January 26, 2017



    • K. M. Sotak-Peper, J. C. González-Vega and H. H. Stein
      Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs

      An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by growing pigs of AA in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different regions of the United States. Twenty-two growing barrows (25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from soybean crushing plants located throughout the United States. For analysis, the crushing plant locations were separated into the following 3 zones: 1) Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota (n = 4); 2) Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio (n = 11); and 3) Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska (n = 7). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0443
      Published: January 26, 2017



  • REPRODUCTION

    • A. M. Muth-Spurlock, J. A. Dix, M. P. T. Coleson, C. G. Hart, C. O. Lemley, T. M. Schulmeister, G. C. Lamb and J. E. Larson
      The effect of follicular wave on fertility characteristics in beef cattle

      The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of follicular wave (first or second) on diameter of the dominant follicle, concentrations of progesterone and estradiol and the hepatic enzymes that inactivate them, thickness of the endometrium, and pregnancy rates to AI. Beef heifers (n = 101) and cows (n = 106) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: insemination to the first follicular wave (FFW) or insemination to the second follicular wave (SFW). Estrous cycles of females were synchronized to ensure appropriate timing for the treatments. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used for analysis. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0898
      Published: February 2, 2017



  • RUMINANT NUTRITION

    • L. H. Kowalski, S. R. Fernandes, N. DiLorenzo, J. L. Moletta, P. Rossi and J. A. de Freitas
      Residual feed intake and reproductive traits of growing Purunã bulls

      Residual feed intake (RFI) and its relationship with reproductive traits was evaluated in growing bulls. Fifty-two growing Purunã bulls (11 mo initial age) were fed ad libitum in individual feedlot pens for 112 d. The animals were ranked for RFI and assigned to 3 feed efficiency groups: efficient (low RFI), intermediate (medium RFI), and inefficient (high RFI). Initial and final BW and ADG did not differ (P > 0.10) among the efficiency groups and were mean values of 254.6 (SD 44), 373.0 (SD 62), and 1.06 kg (SD 0.25), respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0888
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • J. Liu, G. Bian, D. Sun, W. Zhu and S. Mao
      Starter feeding altered ruminal epithelial bacterial communities and some key immune-related genes’ expression before weaning in lambs

      To characterize changes in ruminal epithelial bacterial communities and immune-related gene expression during concentrate starter feeding before weaning in lambs, 6 pairs of 10-d-old Hu lamb twins were selected: 1 kid received milk (M, n = 6), and the other received milk plus starter (M+S, n = 6). All lambs received hay and water ad libitum and were slaughtered at 56-d-old. Their rumen fluid was collected to determine ruminal pH and VFA levels; rumen epithelia were collected to characterize their bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression of immune-related genes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that starter feeding caused a decreased ruminal pH (P = 0.004) and increased concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total VFA (P < 0.001). (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0985
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • C. P. Weiss, W. W. Gentry, N. A. Cole, F. T. McCollum and J. S. Jennings
      Effects of feeding condensed distiller’s solubles and crude glycerin alone or in combination on finishing beef cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation

      Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding condensed distiller’s solubles (DS) and crude glycerin alone or in combination on performance of finishing beef cattle and in vitro fermentation. In both experiments, dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn–based diet with 0% DS or crude glycerin (CON), 10% DS (CDS), 10% crude glycerin (GLY), or a combination of 5% DS and 5% crude glycerin (C+G) included on a DM basis. All treatment diets contained 15% (DM basis) wet distiller’s grains plus solubles. In Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0941
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • G. V. Kozloski, C. M. Stefanello, L. Oliveira, H. M. N. Ribeiro Filho and T. J. Klopfenstein
      Technical note: Evaluation of urinary purine derivatives in comparison with duodenal purines for estimating rumen microbial protein supply in sheep

      A data set of individual observations was compiled from digestibility trials to examine the relationship between the duodenal purine bases (PB) flow and urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion and the validity of different equations for estimating rumen microbial N (Nm) supply based on urinary PD in comparison with estimates based on duodenal PB. Trials (8 trials, n = 185) were conducted with male sheep fitted with a duodenal T-type cannula, housed in metabolic cages, and fed forage alone or with supplements. The amount of PD excreted in urine was linearly related to the amount of PB flowing to the duodenum (P < 0.05). The intercept of the linear regression was 0.180 mmol/(d·kg0.75), representing the endogenous excretion of PD, and the slope was lower than 1 (P < 0.05), indicating that only 0.43% of the PB in the duodenum was excreted as PD in urine. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0840
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • D. M. Polizel, I. Susin, R. S. Gentil, E. M. Ferreira, R. A. de Souza, A. P. A. Freire, A. V. Pires, M. V. C. Ferraz, P. H. M. Rodrigues and M. L. Eastridge
      Crude glycerin decreases nonesterified fatty acid concentration in ewes during late gestation and early lactation

      Crude glycerin is a gluconeogenic substrate in ruminants and may help to decrease the occurrence of pregnancy toxemia. The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing crude glycerin on DMI, milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites in periparturient ewes and lamb performance. One hundred eighteen 90 (±1.1)-d pregnant Santa Inês ewes were used. After lambing, 32 ewes (62.8 ± 1.3 kg BW) were allotted in a randomized complete block design defined by prelambing diet, BW, BCS, lambing date, type of birth (single or twin), and sex of offspring. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0999
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • M. R. Stierwalt, H. M. Blalock and T. L. Felix
      Effects of the interaction of forage and supplement type on digestibility and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle

      The objectives of this research were to test interactions of supplement type, liquid versus dry, and forage type, hay versus corn stover, on digestibility and ruminal metabolism of beef cattle. Ruminally fistulated steers were fed in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) hay with liquid supplement, 2) hay with dry supplement, 3) corn stover with liquid supplement, and 4) corn stover with dry supplement. The liquid supplement was molasses and glycerin based (23.3% CP and 1.63 Mcal/kg NEm) whereas the dry supplement was ground corn based (16.8% CP and 1.81 Mcal/kg NEm). Each period, steers were adapted to diets for 14 d and samples were collected for 8 d. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1072
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • M. Miwa, K. Oishi, H. Anzai, H. Kumagai, S. Ieiri and H. Hirooka
      Estimation of the energy expenditure of grazing ruminants by incorporating dynamic body acceleration into a conventional energy requirement system

      The estimation of energy expenditure (EE) of grazing animals is of great importance for efficient animal management on pasture. In the present study, a method is proposed to estimate EE in grazing animals based on measurements of body acceleration of animals in combination with the conventional Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) energy requirement system. Three-dimensional body acceleration and heart rate were recorded for tested animals under both grazing and housing management. An acceleration index, vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), was used to calculate activity allowance (AC) during grazing and then incorporate it into the AFRC system to estimate the EE (EE derived from VeDBA [EEVeDBA]) of the grazing animals. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0749
      Published: February 2, 2017



  • SPECIAL TOPICS

    • M. A. Moggy, E. A. Pajor, W. E. Thurston, S. Parker, A. M. Greter, K. S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein, J. R. Campbell and M. C. Windeyer
      Management practices associated with pain in cattle on western Canadian cow–calf operations: A mixed methods study

      The implementation of on-farm pain mitigation strategies is dependent on feasibility and importance to producers. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding adoption of management practices associated with pain in cattle within the Canadian beef industry. The objective of this mixed methods study was to describe pain-associated practices implemented on farm and producer perceptions toward pain mitigation strategies. A questionnaire about calving management and calf processing was delivered to 109 cow–calf producers in western Canada. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0949
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • J.-L. Rault, T. Holyoake and G. Coleman
      Stockperson attitudes toward pig euthanasia

      Euthanasia is a necessary act for any facility keeping live animals. Nevertheless, the crucial role and responsibility of the stockperson in deciding and conducting on-farm euthanasia has been overlooked. Stockperson characteristics and knowledge that lead to appropriate decision-making and the skills to competently perform the procedure remain to be identified. An important component of the stockperson’s characteristics that predict behavior is the stockperson’s attitudes. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0922
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • D. T. Byrne, D. P. Berry, H. Esmonde and N. McHugh
      Temporal, spatial, inter-, and intra-cow repeatability of thermal imaging

      The objective of the present study was to quantify the within- and between-cow, operator, and day variances of various descriptive temperature parameters from different anatomical areas captured using thermal images on Holstein-Friesian cows. Three experiments were undertaken. In Exp. 1, 30 images were captured by a single operator of each of the eye, hoof, and udder from each of 45 cows; in Exp. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1005
      Published: January 26, 2017



  • SYMPOSIUM

    • T. J. DeVries
      ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Metrics for on-farm animal welfare assessment–Current state and future needs

      doi:10.2527/jas.2017.1399
      Published: February 23, 2017
      [ Preview (PDF) ]  [ Full Text ]  [ PDF ] 



    • E. Vasseur
      ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Optimizing outcome measures of welfare in dairy cattle assessment

      In most countries producing milk, industry- or other stakeholder-driven initiatives are in place to improve welfare and overall dairy farming sustainability. Those initiatives typically include a system of verification of reaching targets and progress over time. Reliable indicators are a fundamental requirement to provide public assurance and allow improvement on farms. Assessing dairy cattle welfare through outcome measures of welfare is done today through visual evaluations, including those of lameness, injuries, hygiene, and body condition. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0880
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • I. Misztal
      BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Resilience and lessons from studies in genetics of heat stress

      Production environments are expected to change, mostly to a hotter climate but also possibly more extreme and drier. Can the current generation of farm animals cope with the changes or should it be specifically selected for changing conditions? In general, genetic selection produces animals with a smaller environmental footprint but also with smaller environmental flexibility. Some answers are coming from heat-stress research across species, with heat tolerance partly understood as a greater environmental flexibility. Specific studies in various species show the complexities of defining and selecting for heat tolerance. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0953
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • R. A. Blatchford
      ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Poultry welfare assessments: Current use and limitations

      Recent attention has been given to developing welfare assessment tools for research purposes and for use directly on poultry farms. Historically, most of these tools have relied on resource- and management-based measures, but it is unclear how well they correlate with outcomes indicative of positive animal welfare. The subjective nature of many of these tools also makes it difficult to generalize across studies and farms without extensive training. More recently, the European Union Welfare Quality project set out to design assessment tools that were scientifically based and combined resource- and management-based measures with animal-based measures. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0957
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • S. R. Davis, R. J. Spelman and M. D. Littlejohn
      BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM:Breeding heat tolerant dairy cattle: the case for introgression of the “slick” prolactin receptor variant into Bos taurus dairy breeds

      Increasing environmental temperatures are a threat to the sustainability of livestock production and, because of the high metabolic demands of lactation, to dairy production in particular. Summer heat waves in temperate climates reduce feed intake, milk production, and cow comfort. In extreme heat events, there is an increase in cow mortality. In tropical climates, dairy cattle are mostly Bos indicus (zebu) type or zebu crossbred with temperate dairy breeds. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0956
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • M. Pairis-Garcia and S. J. Moeller
      ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures

      The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.0960
      Published: February 23, 2017



  • TOXICOLOGY

    • B. E. Harlow, J. P. Goodman, B. C. Lynn, M. D. Flythe, H. Ji and G. E. Aiken
      Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract

      The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats (n = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg-1 ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. (continued)


      doi:10.2527/jas.2016.1128
      Published: February 2, 2017