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Translational Animal Science : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at, which includes the complete archive.

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    • J. M. Lourenço, M. A. Froetschel, J. R. Segers, J. J. Tucker and R. L. Stewart Jr.
      Utilization of canola and sunflower meals as replacements for soybean meal in a corn silage-based stocker system

      Two experiments were conducted to evaluate 3 silage-based stocker diets. In Exp. 1, diets were fed to a total of 276 animals over a period of 3 yr and performance data was collected. 2, the same diets were subjected to in vitro digestion for 5 time periods: 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, to evaluate IVDMD, production of fermentation end products, and efficiency of transformation of energy. (continued)

      Published: November 16, 2017

    • L. Greiner, C. Neill, G.L. Allee, K. J. Touchette and J. Connor
      Evaluation of the optimal standardized ileal digestible tryptophan:lysine ratio in lactating sow diets

      Three hundred and fifteen primiparous and multiparous sows were evaluated in a study to determine the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in lactating sow diets. Camborough sows (PIC USA, Hendersonville, TN) ranging from first parity to eighth parity were blocked by parity and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different levels of added L-Trp (0.006, 0.026, 0.045, and 0.064%, respectively) while soybean meal, 30% corn dried distiller’s grain with solubles (DDGS), and L-Lys levels were held constant. The SID Lys level for the rations was 0.95% so that the SID Trp:Lys ratios were formulated to be 14, 16, 18, and 20%, respectively. All diets were formulated to have 3.2 Mcal ME/kg and to contain vitamins and minerals that exceeded NRC (1998) recommendations. (continued)

      Published: November 9, 2017

    • M. K. Harris, L. C. Eastwood, C. A. Boykin, A. N. Arnold, K. B. Gehring, D. S. Hale, C. R. Kerth, D. B. Griffin, J. W. Savell, K. E. Belk, D. R. Woerner, J. D. Hasty, R. J. Delmore Jr., J. N. Martin, T. E. Lawrence, T. J. McEvers, D. L. VanOverbeke, G. G. Mafi, M. M. Pfeiffer, T. B. Schmidt, R. J. Maddock, D. D. Johnson, C. C. Carr, J. M. Scheffler, T. D. Pringle and A. M. Stelzleni
      National Beef Quality Audit–2016: Transportation, mobility, live cattle, and carcass assessments of targeted producer-related characteristics that affect value of market cows and bulls, their carcasses, and associated by-products

      The National Beef Quality Audit–2016 marks the fourth iteration in a series assessing the quality of live beef and dairy cows and bulls and their carcass counterparts. The objective was to determine the incidence of producer-related defects, and report cattle and carcass traits associated with producer management. Conducted from March through December of 2016, trailers (n = 154), live animals (n = 5,470), hide-on carcasses (n = 5,278), and hide-off hot carcasses (n = 5,510) were surveyed in 18 commercial packing facilities throughout the United States. Cattle were allowed 2.3 m2 of trailer space on average during transit indicating some haulers are adhering to industry handling guidelines for trailer space requirements. (continued)

      Published: November 9, 2017

    • G. S. Lewis, S. Wang and J. B. Taylor
      Responses of pregnant ewes and young lambs to ovalbumin immunization, antiovalbumin antibody transfer to lambs, and temporal changes in antiovalbumin antibody

      Factors affecting the decay of maternally derived IgG and ability of neonatal lambs to produce protective amounts of their own IgG are not well understood. Thus, we conducted 3 experiments to quantify the 1) response of pregnant ewes to ovalbumin immunization, 2) antiovalbumin antibody (OV-IgG) transfer to lambs, 3) changes over time in OV-IgG in lambs, and 4) response of young lambs to ovalbumin immunization. In Exp. 1, ewes (n = 10/group) either received control (adjuvant + saline) or ovalbumin (ovalbumin + adjuvant + saline) injections at ≈ 42 and 14 d prepartum. (continued)

      Published: November 9, 2017

    • J. Davis-Unger, E. A. Pajor, K. Schwartzkopf-Genswein, S. Marti, C. Dorin, E. Spackman and K. Orsel
      Economic impacts of lameness in feedlot cattle

      Lameness is an important health issue in feedlot cattle; however, there is a paucity of information regarding its economic impact. Decision tree models are excellent tools for assessing costs of disease such as the net return (net return = benefit – cost). Models were developed using expert opinion, literature and retrospective feedlot data provided by Vet-Agri Health Services (VAHS, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) collected from 2005 to 2015 on individually treated cattle (n = 30,940) from 28 feedlots. The objective was to estimate net return of various lameness diagnoses and impacts of cattle type, season of treatment, and extreme high and low cattle prices. (continued)

      Published: November 9, 2017

    • S. W. Fessenden, A. J. Carpenter, M. Ruiz-Moreno, T. C. Jenkins and M. D. Stern
      Effects of bismuth subsalicylate and dietary sulfur level on fermentation by ruminal microbes in continuous culture

      In ruminants, excess dietary sulfur can be associated with a reduction in DM intake, poor feedlot performance and sulfur-associated polioencephalomalacia. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) has been shown to decrease hydrogen sulfide in vitro. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effects of BSS inclusion (0 or 0.5% of diet DM) and dietary sulfur (0.21 or 0.42% of diet DM) on microbial fermentation in continuous culture. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. (continued)

      Published: November 2, 2017

    • J. W. Rickard, G. L. Allee, P. J. Rincker, S. L. Gruber, C. L. Puls and S. N. Carr
      Effect of narasin (Skycis) or zinc bacitracin (Albac) inclusion on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sent for slaughter using a 3-phase marketing strategy

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of narasin or zinc bacitracin on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sent for slaughter using a 3-phase marketing strategy. The study used 2,219 crossbred pigs in a randomized complete block design (blocking factor = start date) with 3 dietary treatments: 1) Control (no feed additive), 2) 15 mg/kg narasin (Skycis, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), and 3) 28 mg/kg zinc bacitracin (Albac, Zoetis, Parsippany, NJ). Pigs were housed in single-sex pens of 25 pigs in a commercial wean-to-finish facility and there were 30 pen-replicates of each dietary treatment. All pigs were weighed as a group (i.e., pen) on d 0 (start of experimental feeding period), 77, 91, and 105 (end) of study. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2017

    • T. L. Lee, C. D. Reinhardt, S. J. Bartle, C. I. Vahl, M. Siemens and D. U. Thomson
      Assessment of risk factors contributing to carcass bruising in fed cattle at commercial slaughter facilities

      Cattle injuries can occur during transportation due to vehicle design, transport conditions, and loading or unloading procedures and lead to carcass bruising and economic loss due to decreased carcass value. The objectives of this study were to determine whether a relationship exists between trauma incurred during unloading and prevalence of carcass bruising in finished beef cattle at commercial slaughter facilities and determine related risk factors which contribute to both trauma and carcass bruising. Breed (classified as either Holstein cattle or beef breeds), sex, distance traveled, and trailer type (“fat/feeder combination” vs. “fat” trailer) were considered risk factors which may contribute to traumatic event prevalence. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2017

    • C. L. A. Da Silva, B. F. A. Laurenssen, E. F. Knol, B. Kemp and N. M. Soede
      Validation of transrectal ultrasonography for assessment of corpora lutea characteristics in pregnant sows and its relationship with litter characteristics at birth

      In experiment 1 we investigated the accuracy of transrectal ultrasonography (TUS) to assess the number (OR) and diameter of corpora lutea (CL) in 45 and 25 sows, respectively, at 23.4 ± 2.9 d of pregnancy. The diameter was calculated as the average diameter of 10 biggest CL. Sows were subsequently slaughtered and OR was assessed by dissection of CL from both ovaries (n = 45) and average diameter of the 10 biggest CL was also calculated after measurement of CL with the caliper rule (n = 25). There was a weak relationship between OR counted after dissection of the ovaries and OR counted with TUS (β = 0.28 ± 0.01 CL/CL, P = 0.01), but there was a strong relationship between the average CL diameter measured with the caliper rule after dissection and the average CL diameter based on TUS (β = 1.0 ± 0.1 mm/mm, P < 0.0001). (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2017

    • R. S. Stokes, A. R. Ralph, A. J. Mickna, W. P. Chapple, A. R. Schroeder, F. A. Ireland and D. W. Shike
      Effect of an injectable trace mineral at the initiation of a 14 day CIDR protocol on heifer performance and reproduction

      Three experiments were conducted at separate locations to determine the effects of a trace mineral injection (TMI), Multimin 90, on heifer performance and reproduction. In Exp. 1, [spring-born, Angus, n = 93, body weight (BW) = 428 ± 45.2 kg], Exp. 2 (spring-born, Angus × Simmental, n = 120, BW = 426 ± 54.0 kg), and Exp. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2017

    • A. B. Clark, M. D. Tokach, J. M. DeRouchey, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, K. J. Touchette and N. M. Bello
      Modeling the effects of standardized ileal digestible isoleucine to lysine ratio on growth performance of nursery pigs

      Two experiments evaluated the effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio on growth performance of nursery pigs. In both experiments, dietary treatments consisted of 40, 44, 48, 52, 54, 58, or 63% SID Ile:Lys ratio. Diets were formulated using analyzed ingredient AA values and NRC (2012) SID coefficients. A combination of field peas and spray dried blood cells were used to ensure a low enough Ile diet concentration while minimizing the excess of Leu. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2017

    • W. Schweer, K. Schwartz, J. F. Patience, L. Karriker, C. Sparks, M. Weaver, M. Fitzsimmons, T. E. Burkey and N. K. Gabler
      Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus reduces feed efficiency, digestibility, and lean tissue accretion in grow-finish pigs

      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus is a major swine virus that causes reproductive impairment in sows, as well as respiratory disease, reduction in growth rates, and mortalities in all ages of pigs. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact PRRS has on grower-finisher pig feed efficiency and tissue accretion rates. Thirty PRRS naïve, littermate pairs of maternal line Choice Genetics gilts (33.6 ± 0.58 kg BW) were selected and pairs split across 2 barns consisting of 5 pens (n = 6 pigs/pen per barn). Pigs in both barns were fed corn-soybean-DDGS diets ad libitum. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2017

    • M. M. Ferro, L. O. Tedeschi and A. S. Atzori
      The comparison of the lactation and milk yield and composition of selected breeds of sheep and goats

      The objective of this study was to characterize the milk yield (MY) and milk composition of relevant sheep and goat breeds raised around the world to be used with nutrition models for diet formulation and nutrient balancing. A 2-step approach was used. First, a database developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization was used to identify relevant breeds (i.e., frequently raised) by comparing the occurrence of transboundary breed names across countries. We selected transboundary breeds that occurred more than 3 times and other relevant breeds obtained from the specialized literature that had milk production information (e.g., MY, days in milk, and milk fat, protein, and lactose). (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2017

    • A. B. Clark, M. D. Tokach, J. M. DeRouchey, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, K. J. Touchette and N. M. Bello
      Modeling the effects of standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio on growth performance of nursery pigs ,

      Two experiments evaluated the effects of increasing Lys and Val on growth performance of nursery pigs. In Exp. 1,300 nursery pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050, initially 6.7 ± 1.4 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 diets containing 1.10, 1.20, 1.30, 1.40, 1.50, or 1.60% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, with 10 pens per dietary treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Linear and nonlinear mixed models were fitted to estimate dose responses. (continued)

      Published: September 28, 2017

    • K. M. Gourley, G. E. Nichols, J. A. Sonderman, Z. T. Spencer, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, J. M. DeRouchey, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, S. J. Kitt and E. W. Stephenson
      Determining the impact of increasing standardized ileal digestible lysine for primiparous and multiparous sows during lactation

      Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary SID Lys in lactation on sow and litter performance. In Exp. 1, a total of 111 primiparous sows (Line 241; DNA Genetics, Columbus, NE) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments on d 110 of gestation. Dietary treatments included increasing dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys (0.80, 0.95, 1.10, and 1.25%). (continued)

      Published: September 21, 2017

    • H. A. Channon, D. N. D’Souza and F. R. Dunshea
      Quantifying production, processing and post-slaughter effects on pork eating quality using random effects meta-regression

      Random effects meta-regression techniques, analyzed using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach, was used to determine the influence of various factors that may be experienced or imposed on pigs, carcases and pork on pork eating quality attributes and shear force of the M. longissimus dorsi (loin). This was done to inform the development of a pathway based eating quality system for pork. Estimated means of explanatory variables were obtained for those pathway factors where sufficient published studies met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis. (continued)

      Published: September 21, 2017

    • C. J. Iske, C. L. Morris and K. L. Kappen
      Evaluation of raw pork as a commercially manufactured diet option for zoo-managed African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica)

      Second to beef, pork is a major protein source produced in the US. Properly sourced and handled pork could be utilized as a protein option for zoo-managed carnivores. Concerns of high levels of microbial populations in raw meat diets are common. The objectives of this study were to determine apparent total tract macronutrient and energy digestibility and fecal scores from cats fed a commercially manufactured raw pork-based diet compared with commercially available raw carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef and evaluate typical microbial population variation among the diets. (continued)

      Published: September 7, 2017

    • J. N. Reiners, J. E. Held, C. L. Wright, Q. Qiao, G. D. Djira, B. R. Brunsvig, K. M. Reza and D. W. Brake
      Lysine bioavailability among 2 lipid-coated lysine products after exposure to silage

      We conducted 2 experiments to determine lysine bioavailability from 2 lipid-coated lysine products. In an in vitro experiment we mixed each lipid-coated lysine product with either alfalfa- or corn-silage at different amounts of acidity. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that surface structure of each lipid-coated lysine particle was eroded after mixing with silage. Additionally, visual evaluation of scanning electron micrographs suggested that peripheral surface abrasion of lipid-coated lysine may be greater when lipid-coated lysine was mixed with alfalfa silage in comparison to corn silage. (continued)

      Published: August 10, 2017